Battle Cry of Freedom (book)
Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era is a Pulitzer Prize-winning work on the American Civil War, published in 1988, by James M. McPherson, it is the sixth volume of the Oxford History of the United States series. An abridged, illustrated version of the book was published in 2003. Battle Cry of Freedom covers two decades, the period from the outbreak of the Mexican-American War to the Civil War's ending at Appomattox. Thus, it examined the Civil War era, not just the war, as it combined the social and political events of the period within a single narrative framework. Historian Hugh Brogan, reviewing the book, commends McPherson for describing "the republic at midcentury" as "a divided society and a violent one, but not one in which so appalling a phenomenon as civil war is likely. So it must have seemed to most Americans at the time; the remote possibility became horrible actuality. In an interview, McPherson claimed: "Both sides in the Civil War professed to be fighting for the same'freedoms' established by the American Revolution and the Constitution their forefathers fought for in the Revolution—individual freedom, democracy, a republican form of government, majority rule, free elections, etc.
For Southerners, the Revolution was a war of secession from the tyranny of the British Empire, just as their war was a war of secession from Yankee tyranny. For Northerners, their fight was to sustain the government established by the Constitution with its guaranties of rights and liberties." The book was an immediate commercial and critical success, an unexpected achievement for a 900-page narrative. It spent 16 weeks on The New York Times hardcover bestseller list with an additional 12 weeks on the paperback list. Writing for The New York Times, Brogan described it as "...the best one-volume treatment of its subject I have come across. It may be the best published." McPherson, James M.. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-503863-7. For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War The Civil War: A Narrative Bibliography of Ulysses S. Grant Quotations related to James M. McPherson at Wikiquote Discussion with McPherson on Battle Cry of Freedom, July 10, 2000, C-SPAN Presentation by McPherson on the illustrated version of Battle Cry of Freedom, November 3, 2003, C-SPAN
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew
Freedom from Fear (history book)
Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945 is a Pulitzer Prize-winning book written in 1999 by historian David M. Kennedy, it is part of the Oxford History of the United States. The book covers America's coping with the Great Depression and World War II; the book was awarded the 2000 Pulitzer Prize for History, the 2000 Francis Parkman Prize, the 2000 Ambassador's Prize, the 2000 California Gold Medal for Literature. Roberts, Russ. "Kennedy on the Great Depression and the New Deal". EconTalk. Library of Economics and Liberty. Presentation by Kennedy on Freedom from Fear, June 5, 1999, C-SPAN Booknotes interview with Kennedy on Freedom from Fear, June 20, 1999, C-SPAN
Gordon S. Wood
Gordon Stewart Wood is the Alva O. Way University Professor and Professor of History Emeritus at Brown University, the recipient of the 1993 Pulitzer Prize for History for The Radicalism of the American Revolution, his book The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787 won a 1970 Bancroft Prize. In 2010, he was awarded the National Humanities Medal. Wood was born in Concord and grew up in Worcester and Waltham, he has served as a trustee there. After serving in the U. S. Air Force in Japan, during which time he earned an A. M. at Harvard University, he entered the Ph. D. program in history at Harvard, where he studied under Bernard Bailyn, receiving his Ph. D. in 1964. Wood has taught at Harvard, the College of William and Mary, the University of Michigan, Brown University, in 1982–83 was Pitt Professor at Cambridge University. In addition to his books, Wood has written numerous influential articles, notably "Rhetoric and Reality in the American Revolution", "Conspiracy and the Paranoid Style: Causality and Deceit in the Eighteenth century", "Interests and Disinterestedness in the Making of the Constitution".
He is a frequent contributor to The New York Review of Books and The New Republic. A recent project was the third volume of the Oxford History of the United States – Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 – a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize. Contributing to the anthology Our American Story, Wood addressed the possibility of a shared American narrative, he focused on the idea of equality as "the most radical and most powerful ideological force" that the American Revolution unleashed. "This powerful sense of equality is still alive and well in America, despite all of its disturbing and unsettling consequences, it is what makes us one people." Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich publicly and effusively praised Wood's The Radicalism of the American Revolution, erroneously calling it The Founding of America. Wood, who met Gingrich once in 1994, surmised that Gingrich may have approved because the book "had a kind of Toquevillian touch to it, I guess, maybe suggesting American exceptionalism, that he liked".
He jokingly described Gingrich's praise in an interview on C-SPAN in 2002 as "the kiss of death for me among a lot of academics, who are not right-wing Republicans."In one of the celebrated scenes of the 1997 movie Good Will Hunting, Matt Damon's title character gets into a battle of wits with a student from Harvard University, whom he accuses of uncritically parroting the views of the authors on his reading list as a first-year graduate student. He goes on to predict that a little in his curriculum, he would be "regurgitating Gordon Wood." The student begins to respond with a critique of Wood, which Hunting interrupts and incorrectly claims to be a passage plagiarized from page 98 of Daniel Vickers' Work in Essex County. In "It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia" S5 E12, Charlie references Gordon Wood at a college party, trying to replicate the success of Matt Damon's character in "Good Will Hunting", he has little success since he has no idea who or what Gordon Wood or his work is - embarrassingly assuming he will be able to pull off the same argument as he is a janitor like Matt Damon's character.
Wood married the former Louise Goss on April 30, 1956. They have three children: Christopher and Amy, their son, Christopher Wood, is a professor of German at New York University and their daughter, Amy, is a professor of history at Illinois State University, Elizabeth is an administrator at Milton Academy. The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787, University of North Carolina Press, 1969, 1998. Representation in the American Revolution, University of Virginia Press, 1969; the Rising Glory of America, 1760–1820, George Braziller, 1971, revised edition, Northeastern University Press, 1990. The Confederation and the Constitution, Brown, 1973. Revolution and the Political Integration of the Enslaved and Disenfranchised, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1974. Leadership in the American Revolution, Library of Congress, 1974. Social Radicalism and the Idea of Equality in the American Revolution, University of St. Thomas, 1976; the Great Republic, Brown, 1977, 4th edition, Heath, 1992.
The Making of the Constitution, Baylor University Press, 1987. Rising Glory of America, 1760–1820, Northeastern University Press, 1990; the Radicalism of the American Revolution, Alfred A. Knopf, 1992. Russian-American Dialogue on the American Revolution, University of Missouri Press, 1995. Wages of Independence: Capitalism in the Early American Republic, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1997. Imagined Histories: American Historians Interpret the Past, Princeton University Press, 1998. Monarchism and Republicanism in the Early United States, La Trobe University, 2000; the American Revolution: A History, Modern Library, 2001. The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin, Penguin Press, 2004. Revolutionary Characters: W
John Lewis Gaddis
John Lewis Gaddis is the Robert A. Lovett Professor of Military and Naval History at Yale University, he is best known for his work on the Cold War and grand strategy, has been hailed as the "Dean of Cold War Historians" by The New York Times. Gaddis is the official biographer of the seminal 20th-century American statesman George F. Kennan. George F. Kennan: An American Life, his biography of Kennan, won the 2012 Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography. Gaddis was born in Cotulla, Texas, in 1941, he attended the University of Texas at Austin, receiving his BA in 1963, MA in 1965, PhD in 1968, the latter under the direction of Robert Divine. Gaddis taught at Indiana University Southeast, before joining Ohio University in 1969. At Ohio, he founded and directed the Contemporary History Institute, was named a distinguished professor in 1983. In the 1975–77 academic years, Gaddis was a Visiting Professor of Strategy at the Naval War College. In the 1992–93 academic year, he was the Harmsworth Visiting Professor of American History at Oxford.
He has held visiting positions at Princeton University and the University of Helsinki. He served as president of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations in 1992. In 1997, he moved to Yale University to become the Lovett Professor of Naval History. In the 2000–01 academic year, Gaddis was the George Eastman Professor at Oxford, the second scholar to have the honor of being both Eastman and Harmsworth professor. In 2005, he received the National Humanities Medal, he sits on the advisory committee of the Wilson Center's Cold War International History Project, which he helped establish in 1991. Gaddis is known for his close relationship with the late George Kennan and his wife, whom Gaddis described as "my companions". Gaddis is the best known historian writing in English about the Cold War, his most famous work is the influential Strategies of Containment, which analyzes in detail the theory and practice of containment, employed against the Soviet Union by Cold War American presidents, but his 1983 distillation of post-revisionist scholarship became a major channel for guiding subsequent Cold War research.
We Now Know, presented an analysis of the Cold War through to the Cuban Missile Crisis that incorporated new archival evidence from the Soviet bloc. Fellow historian Melvyn Leffler named it as "likely to set the parameters for a whole new generation of scholarship", It was praised as "the first coherent and sustained attempt to write the Cold War's history since it ended." Nonetheless, Leffler observed that the most distinctive feature of We Now Know is the extent to which Gaddis "abandons post-revisionism and returns to a more traditional interpretation of the Cold War." The Cold War, praised by John Ikenberry as a "beautifully written panoramic view of the Cold War, full of illuminations and shrewd judgments," was described as an examination of the history and effects of the Cold War in a more removed context than had been possible, won Gaddis the 2006 Harry S. Truman Book Prize. Critics were less impressed, with Tony Judt summarising the book as "a history of America's cold war: as seen from America, as experienced in America, told in a way most agreeable to many American readers."His 2011 biography of George Kennan garnered multiple prizes, including a Pulitzer.
John Nagl, in the Wall Street Journal, wrote of Gaddis's 2018 book On Grand Strategy as "a book that should be read by every American leader or would-be leader". Gaddis is known for arguing that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's personality and role in history constituted one of the most important causes of the Cold War. Within the field of U. S. diplomatic history, he was most associated with the concept of post-revisionism, the idea of moving past the revisionist and orthodox interpretations of the origins of the Cold War to embrace what were interpretations based upon the then-growing availability of government documents from the United States, Great Britain and other western government archives. Due to his growing focus on Stalin and leanings toward US nationalism, Gaddis is now seen as more orthodox than post-revisionist; the revisionist Bruce Cumings had a high profile debate with Gaddis in the 1990s, where Cumings criticized Gaddis as moralistic and lacking in objectivity. Gaddis is close to President George W. Bush, making suggestions to his speech writers, has been described as an "overt admirer" of the 43rd President.
After leaving office, Bush took up painting as a hobby at Gaddis's recommendation. During the US invasion of Iraq, Gaddis argued: “The world now must be made safe for democracy, this is no longer just an idealistic issue. During the United States occupation of Iraq, Gaddis asserted that Bush had established America “as a more powerful and purposeful actor within the international system than it had been on September 11, 2001.” Historian James Chace argues that Gaddis supports an "informal imperial policy abroad." Gaddis believes that preventive war is a constructive part of American tradition, that there is no meaningful difference between preventive and pre-emptive war. "You can't gobble all your treats on Halloween without throwing up." On Grand Strategy. New York, New York: The Penguin Press. 2018. ISBN 978-1-594-20351-0. George F. Kennan: An American Life. New York, NY: The Penguin Press. 2011. ISBN 978-1-594-20312-1; the Cold War: A New History. New York, NY: The Penguin Press. 2005. ISBN 978-1-594-20062-5.
US editionThe Cold War. London: Allen Lane. 2005. ISBN 978-0-713-99912-9. UK edition Surprise and the American Experience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 2004
Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network is an American cable and satellite television network, created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming; the C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D. C. and is available throughout the U. S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, Android devices. The network televises U. S. political events live and "gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U. S. Congress, as well as occasional proceedings of the Canadian and British Parliaments and other major events worldwide, its coverage of political and policy events is unmoderated, providing the audience with unfiltered information about politics and government.
Non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. C-SPAN is a private, non-profit organization funded by its cable and satellite affiliates, it does not have advertisements on any of its networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it solicit donations or pledges; the network operates independently, neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of its programming content. Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer, first conceived the concept of C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the Washington, D. C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine Cablevision. It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable television channels available in the United States, Lamb envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising sessions of the U. S. Congress and other public affairs event and policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several cable executives.
Among them were Bob Rosencrans, who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979, John D. Evans, who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal. C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, beginning with a speech by then-Tennessee representative Al Gore. Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN, the network had just three employees. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U. S. Senate permitted itself to be televised. C-SPAN3, the most recent expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001, shows other public policy and government-related live events on weekdays along with weekend historical programming. C-SPAN3 is the successor of a digital channel called C-SPAN Extra, launched in the Washington D. C. area in 1997, televised live and recorded political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday.
C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar events as the television networks and simulcasting their programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP in Washington, D. C. is available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006. Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd anniversary, gave executive control of the network to his two lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT America for 10 minutes. C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue." C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network. The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which were televised from August to October 1994, have been rebroadcast from time to time since.
Five years the series American presidents: Life Portraits, which won a Peabody Award, served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th anniversary. In 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the anniversary date, C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN during its early years. Included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind. To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 pm.
Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 pm. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8; the network had a viewer essay contest, the winner of, invited to co-host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol
Richard Hofstadter was an American historian and public intellectual of the mid-20th century. Hofstadter was the DeWitt Clinton Professor of American History at Columbia University. Modifying his earlier communist approach to history, in the 1950s he came closer to the concept of "consensus history", was epitomized by some of his admirers as the "iconic historian of postwar liberal consensus." Others see in his work an early critique of the one-dimensional society, as Hofstadter was critical of socialist and capitalist models of society, bemoaned the "consensus" within the society as "bounded by the horizons of property and entrepreneurship", criticizing the "hegemonic liberal capitalist culture running throughout the course of American history". His most read works are Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860–1915, he was twice awarded the Pulitzer Prize: in 1956 for The Age of Reform, an analysis of the populism movement in the 1890s and the progressive movement of the early 20th century.
Richard Hofstadter was born in multi-ethnic Buffalo, New York, in 1916 to a Jewish father, Emil A. Hofstadter, a German American Lutheran mother, who died when Richard was ten, he attended the Fosdick-Masten Park High School in Buffalo. Hofstadter studied philosophy and history at the University at Buffalo, from 1933, under the diplomatic historian Julius W. Pratt. Despite opposition from both families, he married Felice Swados in 1936 after he and Felice spent several summers at Hunter Colony, New York, run by Margaret Lefranc, their close friend for years. Hofstadter was raised as an Episcopalian but identified more with his Jewish roots. Antisemitism may have cost him fellowships at attractive professorships; the Buffalo Jewish Hall of Fame list him as one of the "Jewish Buffalonians who have made a lasting contribution to the world."In 1936, Hofstadter entered the doctoral program in history at Columbia University where his advisor Merle Curti was demonstrating how to synthesize intellectual and political history based upon secondary sources rather than primary-source archival research.
In 1938 he became a member of the Communist Party, but soon became disillusioned by the Stalinist party discipline and show trials. After withdrawing membership in August 1939 following the Hitler-Stalin Pact, he retained a critical left wing perspective, still obvious in American Political Tradition in 1948. Hofstadter earned his PhD in 1942. In 1944, he published his dissertation Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860–1915, it was a commercially successful critique of late nineteenth-century American capitalism and its ruthless "dog-eat-dog" economic competition and Social Darwinian self-justification. Conservative critics, such as Irwin G. Wylie and Robert C. Bannister, disagreed with his interpretation; the sharpest criticism of Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860–1915 focused on Hofstadter's weakness as a research scholar: he did little or no research into manuscripts, archival, or unpublished sources. Instead, he relied upon secondary sources augmented by his lively style and wide-ranging interdisciplinary readings, thus producing well-written arguments based upon scattered evidence he found by reading other historians.
From 1942 to 1946 Hofstadter taught history at the University of Maryland, where he became a close friend of the radical sociologist C. Wright Mills and read extensively in the fields of sociology and psychology, absorbing ideas of Max Weber, Karl Mannheim, Sigmund Freud, the Frankfurt School, his books refer to behavioral concepts such as "status anxiety." In 1946 Hofstadter joined the Columbia University faculty and in 1959 succeeded Allan Nevins as the DeWitt Clinton Professor of American History, where he played a major role in directing Ph. D. dissertations in the field. According to David Brown, his biographer, after 1945 Hofstadter philosophically "broke" with Charles A. Beard and moved to the right, becoming leader of the "consensus historians," a term that Hofstadter disapproved of, but it was applied to his apparent rejection of the Beardian idea that the fundamental conflict running throughout American history that pitted economic classes against each other was the sole basis for understanding history.
In a dissenting view, Christopher Lasch wrote that unlike the "consensus historians" of the 1950s, Hofstadter saw the consensus of classes on behalf of business interests not as a strength but "as a form of intellectual bankruptcy and as a reflection, not of a healthy sense of the practical but of the domination of American political thought by popular mythologies". As early as his American Political Tradition, but still viewing politics from a critical left-wing perspective, Hofstadter rejected black-and-white polarization between pro-business and anti-business politicians. Making explicit reference to Jefferson, Lincoln, Bryan and Hoover, Hofstadter made a statement on the consensus in the American political tradition, sometimes seen as "ironic": The fierceness of the political struggles has been misleading: for the range of vision embraced by the primary contestants in the major parties has always been bounded by the horizons of property and enterprise; however much at odds on specific issues, the major political traditions have shared a belief in the rights of property, the philosophy of economic individualism, the value of comp