Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Poverty is a multifaceted concept, which may include social and political elements. Absolute poverty, extreme poverty, or destitution refers to the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs such as food and shelter; the threshold at which absolute poverty is defined is considered to be about the same, independent of the person's permanent location or era. On the other hand, relative poverty occurs when a person who lives in a given country does not enjoy a certain minimum level of "living standards" as compared to the rest of the population of that country. Therefore, the threshold at which relative poverty is defined varies from country to another, or from one society to another. Providing basic needs can be restricted by constraints on government's ability to deliver services, such as corruption, tax avoidance and loan conditionalities and by the brain drain of health care and educational professionals.
Strategies of increasing income to make basic needs more affordable include welfare, economic freedoms and providing financial services. Poverty reduction is still a major issue for many international organizations such as the United Nations, the World Bank, United States Agency for International Development, Oxfam, CARE, World Vision International, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Red Cross among a plethora of others. In 2012 it was estimated that, using a poverty line of $1.25 a day, 1.2 billion people lived in poverty. Given the current economic model, built on GDP, it would take 100 years to bring the world's poorest up to the poverty line of $1.25 a day. UNICEF estimates; the World Bank forecasted in 2015 that 702.1 million people were living in extreme poverty, down from 1.75 billion in 1990. Extreme poverty is observed in all parts including developed economies. Of the 2015 population, about 347.1 million people lived in Sub-Saharan Africa and 231.3 million lived in South Asia.
According to the World Bank, between 1990 and 2015, the percentage of the world's population living in extreme poverty fell from 37.1% to 9.6%, falling below 10% for the first time. The People's Republic of China accounts for over three quarters of global poverty reduction from 1990 to 2005. Though, as noted, China accounted for nearly half of all extreme poverty in 1990. In public opinion around the world people surveyed tend to incorrectly think extreme poverty hasn't decreased. During the 2013 to 2015 period The World Bank reported that extreme poverty fell from 11% to 10%, however they noted that the rate of decline had slowed by nearly half from the 25 year average with parts of sub-saharan Africa returning to early 2000 levels; the World Bank attributed this to increasing violence following the Arab Spring, population increases in Sub-Saharan Africa, general African inflationary pressures and economic malaise were the primary drivers for this slow down. There is disagreement among experts as to what would be considered a realistic poverty rate with one considering it "an inaccurately measured and arbitrary cut off".
Some contend that a higher poverty line is needed, such as a minimum of $7.40 or $10 to $15 a day. They argue that these levels would better reflect the cost of basic needs and normal life expectancy. One estimate places the true scale of poverty much higher than the World Bank, with an estimated 4.3 billion people living with less than $5 a day and unable to meet basic needs adequately. It has been argued by some academics that the neoliberal policies promoted by global financial institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank are exacerbating both inequality and poverty. Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money; the word poverty comes from Latin paupertās from pauper. There are several definitions of poverty depending on the context of the situation it is placed in, the views of the person giving the definition. Income Poverty: a family's income fails to meet a federally established threshold that differs across countries. United Nations: Fundamentally, poverty is the inability of having choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity.
It means lack of basic capacity to participate in society. It means not having enough to feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow one's food or a job to earn one's living, not having access to credit, it means insecurity and exclusion of individuals and communities. It means susceptibility to violence, it implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation. World Bank: Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, comprises many dimensions, it includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. Poverty encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one's life. Poverty is measured as either absolute or relative. In the United Kingdom, the second Cameron ministry came under attack for their redefinition of poverty.
Considering that two-thirds of people who found work were accepting wages that are below the living wage t
Mequon is a city in Ozaukee County, United States. The population was 23,132 at the 2010 census; the area was inhabited by Native Americans. European trappers and traders used the Milwaukee River through the middle of what is now Mequon as a means of transportation; the name "Mequon" is thought to have come from a Native-American word "Emikwaan" or "Miguan," meaning ladle, referring to the shape of the river in the area. The spelling was influenced by the French in the area at the time. Alternatively, the name may come from an Algonquin word meaning "feather", as suggested by the current Menominee name of the town, Mēkon. In 1833, poverty forced the Potawotami to sell this land along with all their other land holdings in southeastern Wisconsin, they had hoped that allying themselves with the United States in the Black Hawk War would help them maintain their land, but these hopes proved futile. Following the treaty, the Potawotami were illegally forced out of the territory before the eight year grace period guaranteed in the treaty had ended.
The expulsion of the Potawotami opened up the land for white settlement, so between 1834 and 1836, a surveyor named Brink, along with his assistant Mr. Follett, surveyed the land to create the Town of Mequon; the Menominee sold their land in the area in the Treaty of the Cedars in 1836. Around this time, settlers came from New York and England, soon followed by German and Irish immigrants. In 1839, a group of immigrants from Saxony settled near the Milwaukee River. In the same year, twenty families from Pomerania founded Freistadt in the western part of the Town of Mequon; the first Lutheran church in Wisconsin was built by these families in 1840. John Weston served as the first postmaster of the Town of Mequon, having settled in present-day Thiensville in 1837, he sold his holdings to John Henry Thien. Thien, a wealthy immigrant from Saxony, had traveled north from Milwaukee and settled along the Milwaukee River, where his family built a dam and grist mill. Thien hosted the first town meeting for the Town of Mequon in 1846.
The area around his estate, one square mile in the middle of the Town of Mequon, was incorporated as the village of Thiensville in 1910. The Town of Mequon was incorporated as a city in 1957. Mequon is located at 43°13′27″N 87°57′36″W, about 15 miles north of Milwaukee, lying along the western shore of Lake Michigan, it is part of the Milwaukee metropolitan area. Though much of the population lives in residential areas half of the land within the city's boundaries is undeveloped or farmed. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 48.77 square miles, of which, 46.28 square miles is land and 2.49 square miles is water. As of 2005, Mequon was the third-largest city in terms of land area in the state of Wisconsin. Freistadt is a neighborhood of the city of Mequon; the community's name means "free city" in German. In the Town of Mequon, the area was added to the City of Mequon through annexation. In early October 1839 20 families settled here to found the colony of Freistadt.
Prompted by religious persecution in their homeland of Pomerania, the group sought and found a religious haven in Wisconsin. The community was home to the first Lutheran church in Wisconsin. In 1845, the synod known as the Lutheran Synod of Buffalo, was organized here.. The church in Freistadt became a part of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod in 1848; the first log cabin was located southwest of the present church building. The congregation purchased 40 acres of land and in the spring of 1840 built the first Lutheran church in the state of Wisconsin; the log building, 30 by 20 feet, was used as a school. The first pastor of the congregation was L. F. E. Krause; the Lutheran Buffalo Synod was organized at Trinity in June 1845. Since 1848, the congregation has been a member of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod. Mequon experiences four distinct seasons, with variation in precipitation and temperature being wide; the overall climate of the city is moderated by nearby Lake Michigan, which causes temperatures to be cooler in summer and spring, which keeps overnight temperatures warmer in winter.
In March and April, the temperature in Mequon can be 10 to 15 degrees Fahrenheit cooler than temperatures in towns just 15 miles further from the lake. In December and January, the effect is reversed, with temperatures in inland towns falling much lower. In Mequon, the warmest month of the year is July, when the high temperature averages 81 °F, with low temperatures of 59 °F. June and July are the wettest months of the year, with the majority of rain falling in short-lived thunderstorms. January is the coldest month in Mequon, with average high temperatures averaging only 27 °F, lows averaging 11 °F. February is the driest month, with all precipitation falling in the form of snow. In an average winter, 47.0 in of snow falls. The city's proximity to Lake Michigan increases the snow received by the city. Most of the city's snowfall comes from systems such as Panhandle hooks; the highest temperature recorded in Mequon was 105 °F on July 24, 1935, again on July 17, 1995. The coldest temperature recorded in the city was -40 °F, on January 17, 1982
Muskegon County, Michigan
Muskegon County is a county in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of 2014, the population was 172,344; the county seat is Muskegon. Muskegon County comprises the Muskegon, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area, part of the larger Grand Rapids-Wyoming-Muskegon, MI Combined Statistical Area; the White River flows through the county to its mouth at Lake Michigan. Around 1812, Jean Baptiste Recollect and Pierre Constant set up trading posts in the area. By the Treaty of Washington, Native Americans ceded parts of Michigan, including future Muskegon County, to the United States; this opened up the area to greater settlement by European Americans. Muskegon County was organized in 1859, its name is from the Muskegon River, which runs through it and empties into Muskegon Lake and subsequently flows into Lake Michigan. The word "Muskegon" comes from the Ojibwa/Chippewa word mashkig, meaning "marsh" or "swamp". See List of Michigan county name etymologies. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,460 square miles, of which 499 square miles is land and 961 square miles is water.
White Lake White River Muskegon Lake Muskegon River Mona Lake Little Black Lake Wolf Lake Fox Lake Big Blue Lake Bear Lake Duck Lake Manistee National Forest Oceana County, Michigan - north Newaygo County, Michigan - northeast Kent County, Michigan - east Ottawa County, Michigan - east Ottawa County, Michigan - south Milwaukee County, Wisconsin - southwest Ozaukee County, Wisconsin - west As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 172,188 people residing in the county. 77.4% were non-Hispanic White, 14.6% Black or African American, 0.6% Asian, 0.9% Native American, 2.5% of two or more races. 4.8 % were Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 170,200 people, 63,330 households, 44,267 families residing in the county; the population density was 334 people per square mile. There were 68,556 housing units at an average density of 135 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 81.25% White, 14.20% Black or African American, 0.82% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.28% from other races, 2.01% from two or more races.
3.53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17.2% were of German, 9.8% Dutch, 7.3% American, 7.2% English, 6.8% Irish and 5.5% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.9 % spoke 2.6 % Spanish as their first language. There were 63,330 households, of which 34.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.60% were married couples living together, 13.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.10% were non-families. 25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.10. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.50% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.40 males. The county's median household income was $38,008, the median family income was $45,710.
Males had a median income of $35,952 versus $25,430 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,967. About 8.80% of families and 11.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.00% of those under age 18 and 8.20% of those age 65 or over. The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, keeps files of deeds and mortgages, maintains vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of welfare and other social services; the county board of commissioners controls the budget but has only limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Prosecuting Attorney: D. J. Hilson Sheriff: Michael J. Poulin County Clerk: Nancy A. Waters County Treasurer: Tony Moulatsiotis Register of Deeds: Mark F. Fairchild Drain Commissioner: Brenda M Moore County Surveyor: Stephen Vallier The Michigan Department of Corrections operates the Muskegon Correctional Facility in southeastern Muskegon.
The prison first opened in 1974. Public School Districts in Muskegon County: Fruitport Community Schools Holton Public Schools Mona Shores Public Schools Montague Area Public Schools Muskegon Public Schools Muskegon Heights Public Schools North Muskegon Public Schools Orchard View Schools Oakridge Public Schools Ravenna Public Schools Reeths-Puffer School District White Lake Area Community Ed. Whitehall District SchoolsPrivate School Districts in Muskegon County: Broadway Baptist School Fruitport Calvary Christian Muskegon Catholic Central West Michigan ChristianColleges and Universities: Baker College Muskegon Community College Ross Medical Education Center - Muskegon There are twenty-three recognized historical markers in the county: They are: Bluffton Actors' Colony / Buster Keaton Central United Methodist Church Evergreen Cemetery Fruitland District No.6 School Hackley House Hackley Public Library Hackley-Holt House Hume House Jean Baptiste Recollect Trading Post Lakeside Lebanon Lutheran Church Lumbering on White Lake / Staples & Covell Mill Marsh Field Mouth Cemetery Muskegon Business College Muskegon Log Booming Company Muskegon Woman's Club Old Indian Cemetery Pinchtown Ruth Thompson Torrent House Union Depot White Lake Yacht Club Montague Muskegon Heights Muskegon North Muskegon
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Wisconsin Highway 60
State Trunk Highway 60 called Highway 60, STH 60 or WIS 60, is a state highway in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. It runs east–west in southern Wisconsin from the village of Grafton near Lake Michigan, to Prairie du Chien on the Mississippi River at the Iowa state line
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States. The seat of the eponymous county, it is on Lake Michigan's western shore. Ranked by its estimated 2014 population, Milwaukee was the 31st largest city in the United States; the city's estimated population in 2017 was 595,351. Milwaukee is the main cultural and economic center of the Milwaukee metropolitan area which had a population of 2,043,904 in the 2014 census estimate, it is the second-most densely populated metropolitan area in the Midwest, surpassed only by Chicago. Milwaukee is considered a Gamma global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network with a regional GDP of over $105 billion; the first Europeans to pass through the area were French Catholic Jesuit missionaries, who were ministering to Native Americans, fur traders. In 1818, the French Canadian explorer Solomon Juneau settled in the area, in 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring towns to incorporate as the city of Milwaukee.
Large numbers of German immigrants arrived during the late 1840s, after the German revolutions, with Poles and other eastern European immigrants arriving in the following decades. Milwaukee is known for its brewing traditions, begun with the German immigrants. Beginning in the early 21st century, the city has been undergoing its largest construction boom since the 1960s. Major new additions to the city in the past two decades include the Milwaukee Riverwalk, the Wisconsin Center, Miller Park, the Milwaukee Streetcar, an expansion to the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Pier Wisconsin, as well as major renovations to the UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena; the Fiserv Forum opened in late 2018. The name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word millioke, meaning "good", "beautiful" and "pleasant land" or "gathering place "; the name has a less pleasant connotation in the Menominee language, where it is called Māēnāēwah, "some misfortune happens". Indigenous cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years.
The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the historic Menominee, Mascouten, Sauk and Ojibwe. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact. In the second half of the 18th century, the Native Americans living near Milwaukee played a role in all the major European wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far Michigan" joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela. In the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans around Milwaukee were some of the few groups to ally with the rebel Continentals. After the Revolutionary War, the Native Americans fought the United States in the Northwest Indian War as part of the Council of Three Fires. During the War of 1812, they held a council in Milwaukee in June 1812, which resulted in their decision to attack Chicago in retaliation against American expansion.
This resulted in the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the only known armed conflict in the Chicago area. This battle convinced the American government that the Native Americans had to be removed from their land. After being attacked in the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Native Americans in Milwaukee signed the Treaty of Chicago with the United States in 1833. In exchange for their ceding their lands in the area, they were to receive monetary payments and lands west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. Europeans had arrived in the Milwaukee area prior to the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 18th centuries. Alexis Laframboise, in 1785, coming from Michilimackinac settled a trading post. Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Mahn-a-waukie and Milwaucki, in efforts to transliterate the native terms. For many years, printed records gave the name as "Milwaukie". One story of Milwaukee's name says, ne day during the thirties of the last century a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, Milwaukee it has remained until this day.
The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted. Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau was the first of the three to come to the area, in 1818, he founded. In competition with Juneau, Byron Kilbourn established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River, he ensured. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or the river's east side was uninhabited and thus undesirable; the third prominent developer was George H. Walker, he claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area became known as Walker's Point; the first large wave of settlement to the areas that would become Milwaukee County and the City of Milwaukee began in 1835, following removal of the tribes in the Co