The aurochs known as urus or ure, is an extinct species of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe and North Africa. It is the ancestor of domestic cattle; the species survived in Europe until 1627, when the last recorded aurochs died in the Jaktorów Forest, Poland. During the Neolithic Revolution, which occurred during the early Holocene, at least two aurochs domestication events occurred: one related to the Indian subspecies, leading to zebu cattle, the other one related to the Eurasian subspecies, leading to taurine cattle. Other species of wild bovines were domesticated, namely the wild water buffalo, wild yak and banteng. In modern cattle, numerous breeds share characteristics of the aurochs, such as a dark colour in the bulls with a light eel stripe along the back, or a typical aurochs-like horn shape; the aurochs was variously classified as Bos primigenius, Bos taurus, or, in old sources, Bos urus. However, in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature "conserved the usage of 17 specific names based on wild species, which are predated by or contemporary with those based on domestic forms", confirming Bos primigenius for the aurochs.
Taxonomists who consider domesticated cattle a subspecies of the wild aurochs should use B. primigenius taurus. The words aurochs and wisent have all been used synonymously in English, but the extinct aurochs/urus is a separate species from the still-extant wisent known as European bison. The two were confused, some 16th-century illustrations of aurochs and wisents have hybrid features; the word urus was borrowed into Latin from Germanic. In German, OHG ūr was compounded with ohso "ox"; the modern form is Auerochse. The word aurochs was borrowed from early modern German, replacing archaic urochs from an earlier form of German; the word is invariable in number in English, though sometimes a back-formed singular auroch and/or innovated plural aurochses occur. The use in English of the plural form aurochsen is nonstandard, but mentioned in The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, it is directly parallel to the German plural Ochsen and recreates by analogy the same distinction as English ox and oxen.
During the Pliocene, the colder climate caused an extension of open grassland, which led to the evolution of large grazers, such as wild bovines. Bos acutifrons is an extinct species of cattle, suggested as an ancestor for the aurochs; the oldest aurochs remains have been dated to about 2 million years ago, in India. The Indian subspecies was the first to appear. During the Pleistocene, the species migrated west into the Middle East, as well as to the east, they reached Europe about 270,000 years ago. The South Asian domestic cattle, or zebu, descended from Indian aurochs at the edge of the Thar Desert. Domestic yak and Bali cattle do not descend from aurochs; the first complete mitochondrial genome DNA sequence analysis of Bos primigenius from an archaeologically verified and exceptionally well preserved aurochs bone sample was published in 2010, followed by the publication in 2015 of the complete genome sequence of Bos primigenius using DNA isolated from a 6,750-year-old British aurochs bone.
Further studies using the Bos primigenius whole genome sequence have identified candidate microRNA-regulated domestication genesThree wild subspecies of aurochs are recognised. Only the Eurasian subspecies survived until recent times; the Eurasian aurochs once ranged across the steppes and taigas of Europe and Central Asia, East Asia. It is noted as part of the Pleistocene megafauna, declined in numbers along with other megafauna species by the end of Pleistocene; the Eurasian aurochs were domesticated into modern taurine cattle breeds around the sixth millennium BC in the Middle East, also at about the same time in the Far East. Aurochs were still widespread in Europe during the time of the Roman Empire, when they were popular as a battle beast in Roman arenas. Excessive hunting continued until the species was nearly extinct. By the 13th century, aurochs existed only in small numbers in Eastern Europe, the hunting of aurochs became a privilege of nobles, royal households; the aurochs were not saved from extinction, the last recorded live aurochs, a female, died in 1627 in the Jaktorów Forest, from natural causes.
Aurochs were found to have lived on the island of Sicily, having migrated via a land bridge from Italy. After the disappearance of the land bridge, Sicilian aurochs evolved to be 20% smaller than their mainland relatives due to insular dwarfism. Fossilized specimens were found in Japan herded with steppe bison; the Indian aurochs once inhabited India. It was the first subspecies of the aurochs to appear, at 2 million years ago, from about 9000 years ago, it was domesticated as the zebu. Fossil remains indicate wild Indian aurochs besides domesticated zebu cattle were in Gujarat and the Ganges area until about 4–5000 years ago. Remains from wild aurochs 4400 years old are identified from Karnataka in South India; the North African aurochs once lived in the woodland and shrubland of North Afri
A bullocky is an Australian English term for the driver of a bullock team. The American term is bullwhacker. Bullock drivers were known as teamsters or carriers. Bullock teams were in use in Sydney, New South Wales in 1795 when they were used for hauling building materials; the early explorers and Hovell in 1824 and Charles Sturt in 1828-9 used bullock teams during their explorations. Prior to the gold rushes in Australia, in the mid 19th century, bullock drays carried essential food and station supplies to isolated country areas. On return trips they transported wheat, sugar cane and timber by drays drawn by teams of draught animals to shipping ports before the advent of rail, they travelled across the landscape, servicing the pastoral stations and settlements far from regional transport hubs and urban centres. Some of the larger stations maintained their own teams for local use when harvesting and transporting wool. Both bullock and horse wagons carried heavy loads of wool and wheat, the main produce transported over long distances, plus chaff and hay.
A bullock wagon could only travel three miles an hour therefore it was slower than a horse team. Bullock drivers were skilled tough men who faced extreme difficulties during their job. Bullockies were colourful characters noted for their strong language; some did not swear though, relying on gesture and whip movements as persuasion for the team’s job at hand. A typical bullocky wore a cabbage tree hat, a twill shirt of that period, moleskin trousers, blucher boots and carried a long bullock whip which in many instances he had made. During the early years the bullock tracks were rough with narrow, steep "pinches", plus dangerous river and creek crossings. Many roads still follow the tracks made by bullock teams as they negotiated their way up or down hills via a winding course to make haulage easier. Bullocks were more dependable when faced with difficulties than horses. Furthermore, bullocks were cheaper to purchase and feed. Horses required complex, expensive leather harness that needed repair.
Bullock gear was simple and the yokes were sometimes made by the bullocky from different kinds of timber. Bullockies chose Devon cattle because they were plentiful, hardy and matched up the team, a source of pride to the owners. Teams had to be educated to perform their respective tasks, too; the first part of a bullock’s education began when the bullocky tied two young bullocks together with two heavy leather collars and a connecting chain. Thus connected they were turned out to graze and rest until they accepted the close presence of their partner. Untrained bullocks were put in the centre of the team, where they were more controlled with the assistance and guidance of the "leaders” who were well trained to verbal commands. Pairs of bullocks were matched for size and yoked together using a wooden yoke secured to each bullock by a metal bow, fixed in place by key on top of the yoke; each pair was connected by a special chain, which ran from a central ring on each yoke to the next pair, thus coupling the team in tandem fashion.
The “wheelers” or “polers” were the older, trained bullocks which were closest to the dray or jinker and helped to slow the load when necessary. Thus was the team attached to the dray or jinker. A bullocky walked on the nearside of the bullocks for added control of the team and because seating was not provided on the wagons and jinkers; the bullocky called each bullock by name to adjust its effort. If the whip was needed it was flicked out in front of the bullock driver. Sometimes the bullocky had an “offsider” who walked on the offside of the team and assisted the bullocky yoke up and care for the team. Many Australians who have never had contact with bullocky or a team still use the word “offsider’ as a synonym for an assistant, helper or learner. A bullock whip had a stick handle, cut from a spotted gum or another native tree and was six or seven feet long; the long handled whip permitted the bullocky to control his bullocks while keeping a safe working distance from the danger of being run down by a large dray or jinker.
The thong made of plaited greenhide, was 8 to 10 feet long and attached to the handle by a leather loop. These thongs, graduated in thickness from the handle down to the size of a lead pencil at the fall, about 2 ½ feet long; the bullockies didn't use a cracker, but if they did it was knotted into the end of the fall. Bullock teams dragged the heavy logs from some steep, rough country to be loaded onto a jinker for hauling to a saw mill. Teams of up to thirty bullocks hauled large flat-top wagons or jinkers fitted with a single pole instead of shafts. Timber jinkers were of a four-wheel type were capable of carrying large logs up to seven feet in diameter; the less common two wheeled jinkers bore and carried the front of log, leaving the end to trail along behind. Two jinkers could be connected, with the back jinker linked by a log which would be chained to the front jinker. Jinkers were used in the transport of “Red Gold,” Australian red cedar, other logs to sawmills or to a river for further transport.
On steep hills bullock teams required additional assistance to negotiate these inclines. This assistance was provided by hitching two or more teams together for the ascent. On steep
A cattle crush, squeeze chute, standing stock, or stock is a built stall or cage for holding cattle, horses, or other livestock safely while they are examined, marked, or given veterinary treatment. Cows may be made to suckle calves in a crush. For the safety of the animal and the people attending it, a close-fitting crush may be used to ensure the animal stands "stock still"; the overall purpose of a crush is to hold an animal still to minimise the risk of injury to both the animal and the operator while work on the animal is performed. Crushes were traditionally manufactured from wood. In recent years, most budget-quality crushes have been built using standard heavy steel pipe, welded together, while superior quality crushes are now manufactured using doubly symmetric oval tubing for increasing bending strength, bruise minimisation and stiffness in stockyard applications. In Australia, the steel itself should ideally be manufactured to High Tensile Grade 350LO - 450LO and conform to Australian Standards AS 1163 for structural steel.
Cattle crushes may be fixed or mobile. A cattle crush is linked to a cattle race; the front end has a head bail to catch the animal and may have a baulk gate that swings aside to assist in catching the beast. The bail is adjustable to accommodate animals of different sizes; this bail may incorporate a neck bar to hold the animal's head still. A side lever operates the head bail to capture the animals, with the better types having a rear drop-away safety lever for easier movement of the cattle into the bail. Smaller animals can walk through the head bails incorporated in crushes. Lower side panels and/or gates of sheet metal, timber or conveyor belting are used in some cases to ensure animals’ legs do not get caught and reduce the likelihood of operator injury. At least one side gate is split to allow access to various parts of the animal being held, as well as providing access to feed a calf, amongst other things. A squeeze crush has a manual or hydraulic mechanism to squeeze the animal from the sides, immobilizing the animal while keeping bruising to a minimum.
A sliding entrance gate, operated from the side of the crush, is set a few feet behind the captured animal to allow for clearance and prevent other animals entering. Crushes will, in many cases, have a single or split veterinary gate that swings behind the animal to improve operator safety, while preventing the animal from moving backwards by a horizontal rump bar inserted just behind its haunches into one of a series of slots. If this arrangement is absent, a palpation cage can be added to the crush for veterinary use when artificial insemination or pregnancy testing is being performed, or for other uses. Older crushes can be found to have a guillotine gate, operated from the side via rope or chain where the gate is raised up for the animal to go under upon entering the crush, let down behind the animal. A crush is a permanent fixture in slaughterhouses, because the animal is carried on a conveyor restrainer under its belly, with its legs dangling in a slot on either side. Carried in this manner, the animal is unable to move either forward or backward by its own volition.
Some mobile crushes are equipped with a set of wheels. A few of these portable crushes are built so the crush may be used as a portable loading ramp. A mobile crush must incorporate a strong floor, to prevent the animal moving it by walking along the ground. Crushes vary according to requirements and cost; the simplest are just a part of a cattle race with a suitable head bail. More complex ones incorporate features such as automatic catching systems, winches, constricting sides to hold the animal a rocking floor to prevent kicking or a weighing mechanism. Specialist crushes are made for various purposes. For example, those designed for cattle with long horns are low-sided or wide, to avoid damage to the horns. Other specialist crushes include those for tasks such as automatic scanning, foot-trimming or clipping the hair under the belly, smaller crushes for calves. Standing stocks for cattle and horses are more stand-alone units, not connected to races except for handling animals not accustomed to being handled.
These stand-alone units may be portable. Some portable units disassemble for transport to sales; these units are used during grooming and with veterinary procedures performed with the animal standing if it requires heavy sedation, or to permit surgery under sedation rather than general anesthesia. For some surgical procedures, this is reported to be efficient; these units are used during some procedures that require a horse to stand still, but without sedation. There are two different types of specialised crushes used in rodeo arenas; those for the "rough stock" events, such as bronc riding and bull riding, are known as bucking chutes or rough-riding chutes. For events such as steer roping, the crush is called a roping chute; the rough-riding chutes are notably higher in order to hold horses and adult bulls, have platforms and rail spacing that allows riders and
A wagon is a heavy four-wheeled vehicle pulled by draught animals or on occasion by humans, used for transporting goods, agricultural materials and sometimes people. Wagons are distinguished from carts and from lighter four-wheeled vehicles for carrying people, such as carriages. Wagons are pulled by animals such as horses, mules or oxen, they may be pulled by one animal or by several in pairs or teams. However, there are examples such as mining corfs. A wagon was called a wain and one who builds or repairs wagons is a wainwright. More a wain is a type of horse- or oxen-drawn, load-carrying vehicle, used for agricultural purposes rather than transporting people. A wagon or cart four-wheeled. However, a two-wheeled "haywain" would be a hay cart, as opposed to a carriage. Wain is an archaic term for a chariot. Wain can be a verb, to carry or deliver, has other meanings. A person who drives wagons is called a "wagoner", a "teamster", a "bullocky", a "muleskinner", or a "driver"; the exact name and terminology used is dependent on the design or shape of the wagon.
If low and sideless may be called a dray, trolley or float. When traveling over long distances and periods, wagons may be covered with cloth to protect their contents from the elements. If it has a permanent top enclosing it, it may be called a "van". Turning radius was a longstanding problem with wagons, dictated by the distance between the front wheels and the bed of the wagon—namely, the point where the rotating wheels collide with the side of the wagon when turning. Many earlier designs required a large turning radius; as this is a problem that carts do not face, this factor, combined with their lighter weight, meant that carts were long preferred over wagons for many uses. The general solutions to this problem involved several modifications to the front-axle assembly; the front axle assembly of a wagon consists of an axle, a pair of wheels and a round plate with a pin in its centre that sits halfway between the wheels. A round plate with a hole in its centre is located on the underside of the wagon.
The plate on the wagon, in turn, sits on the plate on the axle between the wheels. This arrangement allows wheels to turn horizontally; the pin and hole arrangement could be reversed. The horse harness is attached to this assembly. To enable the wagon to turn in as little space as possible, the front pair of wheels are made smaller than the rear pair to allow them to turn close under the vehicle sides, to allow them to turn still further, the wagon body may be waisted; this technique led to further designs well-adapted to narrow areas. Wagons have served numerous purposes, with numerous corresponding designs; as with motorized vehicles, some are designed to serve as many functions as possible, while others are specialized. This section will discuss a broad overview of the general classes of wagons. Farm wagons are built for general multi-purpose usage in an rural setting; these include gathering hay and wood, delivering them to the farmstead or market. A common form found throughout Europe is the leiterwagen, a large wagon where the sides consist of ladders strapped in place to hold in hay or grain, though these could be removed to serve other needs.
A common type of farm wagon particular to North America is the buckboard. Freight wagons are wagons used for the overland hauling of bulk commodities. In the United States and Canada, the Conestoga wagon was a predominant form of wagon used for hauling freight in the late 18th and 19th centuries used for hauling goods on the Great Wagon Road in the Appalachian Valley and across the Appalachian Mountains. Larger freight wagons existed. For instance, the "twenty-mule team" wagons, used for hauling borax from Death Valley, could haul 36 short tons per pair; the wagons' bodies were 6 feet deep. A delivery wagon is a wagon used to deliver merchandise such as milk, bread, or produce to houses or markets, as well as to commercial customers in urban settings; the concept of express wagons and of paneled delivery vans developed in the 19th century. By the end of the 19th century, delivery wagons were finely painted and varnished, so as to serve as advertisement for the particular business through the quality of the wagon.
Special forms of delivery wagon include a milk wagon. Some wagons are intended to serve as mobile workshops; these include a traditional wagon of the 19th-century British Romani people. The steam wagon, a self-powered development of the horse-drawn wagon, was a late innovation, entering service only in the late nineteenth century. In the city center of Schwäbisch Gmünd, since 1992 the city's plants are irrigated using a horse-drawn wagon with a water tank. In migration and military settings, wagons were found in large groups called wagon trains. In warfare, large groups of supply wagons were used to support traveling armies with food and munitio
The South Downs are a range of chalk hills that extends for about 260 square miles across the south-eastern coastal counties of England from the Itchen Valley of Hampshire in the west to Beachy Head, in the Eastbourne Downland Estate, East Sussex, in the east. The Downs are bounded on the northern side by a steep escarpment, from whose crest there are extensive views northwards across the Weald; the South Downs National Park forms a much larger area than the chalk range of the South Downs and includes large parts of the Weald. The South Downs are characterised by rolling chalk downland with close-cropped turf and dry valleys, are recognised as one of the most important chalk landscapes in England; the range is one of the four main areas of chalk downland in southern England. The South Downs are less populated compared to South East England as a whole, although there has been large-scale urban encroachment onto the chalk downland by major seaside resorts, including most notably Brighton and Hove.
The South Downs have been inhabited since ancient times and at periods the area has supported a large population during Romano-British times. There is a rich heritage of historical features and archaeological remains, including defensive sites, burial mounds and field boundaries. Within the South Downs Environmentally Sensitive Area there are thirty-seven Sites of Special Scientific Interest, including large areas of chalk grassland; the grazing of sheep on the thin, well-drained chalk soils of the Downs over many centuries and browsing by rabbits resulted in the fine, springy turf, known as old chalk grassland, that has come to epitomise the South Downs today. Until the middle of the 20th century, an agricultural system operated by downland farmers known as'sheep-and-corn farming' underpinned this: the sheep of villagers would be systematically confined to certain corn fields to improve their fertility with their droppings and they would be let out onto the downland to graze. However, starting in 1940 with government measures during World War II to increase domestic food production and continuing into the 1950s, much grassland was ploughed up for arable farming, fundamentally changing the landscape and ecology, with the loss of much biodiversity.
As a result, while old chalk grassland accounted for 40-50% of the eastern Downs before the war, only 3-4% survives. This and development pressures from the surrounding population centres led to the decision to create the South Downs National Park, which came into full operation on 1 April 2011, to protect and restore the Downs; the South Downs have been designated as a National Character Area by Natural England. It is bordered by the Hampshire Downs, the Wealden Greensand, the Low Weald and the Pevensey Levels to the north and the South Hampshire Lowlands and South Coast Plain to the south; the downland is a popular recreational destination for walkers and mountain bikers. A long distance footpath and bridleway, the South Downs Way, follows the entire length of the chalk ridge from Winchester to Eastbourne, complemented by many interconnecting public footpaths and bridleways; the term'downs' is from Old English dūn, meaning'hill'. The word acquired the sense of'elevated rolling grassland' around the fourteenth century.
These hills are prefixed'south' to distinguish them from another chalk escarpment, the North Downs, which runs parallel to them about 30 miles away on the northern edge of the Weald. The South Downs are formed from a thick band of chalk, deposited during the Cretaceous Period around sixty million years ago within a shallow sea which extended across much of northwest Europe; the rock is composed of the microscopic skeletons of plankton which lived in the sea, hence its colour. The chalk has many fossils, bands of flint occur throughout the formation; the Chalk is divided into the Lower and Upper Chalk, a thin band of cream-coloured nodular chalk known as the Melbourn Rock marking the boundary between the Lower and Middle units. The strata of southeast England, including the Chalk, were folded during a phase of the Alpine Orogeny to produce the Weald-Artois Anticline, a dome-like structure with a long east-west axis. Erosion has removed the central part of the dome, leaving the north-facing escarpment of the South Downs along its southern margin with the south-facing chalk escarpment of the North Downs as its counterpart on the northern side, as shown on the diagram.
Between these two escarpments the anticline has been subject to differential erosion so that geologically distinct areas of hills and vales lie in concentric circles towards the centre. The chalk, being porous, allows water to soak through; the South Downs are a long chalk escarpment that stretches for over 110 kilometres, rising from the valley of the River Itchen near Winchester, Hampshire, in the west to Beachy Head near Eastbourne, East Sussex, in the east. Behind the steep north-facing scarp slope, the inclined dip slope of undulating chalk downland extends for a distance of up to 7 miles southwards. Viewed from high points further north in the High Weald and on the North Downs, the scarp of the South Downs presents itself as a steep wall that bounds the horizon, with its grassland heights punctuat
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Karel Dujardin was a Dutch Golden Age painter. Although he did a few portraits and a few history paintings of religious subjects, most of his work is small Italianate landscape scenes with animals and peasants, other genre scenes. Dujardin spent two extended periods, at the beginning and end of his career, in Italy, most of his paintings and landscape etchings have an Italian or Italianate setting. Karel Dujardin was a Dutch painter and etcher, born in Amsterdam in 1622. Typical of his landscape paintings is Farm Animals in the Shade of a Tree, he died in Venice in 1678. After training with Nicolaes Berchem, the young Dujardin went to Italy, joined the Bentvueghels group of painters in Rome, among whom he was known as "Barba di Becco", "goat-beard", or Bokkebaart. Here he encountered his first artistic successes. According to Houbraken, while in Lyon in France, he contracted considerable debts, married his landlady to free himself of them, he went with her to Amsterdam, where his pictures were valued highly.
In 1675, he returned to Rome, on an invitation from his friend Joan Reynst and was welcomed by his old friends and admirers. Renst and Dujardin went on a Grand Tour to other Italian cities, but when Reynst went back to Amsterdam, Dujardin remained in Italy, gave him a message for his wife that he would follow soon, he travelled on to Venice but died there unexpectedly in 1678. According to Reynst, he had said: "why should I be in a hurry to go back? I am where I want to be". According to his friend Johannes Glauber, who he had met in Rome, he was painting for a Dutch merchant in Venice when he became unwell. Though he seemed to recover, his stomach was too full and he died. Though he was a member of the Dutch Reformed Church, he was laid to rest in the Catholic manner and was carried to his grave by his friends Govert van der Leeuw and Glauber. Among his pupils were Jacob II, son of Jacob van der Does, Martinus Laeckman, Erick van den Weerelt. Dujardin is represented in the following collections amongst others: Detroit Institute of Arts, Michigan.
Karel Dujardin's paintings Work by Karel Dujardin at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Works and literature at PubHist