Père Lachaise Cemetery is the largest cemetery in Paris, France. With more than 3.5 million visitors annually, it is the most visited necropolis in the world. The Père Lachaise is located in the 20th arrondissement and was the first garden cemetery, as well as the first municipal cemetery in Paris, it is the site of three World War I memorials. The cemetery is located on the Boulevard de Ménilmontant; the Paris Métro station Philippe Auguste on Line 2 is next to the main entrance, while the station Père Lachaise, on both Line 2 and Line 3, is 500 meters away near a side entrance. The cemetery of Père Lachaise opened in 1804 and takes its name from the confessor to Louis XIV, Père François de la Chaise, who lived in the Jesuit house rebuilt during 1682 on the site of the chapel; the property, situated on the hillside from which the king watched skirmishing between the armies of the Condé and Turenne during the Fronde, was bought by the city in 1804. Established as a cemetery by Napoleon during this year, plans were laid out by Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart.
Napoleon, proclaimed Emperor by the Senate three days earlier, had declared during the Consulate that "Every citizen has the right to be buried regardless of race or religion”. After the closing of the Holy Innocents’ Cemetery on December 1, 1780 and as the city graveyards of Paris filled, several new, large cemeteries, outside the precincts of the capital, replaced them: Montmartre Cemetery in the north, Père Lachaise in the east, Montparnasse Cemetery in the south. Near the middle of the city is Passy Cemetery; the French officials approved the transformation of 17 hectares of Mont-Louis into the Cemetery of the East in 1803 and the work was given to neoclassical architect Alexandre-Theodore Brongniart. He would use English-style gardens as inspiration, designing the cemetery with uneven paths adorned with diverse trees and plants and lined with carved graves, he anticipated various funerary monuments but only one was built: the grave of the Greffulhe family, in a refined neo-Gothic style.
At the time of its opening, the cemetery was considered to be situated too far from the city and attracted few funerals. Moreover, many Roman Catholics refused to have their graves in a place that had not been blessed by the Church. In 1804, the Père Lachaise contained only 13 graves; the administrators devised a marketing strategy to improve the cemetery's stature: in 1804, with great fanfare, they organized the transfer of the remains of Jean de La Fontaine and Molière to the new resting place. The next year there were 44 burials, with 49 during 1806, 62 during 1807 and 833 during 1812. In another great spectacle of 1817, the purported remains of Pierre Abélard and Héloïse d'Argenteuil were transferred to the cemetery along with their monument's canopy made from fragments of the abbey of Nogent-sur-Seine. By tradition, lovers or lovelorn singles leave letters at the crypt in tribute to the couple or in hope of finding true love; this strategy achieved its desired effect: people began clamoring to be buried among the famous citizens.
Records show that the Père Lachaise contained more than 33,000 graves in 1830. Père Lachaise was expanded five times: in 1824, 1829, 1832, 1842 and 1850. Presently there are more than 1 million bodies buried there, many more in the columbarium, which holds the remains of those who had requested cremation; the Communards' Wall, located within the cemetery, was the site where 147 Communards, the last defenders of the workers' district of Belleville, were shot on May 28, 1871 when Paris refused to capitulate to the Prussians in the brief Franco-Prussian War. That day was the last of the "Bloody Week". Today, the site is a traditional rallying point for members of the French political Left. Adolphe Thiers, the French president who directed "Bloody Week," is interred in the cemetery, where his tomb has been subject to vandalism. A funerary chapel was erected in 1823 by Étienne-Hippolyte Godde at the exact place of the ancient Jesuit house; this same Neoclassical architect created the monumental entrance a few years later.
A columbarium and a crematorium of a Byzantine Revival architecture were designed in 1894 by Jean-Camille Formigé. The roof consists of three small domes and two chimneys. In the 1920s, the main dome was decorated with stained glass windows by Carl Maumejean; the final columbarium is composed of four levels: two in the basement and two exterior levels, both can contain more than 40,800 cases. The crematorium was the first built in France; the first cremation took place on January 30, 1889, a little over a year after the law of November 15, 1887 proclaimed freedom of funerals and thus authorized cremations. Nonetheless, cremation remained uncommon until the end of the 20th century. With the work of anticlerical and free-thinkers, the use of cremation became more popular after overturn of the ban by the Catholic Church in 1963. From 49 cremations in 1889, there were about 5,000 cremations at the beginning of the 21st century. In 2012, cremation represents 45% of funerals in Paris. Inside the columbarium rest the remains of numerous celebrities including the director Max Ophuls and the comedian Pierre Dac.
The box inscribed with Maria Callas’ name is only a cenotaph. An 1804 law put in place by Napoleon addressed the question of cemetery organization relating to religious beliefs, it was required that an entire cemetery be built, or at least a section of a large cemetery, should be dedicate
The light heavyweight competition of the boxing events at the 2015 Pan American Games in Toronto, Canada, was held between the 19 and 25 of July at the General Motors Centre. The defending champion is Julio La Cruz of Cuba. Light heavyweights is equal to 81 kilograms. Like all Pan American boxing events, the competition is a straight single-elimination tournament. Both semifinal losers are awarded bronze medals, so no boxers compete again after their first loss. Bouts consist of a 3 rounds "10-point must" scoring system used in the pro game, where the winner of each round must be awarded 10 points and the loser a lesser amount, the elimination of the padded headgear. Five judges scored each bout; the winner will be the boxer who scored the most at the end of the match
S&H Green Stamps were a line of trading stamps popular in the United States from the 1930s until the late 1980s. They were distributed as part of a rewards program operated by the Sperry & Hutchinson company, founded in 1896 by Thomas Sperry and Shelley Byron Hutchinson. During the 1960s, the company promoted its rewards catalog as being the largest publication in the United States and boasted that it issued three times as many stamps as the U. S. Postal Service. Customers would receive stamps at the checkout counter of supermarkets, department stores, gasoline stations among other retailers, which could be redeemed for products in the catalog.. Top Value Stamps, acquired by Tom Ficara in 1990 and now a division of TVS Television Network, S&H are the only two surviving legacy stamp programs. S&H Green Stamps had several competitors, including Greenbax Stamps offered by Piggly Wiggly, Gold Bell Gift Stamps, Triple S Stamps, Gold Bond Stamps, Blue Chip Stamps, Plaid Stamps, Top Value Stamps, Quality Stamps, Gunn Brothers given by Safeway and Eagle Stamps.
Sperry & Hutchinson began offering stamps to U. S. retailers in 1896. The retail organizations that distributed the stamps were supermarkets, gasoline filling stations, stores, they bought the stamps from S&H and gave them as bonuses to shoppers based on the dollar amount of a purchase. The stamps were issued in denominations of one and fifty points, perforated with a gummed reverse; as shoppers accumulated the stamps, they moistened the reverse and mounted them in collector's books, which were provided free by S&H. The books contained 24 pages and filling a page required 50 points, so each book contained 1,200 points. Shoppers could exchange filled books for premiums, including housewares and other items, from the local Green Stamps store or catalog; each premium was assigned a value expressed by the number of filled stamp books required to obtain it. Green Stamps were one of the first retail loyalty programs, by which retailers purchased the stamps from the operating company and gave them away at a rate determined by the merchant.
Some shoppers would choose one merchant over another because they gave out more stamps per dollar spent. The company traded overseas. During the early 1960s, it initiated S&H Pink Stamps in the United Kingdom, having been beaten to their green shield trademark during 1958 by Richard Tompkins's Green Shield Trading Stamp Company; the program had its greatest popularity during the mid-1960s, but a series of recessions during the 1970s decreased sales of green stamps and the stamp programs of their competitors. The value of the rewards declined during the same period, requiring either far more stamps to get a worthwhile item or spending money for an item, discounted from the price at regular stores, creating a general downward spiral as fewer and fewer people saw them as worth the trouble. In 1972, the company was brought before the United States Supreme Court for violating the unfairness doctrine. In FTC v. Sperry & Hutchinson Trading Stamp Co. the court held that restricting the trade of the stamps was illegal.
Sperry and Hutchinson was sold by the founders' successors in 1981. In 1999, it was purchased from a holding firm by a member of the founding Sperry family. At that time, only about 100 U. S. stores were offering Green Stamps. With the rise of the Internet and the World Wide Web, the company modified its practices, offered "greenpoints" as rewards for online purchases; the Greenpoints could be earned and redeemed at only a few stores, such as Foodtown in New York state and New Jersey. Anthony Zolezzi, founder of Pet Promise and Greenopolis Recycling purchased the company in 2013 with plans to relaunch it. Between 1969 and 1971, Sperry & Hutchinson bought four furniture companies, which became part of a Richmond, Virginia-based furniture division in 1974. While S&H bought other furniture companies, the first four became a High Point, North Carolina-based division called S&H Furniture in 1976. In 1981, S&H executives bought the division along with other investors, forming LADD Holding Co. in 1981 and LADD Furniture Inc. in 1983.
The company operated S&H Solutions, a sales training and incentives program developed for its own sales force but run as a separate profit center offering services to other employers. On December 7, 2006, it was announced that S&H Solutions was purchased by San Francisco-based Pay By Touch; the purchase price was in excess of $100 million in stock. Pay By Touch shut its operations in 2008 and sold its assets to other corporations. S&H Greenpoints Official Website