SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Owned-and-operated station

In the broadcasting industry, an owned-and-operated station refers to a television or radio station, owned by the network with which it is associated. This distinguishes such a station from an affiliate, independently owned and carries network programming by contract; the concept of an Owned and Operated is defined in the United States and Canada, where network-owned stations had been the exception rather than the rule. In such places, broadcasting licenses are issued on a local basis, there is some sort of regulatory mechanism in place to prevent any company from owning stations in every market in the country. In other parts of the world, many television networks were given national broadcasting licenses at launch. In the broadcasting industry, the term "owned-and-operated station" refers to stations that are owned by television and radio networks. On the other hand, the term affiliate only applies to stations that are not owned by networks, but instead are contracted to air programming from one of the major networks.

While in fact there may be an affiliation agreement between a network and an owned-and-operated station, this is not required, may be a legal technicality formalizing the relationship of separate entities under the same parent company. In any event, this does not prevent a network from dictating an owned-and-operated station's practices outside the scope of a normal affiliation agreement; the term "station" applies to the ownership of the station. For example, a station, owned and operated by the American Broadcasting Company is referred to as an "ABC station" or an "ABC O&O," but should not be referred to as an affiliate. A station not owned by ABC but contracted to air the network's programming is referred to as an "ABC affiliate". However, informally or for promotional purposes, affiliated stations are sometimes referred to as a network station, as in "WFAA is an ABC station" though that ABC affiliate, in the Dallas-Fort Worth market, is owned by Tegna, Inc. A correct formal phrasing could be, "ABC affiliate WFAA is a Tegna station."

One may informally refer to "ABC affiliates" in regards to all stations that air ABC programming, or to "the ABC affiliation" in regards to the transfer of rights to ABC programming from an affiliate to an O&O. Some stations that are owned by companies that operate a network, but air another network's programming are referred to as an affiliate of the network that they carry. For example, WBFS-TV in Miami is owned by the CBS network's parent company CBS Corporation, but airs programming from MyNetworkTV. Prior to the September 2006 shutdown of the CBS-owned UPN television network, WBFS aired that network's programming; the stations carrying The WB Television Network were another exception. The controlling shares in the network were held by Time Warner, with minority interests from the Tribune Company and, for a portion of network's existence, the now-defunct ACME Communications. While Tribune-owned stations such as WGN-TV in Chicago, WPIX in New York City and KTLA in Los Angeles aired programming from The WB, they did not fit the standard definition of an owned-and-operated station.

A similar exception existed when UPN launched in January 1995 by co-owners Viacom. Each of the companies owned a number of stations. However, the stations were not considered O&Os under the initial standard definition; this ambiguity ended with Viacom's buyout of Chris-Craft's share of the network in 2000, which came not long after its merger with the previous CBS Corporation. The stations were referred to informally as UPN O&Os. Following the shutdowns of UPN and The WB, CBS Corporation and Warner Bros. Entertainment became co-owners of the new CW Television Network, which merged the programming from both networks onto the scheduling model used by The WB; the network launched in September 2006 on 11 UPN stations owned by CBS Corporation, 15 WB affiliates owned by Tribune. Certain UPN and WB affiliates in markets where Tribune and CBS both owned stations carrying those networks either picked up a MyNetworkTV affiliation or became independent stations; the standard definition of an O&O again does not apply to The CW, but the CBS-owned stations that carry the network may be referred to as "CW O&Os".

Some O&Os choose to refer to themselves as "network-owned stations" instead, reflecting the fact that while they may be owned by a national network, much of the actual operation is left to the discre

Pipe cleaner

A pipe cleaner or chenille stem is a type of brush intended for removing moisture and residue from smoking pipes. Besides cleaning pipes, they can be used for any application that calls for cleaning out small bores or tight places. Special pipe cleaners are manufactured for cleaning out medical apparatus and for engineering applications, they are popular for winding around bottle necks to catch drips, bundling things together, colour-coding, applying paints, solvents and similar substances. They can be used like a twist tie. Smoking pipe cleaners use some absorbent material cotton or sometimes viscose. Bristles of stiffer material monofilament nylon or polypropylene are sometimes added to better scrub out what is being cleaned. Microfilament polyester is used in some technical pipe cleaners because polyester wicks liquid away rather than absorbing it as cotton does; some smoking pipe cleaners are made tapered so that one end is thick and one end thin. The thin end is for cleaning the small bore of the pipe stem and the thick end for the bowl or the wider part of the stem.

When used for cleaning purposes, pipe cleaners are discarded after one or two uses. Pipe cleaners are used in arts and crafts projects. "Craft" pipe cleaners are made with polyester or nylon pile and are longer and thicker than the "cleaning" type, available in many different colors. Craft pipe cleaners are not useful for cleaning purposes, because the polyester does not absorb liquids, the thicker versions may not fit down the stem of a normal pipe or into the usual hard-to-access area of applications that call for cleaning small bores or tight places. In Japan, crafting with pipe cleaners is known as Mogol art, its name derived from the Portuguese word Mughal for a style of weaving. Workshops in malls and schools in Japan have been led by Atushi Kitanaka on an effort to support the pipe cleaner industry. Ikuyo Fujita(藤田育代 Fujita Ikuyo)is a Japanese artist who works in needle felt painting and mogol art. Use of pipe cleaners as an art format where animals are made by twisting pipe cleaners together.

They can be used to create whiskers for an animal mask or nose. A pipe cleaner is made of two lengths of wire, called the core, twisted together trapping short lengths of fibre between them, called the pile. Pipe cleaners are made two at a time, as the inner wires of each pipe cleaner have the yarn wrapped around them, making a coil, the outer wires trap the wraps of yarn, which are cut, making the tufts. Chenille yarn is made in much the same way, why craft pipe cleaners are called "chenille stems"; the word chenille comes from French meaning caterpillar. Some pipe cleaner machines are converted chenille machines; some machines produce long pipe cleaners which are wound onto spools. The spools may be cut to length depending on the intended use. Other machines cut the pipe cleaners to length. Smoking pipe cleaners are 15–17 cm long. Craft ones are 30 cm and can be up to 50 cm; the diameter comes in 4 mm.

Teatro Filarmonico

The Teatro Filarmonico is the main opera theater in Verona, is one of the leading Opera Houses in Europe. The Teatro Filarmonico is property of the Accademia Filarmonica di Verona. Having been built in 1716, rebuilt after a fire of January 21, 1749, again after the allied bombing of February 23, 1945. Verona needed an opera house, so the Accademia Filarmonica di Verona decided in the early 18th century to build a theatre worthy and large. Work lasted 13 years. Inauguration was on the evening of January 6, 1732, with the pastoral drama La fida ninfa by Antonio Vivaldi, a libretto by Scipio Maffei; the opera season became famous, the performances led society events. But on January 21, 1749, fire spread in the theatre. Rebuilt, the theater was re-dedicated in 1754 with the opera Lucio Vero by Neapolitan composer Davide Perez; the opera had a limited success. Corsican in the 18th century, during the French invasion, a long series of celebrations were held in the theater, such as the Cantata per la Santa Alleanza of Gioachino Rossini.

The theater hosted international singers, among its repertoire appear the most famous works of Italian and foreign melodrama. On the tragic night of February 23, 1945, the theater collapsed under the Anglo-American bombing; the Academy Philharmonic announced that it would try to rebuild the theatre as it had been before. The proceedings lasted a long time: the theatre was inaugurated again in 1975, with the opera Falstaff by Antonio Salieri; the theatre still hosts opera and concerts seasons. The operatic repertoire is one of the most famous for Italian operas and international and the works of non-repertoire. Accademia Filarmonica di Verona