Jastrebarsko, colloquially known as Jaska, is a town in Zagreb County, Croatia. In 1865, remnants of a Roman settlement were uncovered in Repišće, Klinča Sela, a village in Jastrebarsko metropolitan area. Further archeological investigation in the late 20th century classified them as a villa rustica and a necropolis consisting of six tumuli, both dating to the early Roman Empire period; the remnants are deemed to be the westernmost group of Noric-Pannonian tumuli and they make a rare occasion of tombstones located directly on top of tumuli, in the rest of Croatia recorded only in Donji Čehi. The location of this archeological site on the fluvial terraces of the local Konjava stream is attributed to the peaceful state of the central Roman Empire, which in turn led to formation of settlements in river valleys. Sveta Marija pod Okićem, an archeological site located some 2.5 kilometers north of Repišće dating to 4th century, shows a migration from accessible locations to steeper hills and creation of isolated walled refugia.
This is attributed in the Empire overall. A necropolis belonging to Sveta Marija was found on the small valley of Popov Dol and small items were excavated therefrom; those were bronze bracelets and glass chalices, items that Romans buried with their deceased. Two similar sites were found in the vicinity: Pavlovčani and Plešivica pass; the name Jastrebarsko is derived from jastreb, the Croatian word for'hawk' or'falcon'. This can be attributed to the practicers of falconry, who were active in the area of southwest Zagreb County. A remnant of falconry can be found in the Jastrebarsko coat of arms, which features a yellow goshawk on a blue blackground; the first mention of this name is found in a 1249 document of the Croatian ban Stjepan Gutkeled as "lands of Jastraburcza". The town is therein described as a judicial center. In 1257 Croato-Hungarian King Bela IV awarded Jastrebarsko the status of a "free royal trading center" by the means of a golden bull; this status helped Jastrebarsko combat the interests of local feudal lords until the abolishment of the feudal system by ban Josip Jelačić in 1848.
From 1518 to 1848 Jastrebarsko is influenced by the Croato-Hungarian noble family Erdödy. The bans Petar II and Toma II Erdödy were known for their victories against the spreading Ottoman Empire. Toma, son of Petar, won the 1593 Battle of Sisak, a major and decisive battle in the Ottomans' centuries-long occupation of Balkans. In 1809 during the expansion of Napoleon's First French Empire, Jastrebarsko was for a short time incorporated in the Illyrian Provinces; this lasted until Summer 1813. Jastrebarsko started to develop following the 1848 abolishment of feudalism; the Zagreb–Karlovac railway was built in 1865, providing the town with a major source of employment. The local elementary school, founded in the 17th century, was augmented by a number of other cultural and sports organization, including a library, the singing society "Javor", association of tamburica players, a volunteer fire brigade and a theater and others. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Jastrebarsko was a district capital in the Zagreb County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.
The town was the site of a concentration camp for Serb children operated by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia during World War II. This was the only concentration camp during World War II, opened for children only. Jastrebarsko is located in the Prigorje region of Central Croatia, built around the Reka Creek. On the west, Jastrebarsko is bordered by the Žumberak Mountain, a mountain range spreading through southeast Slovenia and southwest Prigorje Žumberak municipality and City of Samobor; the average altitude of the city is 154 metres and the highest elevation in the Jastrebarsko metropolitan area is recorded on the 1,181-metre Sveta Gera summit of the Žumberak mountain claimed by Slovenia. Jastrebarsko lies on both Zagreb -- Zagreb-Rijeka rail and road corridors. There is a highway exit near Jastrebarsko on the A1 highway, located between the Lučko interchange near Zagreb and the Karlovac interchange; this 37-kilometer stretch is the oldest modern highway in Croatia, dating back to 1970.
The Zagreb–Karlovac–Rijeka magistral railroad M202, part of the Pan-European corridor Vb, passes through Jastrebarsko. Jastrebarsko is served by a high-speed tilting train running between Zagreb and Rijeka and commuter trains operating between the town and Zagreb; the city administration has called for a traffic study in 2007 by Ivan Dadić, a Croatian traffic expert, to solve the transport problems riddling Jastrebarsko's roads. Preliminary opinion by Dadić called for construction of four additional interchanges on the Zagreb–Karlovac stretch that would stop Jastrebarsko from being the bottleneck exit for all commuters living on the A1 corridor; the climate of Jastrebarsko is classified as maritime temperate with a drier winter. The city experiences four separate seasons. Winters are mild and summers are cool and the dry season spans through the winter and early spring; the average January low is around −6 °C, while the July high tends to be near 22 °C. The average yearly temperature is 10 °C.
Record temperatures have been encountered in July 1983 (35.5 °C or
Metlika is a town and municipality in the southeastern Slovenia. It lies on the left bank of the Kolpa River on the border with Croatia; the municipality is at the heart of the area of White Carniola, the southeastern part of the traditional region of Lower Carniola. It is now included in the Southeast Slovenia Statistical Region. Metlika was first mentioned in written sources in 1228 as Metlica; the name is derived from the Slovene common noun metlika'goosefoot', thus referring to the local flora. In the past the German name was Möttling. Archaeological evidence has shown. From about 1205 it was incorporated into the Imperial March of Carniola and was granted town privileges in 1335, it was attacked during Ottoman raids in the 15th and 16th centuries. In the 17th century it was afflicted by an earthquake and in 1705 the entire town burned to the ground in a massive fire. Metlika Castle is an 15th-century castle located above the old part of the town, it was rebuilt in the early 18th century after the town fire and again after it was damaged for a second time by fire in 1790.
The castle has been transformed into a local museum. The museum includes the Kambič Gallery, with paintings by Slovene artists; the parish church in the town is dedicated to Saint Nicholas and belongs to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Novo Mesto. It was built on the site of a 14th-century building after the fire of 1705 in the Baroque style. Bishop Frederic Baraga worked here as a chaplain for several years before he left for the US and Canada. Other churches in the town are dedicated to Saint Martin built in the 18th century and Saint Roch, built in 1858. There is a Greek Catholic church, one of only two churches of this rite in Slovenia, it is dedicated to Saints Cyril and Methodius. Media related to Metlika at Wikimedia Commons Metlika municipality site Metlika on Geopedia
Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic-speaking peoples. Its main impact occurred in the Balkans, where non-Slavic empires had ruled the South Slavs for centuries; these were the Byzantine Empire, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Venice. Extensive pan-Slavism began much like Pan-Germanism, both of which grew from the sense of unity and nationalism experienced within ethnic groups after the French Revolution and the consequent Napoleonic Wars against European monarchies. Like other Romantic nationalist movements, Slavic intellectuals and scholars in the developing fields of history and folklore encouraged the passion of their shared identity and ancestry. Pan-Slavism co-existed with the Southern Slavic independence. Used symbols of the Pan-Slavic movement were the Pan-Slavic colours and the Pan-Slavic anthem, Slavs; the first pan-Slavists were the 16th-century Croatian writer Vinko Pribojević and the 17th-century Aleksandar Komulović, Bartol Kašić, Ivan Gundulić and Croatian Catholic missionary Juraj Križanić.
Some of the earliest manifestations of Pan-Slavic thought within the Habsburg Monarchy have been attributed to Adam Franz Kollár and Pavel Jozef Šafárik. The movement began following the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. In the aftermath, the leaders of Europe sought to restore the pre-war status quo. At the Congress of Vienna, Austria's representative, Prince von Metternich, felt the threat to this status quo in Austria was the nationalists demanding independence from the empire. While their subjects were composed of numerous ethnic groups, most of the subjects were Slavs; the First Pan-Slav congress was held in Prague, Bohemia in June, 1848, during the revolutionary movement of 1848. The Czechs had refused to send representatives to the Frankfurt Assembly feeling that Slavs had a distinct interest from the Germans; the Austroslav, František Palacký, presided over the event. Most of the delegates were Slovak. Palacký called for the co-operation of the Habsburgs and had endorsed the Habsburg monarchy as the political formation most to protect the peoples of central Europe.
When the Germans asked him to declare himself in favour of their desire for national unity, he replied that he would not as this would weaken the Habsburg state: “Truly, if it were not that Austria had long existed, it would be necessary, in the interest of Europe, in the interest of humanity itself, to create it.” The Pan-Slav congress met during the revolutionary turmoil of 1848. Young inhabitants of Prague had taken to the streets and in the confrontation, a stray bullet had killed the wife of Field Marshal Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz, the commander of the Austrian forces in Prague. Enraged, Windischgrätz seized the city, disbanded the congress, established martial law throughout Bohemia; the first Pan-Slavic convention was held in Prague on June 2 through 16, 1848. The delegates at the Congress were both anti-Austrian and anti-Russian. Still "the Right"—the moderately liberal wing of the Congress—under the leadership of František Palacký, a Czech historian and politician, Pavol Jozef Šafárik, a Slovak philologist and archaeologist, favored autonomy of the Slav lands within the framework of Austrian monarchy.
In contrast "the Left"—the radical wing of the Congress—under the leadership of Karel Sabina, a Czech writer and journalist, Josef Václav Frič, a Czech nationalist, Karol Libelt, a Polish writer and politician, others, pressed for a close alliance with the revolutionary-democratic movement going on in Germany and Hungary in 1848. A national rebirth in the Hungarian "Upper Land" awoken in a new light, both before the Slovak Uprising in 1848 and after; the driving force of this rebirth movement were Slovak writers and politicians who called themselves Štúrovci, the followers of Ľudovít Štúr. As the Slovak nobility was Magyarized and most of Slovaks were farmers or priests, this movement failed to attract much attention. Nonetheless, the campaign was successful as a brotherly cooperation between the Croats and the Slovaks brought its fruit throughout the war. Most of the battles between Slovaks and Hungarians however, did not turn out in favor for the Slovaks who were logistically supported by the Austrians, but not sufficiently.
The shortage of manpower proved to be decisive as well. During the war, the Slovak National Council brought its demands to the young Austrian emperor, Franz Joseph I, who seemed to take a note of it and promised support for the Slovaks against the revolutionary radical Hungarians; however the moment the revolution was over, Slovak demands were forgotten. These demands included an autonomous land within the Austrian Empire called "Slovenský kraj" which would be led by a Serbian prince; this act of ignorance from the Emperor convinced the Slovak and the Czech elite who proclaimed the concept of Austroslavism as dead. Disgusted by the Emperor's policy, in the year of 1849, Ľudovít Štúr, the person who codified the first official Slovak language, wrote a book he would name Slavdom and the World of the Future; this book served him as a manifesto. He wrote a sentence that serves as a quote until this day: "Every nation has its time under God's sun, the linden is blossoming, while the oak bloomed long ago."He expressed confidence in the Russian Empire however, as it was the only country of Slavs that
Fran Krsto Frankopan
Fran Krsto Frankopan was a Croatian baroque poet and politician in the 17th century. He is remembered for his involvement in the failed Zrinski-Frankopan conspiracy, he was a member of the Frankopan noble family and its last male descendant. Born in Bosiljevo, twenty years younger than his brothers, Fran Krsto Frankopan was an authentic poet in his own right. Following the death of his father, Vuk Krsto Frankopan, he was sent to be schooled in Zagreb, where he enrolled at the Jesuit academy, he lived at today's Habdelić street before continuing his education in Italy. He underwent various poetic influences, none of, able to deafen his own inspiration. In such a vein was written his The Garden in which to Cheat Time, a personal account of the poet's experiences while in prison. Living in an area bordering on several Croatian dialects, Frankopan wrote his poetry in the Kajkavian-ikavian dialect of the Croatian language. In prison, Frankopan translated Molière's Georges Dandin, the first translation not only in Croatian, but in any language of this work of Molière's.
Along with Petar Zrinski, his brother Nikola, Fran Krsto Frankopan and his sister Katarina, contributed to 17th century Croatian poetry and literature. It is certain that Zrinski and Frankopan were not behind the other European courts in the literary field. Marquis Fran Krsto Frankopan and his brother-in-law Ban Petar Zrinski were both outstanding statesmen and writers, are among the most beloved figures in the history of Croatia, they had a great successes in liberating the areas occupied by the Ottoman Turks. However, the Viennese Military council, instead of supporting them to free the rest of the Hungarian and Croatian lands, signed a shameful peace treaty with the Ottomans, by which the liberated territories had to be given back to them, causing Frankopan and Zrinski to rebel against the king, Leopold I; the result of the rebellion against Vienna was a cruel public decapitation of Zrinski and Frankopan in Wiener Neustadt near Vienna in 1671. Fran Krsto Frankopan wrote a sensitive letter to his wife.
"My dear Julia, I would lie with all my soul to leave behind a last commemoration of my deepest love, but I am naked and miserable". The deaths of Zrinski and Frankopan fell hard on Croatia. Zrinski and Frankopan did not try to answer the court in Vienna on the terms in which Vienna dealt with them, but rather wished to counteract its injustices with what was a quite justifiable diplomacy. Vienna had seen the whole danger of such an undertaking whose cause was rooted in the dissatisfaction among Hungarians and Croats occasioned by the unfavorable Peace of Vasvár; the remains of Fran Krsto Frankopan and Petar Zrinski were buried in the Cathedral of Zagreb in 1919. The portraits of Frankopan and Zrinski are depicted on the obverse of the Croatian 5 kuna banknote, issued in 1993 and 2001, his poems are still popular and are written in a unique Croatian dialect Zrinski-Frankopan conspiracy MT Frankopan Poems, in Croatian
John Gavin Malkovich is an American actor and fashion designer. He received Academy Award nominations for his roles in Places In the Line of Fire, he has appeared in more than 70 films, including Empire of the Sun, The Killing Fields, Johnny English, Con Air, Of Mice and Men, Ripley's Game, Being John Malkovich, Shadow of the Vampire, Burn After Reading, Mulholland Falls, Dangerous Liaisons, Warm Bodies, Bird Box, as well as producing films such as Ghost World and The Perks of Being a Wallflower. Malkovich was born in Illinois, his mother was of French, German and English ancestry. He grew up in Illinois, his father, Daniel Leon Malkovich, was a state conservation director and publisher of Outdoor Illinois, a conservation magazine. His mother, Joe Anne, owned the Benton Evening News, as well as Outdoor Illinois. Malkovich has an older brother, his paternal grandparents were from Ozalj in Croatia, according to his mother they were of Montenegrin ancestry. Malkovich attended Logan Grade School, Webster Junior High School, Benton Consolidated High School.
During his high school years, he appeared in the musical Carousel. He was active in a folk gospel group, singing in area churches and community events; as a member of a local summer theater/comedy project, he co-starred in Jean-Claude van Itallie's America Hurrah in 1972. Upon graduating from high school, he entered Eastern Illinois University, transferred to Illinois State University, where he majored in theater. In 1976, along with Joan Allen, Gary Sinise, Glenne Headly, became a charter member of the Steppenwolf Theatre Company in Chicago, he moved to New York City in 1980 to appear in a Steppenwolf production of the Sam Shepard play True West for which he won an Obie Award. In early 1982, he appeared in A Streetcar Named Desire with Chicago's Wisdom Bridge Theatre. Malkovich directed a Steppenwolf co-production, the 1984 revival of Lanford Wilson's Balm in Gilead, for which he received a second Obie Award and a Drama Desk Award, his Broadway debut that year was as Biff in Death of a Salesman alongside Dustin Hoffman as Willy.
Malkovich won an Emmy Award for this role when the play was adapted for television by CBS in 1985. One of his first film roles was as an extra alongside Allen, Terry Kinney, George Wendt and Laurie Metcalf in Robert Altman's 1978 film A Wedding, he made his feature film debut in 1984 as Sally Field's blind boarder Mr. Will in Places in the Heart. For his portrayal of Mr. Will, Malkovich received his first Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor, he portrayed Al Rockoff in The Killing Fields. He continued to have steady work in films such as Empire of the Sun, directed by Steven Spielberg, the 1987 film adaptation of Tennessee Williams's The Glass Menagerie with Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward, he starred in Making Mr. Right. In 1990, he played Port Moresby in The Sheltering Sky, directed by Bernardo Bertolucci. In 1991, he was directed by Woody Allen in Shadows and Fog, he garnered significant critical and popular acclaim when he portrayed the sinister and sensual Valmont in the 1988 film Dangerous Liaisons, a film adaptation of the stage play Les Liaisons Dangereuses by Christopher Hampton, who had adapted it from the 1782 novel of the same title by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos.
He reprised this role for the music video of "Walking on Broken Glass" by Annie Lennox. In 1990, he recited, in Croatian, verses of the Croatian national anthem Lijepa naša domovino in Nenad Bach's song "Can We Go Higher?"Malkovich starred in the 1992 film adaptation of John Steinbeck's award-winning novella Of Mice and Men as Lennie alongside Gary Sinise as George. In 1994, he was nominated in the same category, for In the Line of Fire. Though he played the title role in the Charlie Kaufman-penned Being John Malkovich, he played a slight variation of himself, as indicated by the character's middle name of "Horatio". In 1996, Malkovich was directed for the second time by Stephen Frears in Mary Reilly, a new adaptation of the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde tale, co-starring Julia Roberts Malkovich appeared in Joan of Arc, directed by Luc Besson in 1999, playing the French king-to-be Charles VII, he made a cameo appearance in Adaptation. — written by Kaufman — appearing as himself during the filming of Being John Malkovich.
The Dancer Upstairs, Malkovich's directorial film debut, was released in 2002. In the same year he played Patricia Highsmith's anti-hero Tom Ripley in Ripley's Game, the second film adaptation of Highsmith's 1974 novel, the first being Wim Wenders' The American Friend starring Dennis Hopper as Ripley.. Other film roles include The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, Eragon, The Man in the Iron Mask, Transformers: Dark of the Moon, Secretariat, RED and RED 2. In 2007, he played Alan Conway in Colour. Malkovich has hosted three episodes of the NBC sketch show Saturday Night Live; the first occasion was in January 1989 with musical guest Anita Baker. I. with Swizz Beatz. In 1993 he was the narrator for the film Alive. In June 2018, Malkovich began filming a three-part adaptation of Agatha Christie's The A. B. C. Murders co-starring Rupert Grint for BBC television, playing the role of fictional Belgian detective Hercule Poirot, it was announced in 2019 that David Mamet w
Ozalj Castle is a castle in the town of Ozalj, Croatia. The Ozalj fortress, located on the stone cliff perched above the Kupa River, is one of the best-known fortifications of this type in Croatia, it is a old stronghold, converted into a castle. The popularity of this castle is because this was the joint castle of the Croatian noble families of Frankopan and Zrinski. In fact, it was the scene of the unlucky Zrinski–Frankopan conspiracy, which marked the history of Croatia. In the castle there is a museum and a library, it is in a good state of repair. Media related to Ozalj Castle at Wikimedia Commons Frankopan Zrinski Zrinski–Frankopan conspiracy
Zrinski was a Croatian-Hungarian noble family, influential during the period in history marked by the Ottoman wars in Europe in the Kingdom of Hungary and Croatia and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Notable members of this family were Bans of Croatia, considered national heroes in both Croatia and Hungary, were celebrated during the period of romanticism; the Zrinski, meaning "those of Zrin", are a branch of the Šubić family, which arose when king Louis I of Hungary needed some of the Šubićs' fortresses for his coming wars against Venice, the city of Zadar in particular. In 1347, Louis I took their estates around Bribir in the Hrvatsko Primorje hinterlands and gave them the Zrin estate with Zrin Castle in the Croatian region of Banovina, south of the modern city of Petrinja and west of Hrvatska Kostajnica. Since that time they are known as the "Counts of Zrin" in historical sources, their power increased, so that they acquired the territory between the rivers Krka and Zrmanja and the sea by the 13th century.
At the outset of the 14th century, Paul I Šubić of Bribir was the longest-ruling Ban of Croatia, as well as lord of all of Bosnia. His son was Paul II Šubić of Bribir. Paul I's grandson was the first Zrinski, Juraj III. Šubić of Bribir, who took the title Juraj I. Zrinski, his cousin, countess Jelena Šubić, was at the same time married to Vladislav Kotromanić. Their first-born child, Tvrtko I, became the Ban from 1377 the King of Bosnia, their niece and adopted daughter, Elizabeta Kotromanić, married Louis I the Great. Elizabeth's and Louis' daughters succeeded their father and became queens in their own right, as Mary of Hungary and Jadwiga of Poland; the Zrinskis were Croats and played a crucial role in the history of the Croatian state, both before their arrival in Zrin and later. On the other hand, they are identified as hungarus or natio hungarica, which means "somebody from the Kingdom of Hungary", regardless of the language spoken and nationality, they were among many noble families in the Kingdom of Hungary.
In the 16th century, Ban Nikola Šubić Zrinski gained dominion over Međimurje County in the northernmost part of Croatia with its capital Čakovec. Because they lived and intermarried with nobility from all parts of the multiethnic kingdom, it was natural and expected that they should be fluent in four or five languages, it is certain, that Nikola Zrinski spoke at least Croatian, Italian, Turkish and of course Latin. It is of interest that he was the most prominent Hungarian poet in the 17th century, while his brother Peter is known for his poems in Croatian language. Among the many notable personalities of the family, there were a few women. Katarina Zrinska, a noted poet, was born in the Frankopan family, having married Petar Zrinski, became the member of the Zrinski family, her daughter, Jelena Zrinska, was the wife of the prince of Transylvania. The Zrinski and the Frankopan families were the two most prominent noble families in Croatia in 16th and 17th century and they both perished in 1671 when Petar Zrinski and Fran Krsto Frankopan were charged with treason by the Emperor Leopold I, owing it to their role in the so-called Zrinski-Frankopan Plot, executed in Wiener Neustadt.
The estates of Zrinski and Frankopan families were confiscated and their surviving members relocated. The remains of Petar Zrinski and Fran Krsto Frankopan were transferred from Austria to Croatia in 1919 and buried in the Zagreb Cathedral; the last male Zrinski descendants were Adam Zrinski, son of Nikola Zrinski, a Habsburg Monarchy army lieutenant-colonel. He inherited from his father the large and valuable "Bibliotheca Zriniana". Died in the Battle of Slankamen in 1691, accidentally shot in his back by one of his fellow soldiers. Ivan Antun Zrinski, son of Petar Zrinski and Katarina Zrinska, was Habsburg army officer, accused of high treason and died after years in dungeons. Although was considered that the family became extinct, it still remains a matter of debate. According to oral tradition, there was a Zrinski member, Martin Zrinski, hidden by the Habsburgs in a Venetian army as an officer of a cavalry in the 16th century and the Venetian Republic sent him as Martino Zdrin to island of Cephalonia in Greece where he settled, the family was recorded in the gold book of island's nobility as Sdrin, Sdrinia and Zrin.
The family Sdrinias, with the same coat of arms, still exists in Greece and was accepted in the Croatian Nobility Association with the highest noble status. The survival is supported by seven letters and photographs from Greece signed by Contessa & Conte K. Sdrin and Conte Gerasimo N. Sdrini, on behind Suvenire S. N. Sdriny Marsullela 7/20/6 1913. Madame Evangelini Tsimara Mavrata Ceffalonia; the family produced four Bans of Croatia: Nikola Šubić Zrinski, ban from 1542 unil 1556 Juraj V Zrinski, ban from 1622 until 1626 Nikola VII Zrinski, ban from 1647 until 1664 Petar Zrinski, ban from 1665 until 1670 Ivan Zajc, opera Nikola Šubić Zrinski Eugen Kumičić: Urota zrinsko-frankopanska Zrinski family was topic in the paintings of Oton Iveković. Nikola Zrinski pred Sigetom Oproštaj Zrinskog i Frankopana od Katarine Zrinske Juriš Nikole Zrinskog iz Sigeta Miklós Barabás: Miklós Zrinyi Viktor Madarász: Miklós Zrinyi in the Citadel in Budapest