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Oxford University Museum of Natural History

The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known as the Oxford University Museum or OUMNH, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxford's natural history specimens, located on Parks Road in Oxford, England. It contains a lecture theatre, used by the university's chemistry and mathematics departments; the museum provides the only public access into the adjoining Pitt Rivers Museum. The university's Honour School of Natural Science started in 1850, but the facilities for teaching were scattered around the city of Oxford in the various colleges; the university's collection of anatomical and natural history specimens were spread around the city. Regius Professor of Medicine, Sir Henry Acland, initiated the construction of the museum between 1855 and 1860, to bring together all the aspects of science around a central display area. In 1858, Acland gave a lecture on the museum, setting forth the reason for the building's construction, he viewed that the university had been one-sided in the forms of study it offered—chiefly theology, the classics and history—and that the opportunity should be offered to learn of the natural world and obtain the "knowledge of the great material design of which the Supreme Master-Worker has made us a constituent part".

This idea, of Nature as the Second Book of God, was common in the 19th century. The largest portion of the museum's collections consist of the natural history specimens from the Ashmolean Museum, including the specimens collected by John Tradescant the elder and his son of the same name, William Burchell and geologist William Buckland; the Christ Church Museum donated its osteological and physiological specimens, many of which were collected by Acland. The construction of the building was accomplished through money earned from the sale of Bibles. Several departments moved within the building—astronomy, experimental physics, chemistry, zoology, anatomy and medicine; as the departments grew in size over the years, they moved to new locations along South Parks Road, which remains the home of the university's Science Area. The last department to leave the building was the entomology department, which moved into the zoology building in 1978. However, there is still a working entomology laboratory on the first floor of the museum building.

Between 1885 and 1886 a new building to the east of the museum was constructed to house the ethnological collections of General Augustus Pitt Rivers—the Pitt Rivers Museum. In 19th-century thinking, it was important to separate objects made by the hand of God from objects made by the hand of man; the neo-Gothic building was designed by the Irish architects Thomas Newenham Deane and Benjamin Woodward Woodward. The museum's design was directly influenced by the writings of critic John Ruskin, who involved himself by making various suggestions to Woodward during construction. Construction began in 1855, the building was ready for occupancy in 1860; the adjoining building that houses the Pitt Rivers Museum was the work of Thomas Manly Deane, son of Thomas Newenham Deane. It was built between 1885 and 1886; the museum consists of a large square court with a glass roof, supported by cast iron pillars, which divide the court into three aisles. Cloistered arcades run around the ground and first floor of the building, with stone columns each made from a different British stone, selected by geologist John Phillips.

The ornamentation of the stonework and iron pillars incorporates natural forms such as leaves and branches, combining the Pre-Raphaelite style with the scientific role of the building. Statues of eminent men of science stand around the ground floor of the court—from Aristotle and Bacon through to Darwin and Linnaeus. Although the university paid for the construction of the building, the ornamentation was funded by public subscription, much of it remains incomplete; the Irish stone carvers O'Shea and Whelan had been employed to create lively freehand carvings in the Gothic manner. When funding dried up, they offered to work unpaid, but they were accused by members of the University Convocation of "defacing" the building by adding unauthorised work. According to Acland, the O'Shea brothers responded by caricaturing the members of Convocation as parrots and owls in the carving over the building's entrance. Acland insists. A significant debate in the history of evolutionary biology took place in the museum in 1860 at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

Representatives of the Church and science debated the subject of evolution, the event is viewed as symbolising the defeat of a literalist interpretation of the Genesis creation narrative. However, there are few eye-witness accounts of the debate, most accounts of the debate were written by scientists; the biologist Thomas Huxley and Samuel Wilberforce, the Bishop of Oxford, are cast as the main protagonists in the debate. Huxley was a staunch supporter of Darwin's theories. Wilberforce had supported the construction of the museum as the centre for the science departments, for the study of the wonders of God's creations. On the Wednesday of the meeting, 27 June 1860, botanist Charles Daubeny presented a paper on plant sexuality, which made reference to Darwin's theory of natural selection. Richard Owen, a zoologist who believed that evolution was governed by divine influence, criticised the theory pointing out that the brain of the gorilla was more different from that of man than that of other primates.

Huxley stated that he would respond to this comment in print, declined to continue the debate. However, rumours began to spread that the B

Nobody (producer)

Elvin Estela, better known by his stage name Nobody, is an American hip hop producer based in Los Angeles, California. He is a resident DJ at Low End Theory, he has collaborated with 2Mex, Abstract Rude, Freestyle Fellowship and Mystic Chords of Memory. He has been a member of Blank Blue and Bomb Zombies. Better Propaganda placed him at number 73 on the "Top 100 Artists of the Decade" list. Nobody's solo debut album, was released on Ubiquity Records in 2000; the second solo album, Pacific Drift: Western Water Music Vol. 1, was released in 2003. He released the third solo album, And Everything Else... on Plug Research in 2005. It features guest appearances among others. Nobody wrote the article about 1960s psychedelic rock for XLR8R in 2006. In 2008, Estela released the album, Western Water Music Vol. II, on Ubiquity Records under the Blank Blue moniker, a collaboration with Niki Randa, it is the official follow-up to his 2003 album, Pacific Draft: Western Water Music Vol. 1. The duo's sound has been compared to The Monkees, DJ Shadow, J Dilla.

Live the pair have been assisted by bassist Brian Akio Martinez. The fourth solo album, One for All Without Hesitation, was released on Alpha Pup Records in 2010, he returned with Vivid Green, an album featuring Cedric Bixler-Zavala and Baths, in 2013. In 2019, he released All Too Familiar. Soulmates Pacific Drift: Western Water Music Vol. 1 And Everything Else... Tree Colored See Western Water Music Volume II One for All Without Hesitation Vivid Green All Too Familiar Revisions Revisions: The Remixes 2000-2005 Puzzles Earthtones EP Porpoise Song EP Dive EP Sincerely Yours Prodigal Son Invisible Threads "Fiend and the Fix" "Afternoon Focus" "Shades of Orange" "Ballorettes" "Fancy" "Broaden a New Sound" "Rex" "Our Last Dance" "Smash Yr Radio" Of Mexican Descent - "Money Is Meaningless" from Exitos Y Mas Exitos Phil Ranelin - "Vibes from the Tribe" from Remixes 2Mex - "Ghost Writer", "M Is for Memo", "I Didn't Mean to Touch Your Hand" from B-Boys in Occupied Mexico Dntel - "Anywhere Anyone" Freestyle Fellowship - "Shockadoom" from Shockadoom Adventure Time - "Whetting Whistles" from Glass Bottom Boats Her Space Holiday - "From South Carolina" from The Young Machines Remixed Busdriver - "Unemployed Black Astronaut" from Fear of a Black Tangent The Free Design - "Girls Alone" from The Now Sound Redesigned Ellay Khule - "Sounds Like...", "B-Girl Queendom", "The Turning Point", "Dandylions" from Califormula Prefuse 73 - "La Correcion Exchange" from Surrounded by Silence Mia Doi Todd - "What If We Do?" from La Ninja: Amor and Other Dreams of Manzanita Busdriver - "Casting Agents and Cowgirls", "Less Yes's, More No's", "The Troglodyte Wins" from RoadKillOvercoat Isaiah Toothtaker - "Paid Dues" from Murs 3:16 Presents School of Seven Bells - "Trance Figure" Busdriver - "Handfuls of Sky", "Quebec and Back", "Manchuria" from Jhelli Beam Nocando - "Hurry Up and Wait" and "21" from Jimmy the Lock Omar Rodríguez-López - Tychozorente Beans - "Death Sweater" from End It All Nocando - "Westside Rentals" from Zero Hour Free the Robots - "Ophic" The Postal Service - "Be Still My Heart" from Give Up Nocando - "You Know" and "Last but Not Least" from Tits & Explosions Anderson Paak - "Milk n' Honey" from Venice Open Mike Eagle - " Feel at Home" from Brick Body Kids Still Daydream Open Mike Eagle - "Every Little Thing" from What Happens When I Try to Relax Nobody on Mush Records Nobody on SoundCloud Nobody discography at Discogs

Samtavisi Cathedral

Samtavisi is an eleventh-century Georgian Orthodox cathedral in eastern Georgia, in the region of Shida Kartli, some 45 km from the nation's capital Tbilisi, near Igoeti village. The cathedral is now one of the centers of the Eparchy of Samtavisi and Gori of the Georgian Orthodox Church; the church is a typical example and the founder of the Georgian interpretation of the cross-in-square churches. It was built in the period of artistic bloom in the architecture of Georgia; the cathedral is located on the left bank of some 11 km of the town of Kaspi. According to a Georgian tradition, the first monastery on this place was founded by the Assyrian missionary Isidore in 572 and rebuilt in the 10th century. Neither of these buildings has survived however; the earliest extant structures date to the eleventh century, the main edifice being built in 1030 as revealed by a now lost stone inscription. The cathedral was built by a local bishop and a skillful architect Hilarion, the son of Vane Kanchaeli, who authored the nearby church of Ashuriani.

The Cathedral was damaged by a series of earthquakes, when the dome and the western wall and the pillars collapsed. According to the inscription on the western façade, above the window, which says "The secondary builder of the temple was the daughter of king of the kings and the wife of Amilakhor, Gayane", the Cathedral was first reconstructed in the 15th-16th century; the noble Georgian family Amilakhvari played significant role in the history of the church. In 1679, Givi Amilakhvari and his wife ordered new frescoes to be painted by Samtavisi bishop Meliton, as documented by inscription on the apse fresco, it was reconstructed again in the 19th century by the architect Ripardi, when part of decorations were lost. For example, one of the two gryphons on eastern façade; the masterly decorated eastern façade is the only surviving original structure. Other alterations included removal of portals and deepening of connections between the façade quadras; the Samtavisi Cathedral is a prolonged rectangular 4-piered cruciform domed church.

It illustrates a Georgian interpretation of the cross-in-square form which set an example for many churches built in the heyday of medieval Georgia. It has only southern portal, but also had northern and western ones; the dome rests on two free pillars. In contrast to earlier Georgian churches, the drum of the dome is taller surmounted by a conical roof; the reconstructed dome tholobate is unproportionally narrow. It has twelve window, seven of them are other five imitated, their original ornamentation, found on western façade, was richer than subsequently reconstructed. The central altar apse, the prothesis and the sacristy are in eastern part; the central nave is connected to the lateral naves in the western part through the arcade. The exterior is distinguished by the liberal use of ornamental blind arcading; the apses do not project. Artistically, the most rounded portion of the church is its five-arched eastern façade, dominated by the two niches and enlivened by a bold ornate cross motif, a harmonic continuation of dynamic arcading.

The central axis of the façade has a high cross, ornamented window and rather characteristic motif of two rombs, copied in churches. The most elaborate decoration, a relief of gryphon can be found up in the right arch; the arcading is spread on lateral façades. The southern façade has remnants of portal; the western façade is plain with two windows. Their ornamentation was on the former dome and look rather unharmonious on the wall. Western and eastern façades have inscriptions, telling about the construction year and the architect, the subsequent reconstruction; the original frescoes of the 11th century, found under the apse plaster, are rather fragmentary. The 17th century frescoes, less monumental and less detailed than the earlier, remain only in the dome and the apse; the dome fresco depicts the Christ Pantocrator with six-winged evangelists. Prophets are found between the tholobates, Mary with Jesus among them. Traditional Deesis is depicted in the altar conch. Multifigure Eucharist is found in the upper part of the apse, below it, bishops with open scrolls and deacons.

Dominant colors are dark brown, blue and dark grey. Beyond the main church, the Samtavisi complex includes a badly damaged two-storied bishop's residence, a small church, a three-storied bell-tower attached to the 3-5m high fence made of stone and brick; the bell-tower, built into northern wall, dates to the 16th-17th centuries. Its ground floor has a gate, the middle floor was for the upper the belfry. All other structures date to the 17th-18th centuries. Original wall, surrounding the cathedral, did not survive; the current wall includes a rounded tower with semicircular teeth. Alshibaia, G. Samtavisi. Tbilisi: 1962. Dan Cruickshank, Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture, page 314. Architectural Press, ISBN 0-7506-2267-9. Samtavisi. Georgia Department of Tourism and Resorts. Accessed on August 11, 2007. Samtavisi photo gallery. Monuments of Georgian Architecture. Accessed on August 11, 2007

Invasion of Martinique (1762)

The British expedition against Martinique was a military action that took place in January and February 1762. It was part of the Seven Years' War. After the surrender of Dominica to a British expeditionary force, the French in Martinique expected the same expedition to head into their direction. Accordingly, they took measures for their defense; the French force in Martinique consisted of 1,200 regulars, 7,000 local militia and 4,000 hired privateersmen. Furthermore, the mountainous nature of the island made it rather easy to defend; the neighbouring British islands did what they could to help the mother-country: Antigua sent blacks and part of her old garrison, the 38th Regiment of Foot which had not left her since Queen Anne's day. The first troops to arrive in Carlisle Bay were a detachment from Belle-Isle, Newfoundland consisting of: 69th Regiment of Foot 76th Regiment of Foot under William Rufane 90th Morgan’s Regiment of Foot 98th Grey’s Regiment of FootOn 24 December 1761, the main army from America under the sails of Admiral Rodney and command of Brigadier Robert Monckton arrived in Carlisle Bay.

This army was made up of eleven regiments: 15th Regiment of Foot 17th Regiment of Foot 22nd Regiment of Foot 27th Regiment of Foot 28th Townshend's Regiment of Foot 35th Regiment of Foot 40th Armiger's Regiment of Foot 42nd Royal Highland Regiment of Foot 43rd Talbot's Regiment of Foot 46th Thomas Murray's Regiment of Foot 3rd battalion of the 60th Royal American Regiment of Foot American rangers In all, the force entrusted to Monckton must have amounted to 8,000 men. On 5 January 1762, the British transports weighed anchor and sailed away to leeward, under escort of Admiral Rodney's fleet, past the Pitons of Saint Lucia and past the port of Castries. Two days the British amphibious force anchored in Sainte-Anne Bay, just round the southern extremity of Martinique, on the western side. Two brigades were landed in Les Anses-d'Arlet, a bay farther up the western coast, from which they marched to the south of the bay that forms the harbor of the capital, Fort-Royal. Finding the road impracticable for transport of guns, they were re-embarked.

On 16 January, the entire British army was landed without loss of a man at Case Navire, a little to the north of Negro Point. This point forms the northern headland of the harbour, had at its foot a road leading due east over the mountains to Fort Royal, some 5 kilometres away; the way was blocked by deep gullies and ravines, the French had erected redoubts at every strategic point, as well as batteries on a hill beyond, named Morne Tortenson. Monckton was thus compelled to erect batteries to silence the French guns before he could advance farther. By 24 January, British batteries were completed, at daybreak a general attack was made under the fire of the batteries upon the French defenses on Morne Tortenson, a party being at the same time detached to turn the enemy's right flank; the turning movement was successful and the redoubts by the sea, on the enemy's left, having been carried, the troops stormed post after post, until at 9:00 they were in possession not only of the detached redoubts but of the entire position of Morne Tortenson, with its guns and entrenchments.

The French retired in great confusion, some to Fort Royal and some to Morne Grenier, a still higher hill to the north of Morne Tortenson. Two brigades under Brigadiers Haviland and Walsh attacked other French posts to the north of Morne Tortenson and, after great difficulty owing to the steepness of the ground, succeeded in driving them back to Morne Grenier; the losses of the British in this action amounted to 350 men killed and wounded. On 25 January, now within range of Fort Royal, began to throw up batteries against its citadel. However, the persistent fire from Morne Grenier led him to instead target that position first. On the afternoon of 27 January, before Monckton had time to launch an attack on them, the French entrenched at Morne Grenier debouched in 3 columns and launched an attack upon Haviland's brigade and the Light Infantry of the army, on Monckton's left. During this attack, one French column exposed its flank to the Highlanders and was instantly routed; the two remaining columns thereupon gave way, the whole fled back to Morne Grenier with the British in chase.

The pursuers plunged down into the intervening ravine after the French and swarming up Morne Grenier "by every path and passage where men could run, walk, or creep," hunted the fugitives headlong before them. Night came on, but the British officers would not stop until they had cleared every Frenchman off the hill and captured all the works and guns. Monckton at once sent off more troops to support the pursuers. By 1:00 am on 28 January, Morne Grenier was securely occupied, at a cost of little more than 100 British killed and wounded; the batteries on Morne Tortenson were completed, new batteries were constructed within 370 metres of the citadel. On 3 February, Fort Royal surrendered. By 12 February, the rest of the Island had been reduced; the regiments employed in Martinique, complete or in detachments, were the 4th, 15th, 17th, 22nd, 27th, 28th, 35th, 38th, 40th, 42nd, 43rd, 48th, 3/60th, 65th, 69th, Morgan's 90th, Rufane's 76th, 77th, Vaughan's 94th, Stuart's 97th, Grey's 98th, Campbell's 100th, two companies of American Rangers, ten companies of Barbados Volunteers.

The American Rangers included 150 Native Americans including Silver Heels. From 26 February to 3 March, Monckton sent detachments to the islands Saint Lucia

John Graf

John D. Graf is a former Canadian national rugby player, he had the unique distinction of being capped at five positions: wing, full back, fly-half and scrum-half. Graf debuted for Canada against an Ireland XV, in Victoria, on September 2, 1989, he played the 1991, 1995 and 1999 World Cups. His last cap was in the 1999 Rugby World Cup, against Namibia, in Toulouse, on October 24, 1999, he played for Canada Sevens between 1991 and 1993, including two appearances in the 1993 and 1997 World Cup Sevens. In 2009, he was inducted at the British Columbia Rugby Hall Of Fame. John Graf at ESPNscrum

Francine Deutsch

Francine M. Deutsch is an American writer and professor emeritus at the Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts since 1981, she is a professor of Education. She is specialized in the social psychology of gender in everyday life, gender inequality at home and in labour market, the educational trajectories of pre-school teachers, she worked on the link between unequal earning, young children at home and domestic inequality in household duties. She is interested in, she did a lot of qualitative studies about couples. In reference to the article by Candace West and Zimmerman, Doing Gender, she did a reflexion about how to undo gender in everyday life in her article Undoing Gender, she did a lot of recognized works about equal parenting. In 2000, she wrote a book about that, Halving it All, How Equally Shared Parenting Works, using her interviews with families and couples egalitarian or unequal couples by trying to understand what factors affect this equality, she is a member of PRESAGE program at Sciences Po Paris.

Deutsch received her BA from Carnegie-Mellon University and her Ph. D. in social psychology from Columbia University. "It's a vicious cycle After childbirth, women start to reduce their time in the labor force, his job becomes more important, which makes the home central to her.""“If you gave people a survey they would check all the answers about how things should be equal, But when they get to the part where “you ask them how things work for them day to day,” she says, “ideal does not match reality.”"Equality exists without magic. Husbands and wives become equal sharers together, fighting and building as they go; the big news is. Avoiding the pitfalls of a home life built around superwoman or former superwoman, equal sharers are ordinary people inventing and reinventing solutions to the dilemmas of modern family life." Deutsch, F. M. Ruble, D. N. Fleming, A. Brooks-Gunn, J. & Stangor, C. Information-seeking and maternal self-definition during the transition to motherhood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 420–431, 1988.

Deutsch, F. M. Lussier, J. B. & Servis, L. J. Husbands at home: Predictors of paternal participation in childcare and housework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1154–1166, 1993. Deutsch M. Francine, Halving it All, How Equally Shared Parenting Works, Havard University Press, 1999. Francine M. Deutsch, Undoing Gender and Society, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 106-127, Feb. 2007Deutsch, F. M. & Yao, B. Gender differences in faculty attrition in the USA. Community, Work & Family, 17, 392–408, 2014. Deutsch M. Francine, Ruth A. Gaunt, Creating Equality at Home: How 25 Couples Around the World Share Housework and Childcare, will be published in May 2020