Oxford is a city in, the county seat of, Lafayette County, United States. Founded in 1837, it was named after the British university city of Oxford in hopes of having the state university located there, which it did attract; as of the 2010 US Census, the population is 18,916. Oxford is the home of the University of Mississippi, founded in 1848 commonly known as "Ole Miss". Oxford and Lafayette County were formed from lands ceded by the Chickasaw in the Treaty of Pontotoc Creek in 1832; the county was organized in 1836, in 1837 three pioneers—John Martin, John Chisom, John Craig—purchased land from Hoka, a female Chickasaw landowner, as a site for the town. They named it Oxford, intending to promote it as a center of learning in the Old Southwest. In 1841, the Mississippi legislature selected Oxford as the site of the state university, which opened in 1848. During the American Civil War, Oxford was occupied by federal troops under Generals Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman in 1862. In the postwar Reconstruction Era, the town recovered aided by federal judge Robert Andrews Hill, who secured funds to build a new courthouse in 1872.
During this period many African American freedmen moved from farms into town and established a neighborhood known as "Freedmen Town", where they built houses, businesses and schools, exercised all the rights of citizenship. After Mississippi disenfranchised most African Americans in the Constitution of 1890, they continued to build their lives in the face of discrimination. During the Civil Rights Movement, Oxford drew national attention in the Ole Miss riot of 1962. State officials, including Governor Ross Barnett, prevented James Meredith, an African American, from enrolling at the University of Mississippi after the federal courts had ruled that he be admitted. In late September 1962, President John F. Kennedy, following secret face-saving negotiations with Barnett, ordered United States Marshals to accompany Meredith, while Barnett agreed to use Mississippi Highway Patrol to keep the peace. Thousands of armed "volunteers" flowed into the Oxford area. Meredith traveled to Oxford under armed guard to register, but riots by segregationists broke out in protest of his admittance.
That evening, cars were burned, federal marshals were pelted with rocks and small arms fire, university property was damaged by three thousand rioters. Two men were killed by gunshot wounds; the riot spread into adjacent areas of the city of Oxford. Order was restored to the campus with the early morning arrival of nationalized Mississippi National Guard and regular U. S. Army units, who camped in the City. More than 3000 journalists came to Oxford on September 26, 2008 to cover the first presidential debate of 2008, held at the University of Mississippi. Oxford is within 100 miles of Tennessee. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.0 square miles, of which 10.0 square miles is land and 0.10% is water. The city is located in the North Central Hills region of Mississippi; the region is known for its forested hills made up of red clay. The area is higher and greater in relief than areas to the west, but lower in elevation than areas in Northeast Mississippi.
The changes in elevation can be noticed when traveling on the Highway 6 bypass since the east-west highway tends to transect many of the north-south ridges. Downtown Oxford sits on one of these ridges and the University of Mississippi sits on another one, while the main commercial corridors on either side of the city sit in valleys. Oxford is located at the confluence of highways from eight directions: Mississippi Highway 6 runs west to Batesville and east to Pontotoc. Highway 30 goes northeast to New Albany; the streets in the downtown area follow a grid pattern with two naming conventions. Many of the north-south streets are numbered from west to east, beginning at the old railroad depot, with numbers from four to nineteen; the place of "Twelfth Street," however, is taken by South Lamar Boulevard. The east-west avenues are named for the U. S. presidents in chronological order from north from Washington to Cleveland. Oxford is in hardiness zone 7b; as of the census of 2010, there were 18,916 people, with 8,648 households residing in the city.
The racial makeup of the city was 72.3% White, 21.8% African American, 0.3% Native American, 3.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2.5% of the population. The average household size was 2.09. The median income for a household in the city was $38,872, the average household income was $64,643; the per capita income for the city was $29,195. About 12% of families and 32.3% of the population were below the poverty line. The City of Oxford is served by two public school districts, Oxford School District and Lafayette County School District, three private schools, Oxford University School, Regents School of Oxford an
The Hotel America is a historic former hotel building at 5 Constitution Ave. on Constitution Plaza in Hartford, Connecticut. Built in 1964, it is believed to be the first building erected in the state as part of an urban redevelopment project, is an important local early example of Modern architecture. Now the Spectra Boutique Apartments, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2012; the former Hotel America building marks the eastern end of Constitution Plaza, a major 1960s development on the east side of Hartford's downtown. It is a twelve-story structure, built out of steel and glass, its main axis is oriented north-south, with the building passing over Kinsey Street on large steel I-beam trusses. The Hartford Redevelopment Agency was founded in 1950, Constitution Plaza was its first major project, designed to revitalize an urban slum area on Hartford's east side; the Hotel America building was designed by Curtis & Davis, a firm noted for its Modernist architecture, was completed in 1964.
The trusses carrying the building over Kinsey Street were the largest made to date in the state. The hotel's branding changed several times over the years, named as a Sonesta, in its years, as a Clarion Hotel; the vacant building was converted into luxury apartments. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hartford, Connecticut Spectra Boutique Apartments web site
Wellington Guernsey was an Irish composer and military man. Guernsey was born in Co.. Westmeath, studied as a boy with the well-known Italian opera composer Saverio Mercadante at Lisbon during 1827–8, returning to Ireland during the early 1830s to work in Cork and Dublin. Of his early career a newspaper correspondent wrote in 1858: "Mr Wellington Guernsey was, I believe, born in Ireland, his father having been master of a military band, was in the employment of Messrs. Robinson and Bussell, music-sellers, Westmoreland Street, he had been employed in the shop of Mr. Boden, music-seller, Cork. Guernsey was dismissed from Messrs. Robinson and Bussell's under suspicious circumstances, he set up a music establishment for himself, his house in Nassau Street was burned, being insured, the company at first refused to pay the full amount of insurance, but a compromise for one-half the sum was accepted by Mr. Guernsey; the gentleman proceeded to London, where he married an actress, figured speedily at the police-office, for maltreating his wife.
He subsequently obtained, during the Crimean war, a majority in the Turkish Contingent, from which he was removed by General Vivian for gross misconduct. He has since been hanging about the theatres in London, gaining a livelihood composing waltzes, &c. which were popular, which were performed by her Majesty's private band." From 1843 he lived in England, but for a few years he appears to have returned to Ireland to organise concerts at the Rotunda. In 1847 he became musical director of the Olympic Theatre in London, but by the early 1850s he must have embarked on his military career which took him to Turkey in 1855, the Crimea in 1856 and to Paraguay and Brazil in 1857. In 1858 he was incriminated for stealing documents from the Colonial Office, which ended his military career. Guernsey's worklist is divided into a time after his military time, his greatest successes were songs, piano quadrilles and marches written between 1845 and 1851. The best-known pieces were the songs She Gathers a Shamrock, I'll Hang my Harp on a Willow Tree and Dinah Blake.
He contributed the words to George Barker's song Mary Blane. After his dismissal from the army he returned to music, drew on his earlier successes. An 1860 newspaper article noted: "A few months back Wellington Guernsey's celebrated song of'I'll Hang my Harp on a Willow Tree,' was re-assigned to the publishers for £100. Another song for which he wrote the words only called Alice, where art thou? became successful, recounted in an 1885 obituary: "Mr. Guernsey's most successful song'Alice, where art thou?' had a curious career, the composer offered it without success to nearly all the leading publishers for a £5 note. At last Messrs Duncan, Davidson & Co. published it on sharing terms, when the sale reached nearly 300,000 copies, it now affords an income." Alice, where art thou? made it into the Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. The music Guernsey composed after 1860 did not become as successful as his poetry, he stopped composing piano galops and waltzes by 1862, some of his Ireland-inspired songs like The Boatman of Kinsale and The Green Moss did not fetch the same public attention as his pre-1850 music.
He translated two books by François-Joseph Fétis into English, the Manuel des compositeurs as A Manual for Composers and the Notice biographique sur Nicolò Paganini as Biographical Notice of Nicolò Paganini. Guernsey died in London. Chamber music The Coral Cave Polka for cornet and piano Piano music Casilda Quadrilles The Olympic Polka The Glasgow Quadrilles The Koh-i-noor Diamond, or Mountain of Light Quadrille Bouquet des mélodies anglaises The Lough Erne Waltzes The Gorilla Galop The Adelina Patti Galop Songs Old Songs of Old Ireland, collection Dance Away, We'll be Gay She Gathers a Shamrock I'll Hang my Harp on a Willow Tree Dinah Blake I was Dreaming of Thee, Darling Katty The Songs of Ireland, collection The Boatman of Kinsale The Wearing of the Green The Green Moss The Hindoo Widow God Upon the Ocean Dear Land of my Fathers The Abbess of the Rhine Axel Klein: "Guernsey, Wellington", in: The Encyclopaedia of Music in Ireland, ed. H. White & B. Boydell
Maoyū Maō Yūsha known as Maoyu, is a 2013 fantasy anime based on the light novels by Mamare Touno and illustrated by Keinojou Mizutama and toi8. Set in a medieval fantasy world, a war known as the Southern Kingdoms War has been raging between the humans and demons for 15 years; the humankind's greatest warrior, known as the Hero and plans to finish the leader of the Demons, the Demon King, hoping it will end the war. To his surprise, the "Demon King" is a Queen and she explains the war between their people is not a war between good and evil and ending it now will only bring further chaos. Convinced, both of them work together to end the war another way that will benefit both sides from behind the scenes; the anime aired from January 5, 2013 to March 30, 2013 on Tokyo MX. The anime is produced by Arms and directed by Takeo Takahashi, written by Naruhisa Arakawa and music is by Takeshi Hama; the anime was streamed on Crunchyroll with English subtitles. The opening theme song is "Mukaikaze" by Yohko and the ending theme song is "Unknown Vision" by Akino Arai.
Official Anime Website
Docodonta is an order of extinct mammaliaforms that lived during the Mesozoic, from the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. They are distinguished from other early mammaliaforms by their complex molar teeth, from which the order gets its name; until Docodonta were represented by teeth and jaws found across former Laurasia. However, recent discoveries in China include some exceptionally well preserved complete body fossils. Docodontans are an early branch of the mammaliaform tree, but unlike other early mammals they developed a more complex tooth shape, allowing them to pierce and crush food; this tooth shape includes a series of tall cusps in two rows, a basin between them called a pseudotalonid. The'pseudo-' refers to this structure's resemblance to the true talonid basins on the tribosphenic teeth of crown Mammalia, which evolved convergently with those of the early docodontans. Docodonts and other Mesozoic mammals were traditionally thought to have been ground dwelling and insectivorous, but recent more complete fossils from China have shown this is not the case.
Castorocauda from the Middle Jurassic of China, Haldanodon from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal, were specialised for a semi-aquatic lifestyle. Castorocauda had a flattened tail and recurved molars, which suggests possible fish or aquatic invertebrate diet, it was thought possible that docodonts had tendencies towards semi-aquatic habits, given their presence in wetland environments, although this could be explained by the ease with which these environments preserve fossils compared with more terrestrial ones. Recent discoveries of other complete docodontans such as the specialised digging species Docofossor, specialised tree-dweller Agilodocodon suggest Docodonta was more ecologically diverse than suspected. Docofossor shows many of the same physical traits as the modern day golden mole, such as wide, shortened digits in the hands for digging. Docodonts are not as related to the placentals and marsupials as the monotremes, are not included in the crown-group mammals; the complexity of their molars and the fact that they possess the dentary-squamosal jaw joint, means that they were sometimes regarded as belonging to Mammalia.
Modern authors limit the term "Mammalia" to the crown group, which excludes earlier mammaliaforms like the docodontans, but they are considered to be closer to Mammalia than many other early mammalian groups such as Morganucodonta, Kuehneotheriidae and Sinoconodon. One disputed docodont, has been described from India, part of the Southern Hemisphere continent of Gondwana; however this identification is not certain, some authors have chosen to exclude it from their analyses of Docodonta. In recent analyses, Gondtherium falls outside the docodont family tree. There has been a suggestion of erecting two sub-families within Docodonta, but these groups are not found in any other analyses, therefore not accepted by all mammal palaeontologists. Superfamily †Docodontoidea †Dsugarodon zuoi Pfretzschner et al. 2005 †Simpsonodon Kermack et al. 1987 †S. splendens †S. sibiricus Averianov et al. 2010 Family †Docodontidae Simpson 1929 †Agilodocodon scansorius Meng et al. 2015 †Borealestes Waldman & Savage 1972 †B. serendipitus Waldman & Savage 1972 †B. mussetti Sigogneau-Russell 2003 †Castorocauda lutrasimilis Ji et al. 2006 †Cyrtlatherium canei Freeman 1979 sensu Sigogneau-Russell 2001 †Docodon Marsh 1881 †D. apoxys Rougier et al. 2014 †D. victor †D. striatus Marsh 1881 †D. affinis †D. crassus †D. superus Simpson 1929 †Docofossor brachydactylus Luo et al. 2015 †Gondtherium dattai Prasad & Manhas 2007 †Haldanodon exspectatus Kühne & Krusat 1972 sensu Sigoneau-Russell 2003 †Krusatodon kirtlingtonensis Sigogneau-Russell 2003 †Peraiocynodon Simpson 1928 †P. inexpectatus Simpson 1928 ] †P. major Sigogneau-Russell 2003 †Tashkumyrodon desideratus Martin & Averianov 2004 Family †Tegotheriidae †Hutegotherium yaomingi Averianov et al. 2010 †Sibirotherium rossicus Maschenko, Lopatin & Voronkevich 2002 †Tegotherium gubini Tatarinov 1994 Evolution of mammals Docodonta from Palaeos
Lelio Vittorio Valobra was a Jewish Italian lawyer and the chairman of DELASEM, an exponent of the Jewish resistance. In 1935, Valobra was a leading member of the Jewish community of Genoa, was the keynote speaker at the new synagogue in the city, stating: "The pride of being able to raise a temple... is nourished in us by the political climate in which we live... and exaltation of sacrifice, that returned pride unto Italians themselves and the internal order, essential to becoming a nation." In October 1938, after the passage of racial laws in Italy and the flight of Jews fleeing after the "annexation" of Austria by the Third Reich, Valobra, on recommendation of the Union of Italian Jewish Communities, of which he was vice-president, was commissioned to organize the relief activities and coordinate the stay of Jewish refugees in Italy. On December 1, 1939, an organization called DELASEM, was founded by the Union of Italian Jewish Communities, Valobra was called to its leadership; the purpose of the association was to help expatriation and survival for Jewish refugees both interned or confined and to those who had avoided internment.
Valobra was the protagonist of memorable actions for saving Jewish children: in the spring of 1942 he went to Ljubljana, where he knew there was a group of Eastern European Jewish children who had survived their parents' murder by the Nazis. Valobra picked up 42 children and managed to transport them during March–April 1943 to "Villa Emma" in Nonantola near Modena. At Nonantola they were hidden and protected by local people during the Nazi roundups until Valobra was able to provide for their expatriation to Switzerland. By September 8, 1943, the German occupation had set up the puppet state Italian Social Republic and ordered the specific roundup of Jews. Valobra, helped by Raffaele Cantoni and Massimo Teglio, made contact with Cardinal Pietro Boetto of the Catholic Church, who headed the diocese of Genoa, who instructed his secretary Father Francesco Repetto that the work of DELASEM would continue and would provide material assistance and shelter to persecuted Jews, both Italians and foreigners.
In November 1943, after the news about the deportation of Jews from Genoa and the community of Montecatini, Valobra was hidden by the Bishop of Chiavari, had to flee to Switzerland, where he continued to manage DELASEM until the end of the war. The Valobra name is enshrined in the "Book of the Righteous" in Jerusalem. Ugo G. Pacifici Noja e Silvia Pacifici Noja, Il cacciatore di giusti: storie di non ebrei che salvarono i figli di Israele dalla Shoah, Cantalupa Torinese, Effatà, 2010, ISBN 978-88-7402-568-8