Pécs is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia. It is the economic centre of Baranya County. Pécs is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Pécs; the city Sopianae was founded by Romans at the beginning of the 2nd century, in an area peopled by Celts and Pannoni tribes. By the 4th century, it became the capital of Valeria province and a significant early Christian center; the early Christian necropolis from that era became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in December 2000. Its episcopate was founded in 1009 by Stephen I, the first university in Hungary was founded in Pécs in 1367 by Louis I the Great.. Pécs was formed into one of the cultural and arts center of the country by bishop Janus Pannonius, great humanist poet. Pécs has a rich heritage from the age of a 150-year-long Ottoman occupation, like the mosque of Pasha Qasim the Victorious on Széchenyi square. Pécs was a multi-ethnic city where many cultures intermingled, creating a melting pot of different values, the rich result of 2000 years of history.
In 1998 Pécs was given the UNESCO prize "Cities for Peace" for maintaining its cultural minorities, for its tolerant and helping attitude toward refugees of the Yugoslav Wars. In 2007 Pécs was third, in 2008 it was second "Livable City" in the category of cities between 75,000 and 200,000 inhabitants. In 2010, Pécs was selected to be the European Capital of Culture alongside Istanbul; the city motto is "The Borderless City". After receiving the title major renewal started in the city. Renewed public places, streets and neighbourhoods, new cultural centers, a concert hall, a new library and center and a cultural quarter were designed; the earliest name for the territory was its Roman name of Sopianæ. The name comes from the plural of the Celtic sop meaning "marsh". Contrary to the popular belief, the name did not signify a single city, there are no traces of an encircling wall from the early Roman era, only from the 4th century; the medieval city was first mentioned in 871 under the name Quinque Basilicae The name refers to the fact that when constructing the churches of the city, the builders used material from five old Christian chapels.
In Latin documents the city was mentioned as Quinque Ecclesiae. The name Pécs appears in documents in 1235 in the word Pechyut. In Turkish beş means 5; the name is first recorded after the Mongol invasion of Europe. In other languages: in Latin, Quinque Ecclesiae. Pécs is located in the Carpathian Basin of Central Europe, in the center of the southern Hungarian county of Baranya, it is bordered by the Mecsek hills to the north, by a rolling plain to the south. Pécs has a significant mining past. Mecsek dolomitic water is famous for its high density of minerals at constant poise; the city of Pécs is located near to the border of Croatia. Its southern part is rather flat whereas its northern part clings to the slope of the Mecsek mountains, it has a favorable climate, is bordered by a flourishing woody area. During hot summer nights a cooling air streams down from Mecsek to clean the air of the city. Pécs is bordered by plains to the south, while the Mecsek mountains rise up to elevations of 400–600 meters behind the city.
Jakab-hill, located in the western Mecsek, is 592 m tall, straight above Pécs, is 612 m tall, Misina is 535 m tall. Higher parts of the city climb up to 200–250 m Pécsbánya, Szabolcsfalu and Somogy. Woody areas start from elevations of about 300 m; the Mecsek hills are marked by numerous valleys which play a key role in ameliorating the climate of the city in the absence of lakes and rivers. Waters coming down from the Mecsek hills flow into the Pécsi stream under the east-west rail road leading them to the Danube; the area has been inhabited since ancient times, with the oldest archaeological findings being 6,000 years old. Before the Roman era the place was inhabited by Celts; when Western Hungary was a province of the Roman Empire, the Romans founded several wine-producing colonies under the collective name of Sopianae where Pécs now stands, in the early 2nd century. The centre of Sopianae was; some parts of the Roman aqueduct are still visible. When Pannonia province was divided into four administrative divisions, Sopianae was the capital of the division named Valeria.
In the first half of the 4th century, Sopianae became an important Christian city. The first Christian cemeteries, dating back to this age, are inscribed on the World Heritage List. By the end of the century, Roman rule weakened in the area due to attacks by Barbarians and Huns; when Charlemagne arrived in the area, it was ruled by Avars. Charlemagne, after conquering the area, annexed it to the Holy Roman Empire, it belonged to the Diocese of Salzburg. A document written in Salzburg in 871 is the first document mentioning the early medieval city under the name Quinque Basilicae. During the 9th century, the city was inhabited by Slavic and Avar peoples and was part of the Balaton Principality, a Frankish vassal state. According to György Györffy's theory of
John Taylor was an English oculist, drama critic and newspaper publisher most famous for his posthumous memoir Records of My Life. Taylor was educated by a Dr. Crawford in Hatton Garden before attending a school at Ponders End, Middlesex. Grandson of the King's oculist named John Taylor, the younger Taylor was appointed oculist in his turn, along with his brother, during the reign of George III, he wrote drama criticism for The Morning Post becoming its editor. His last career change was to publishing, when he bought The True Briton, The Sun, a Tory newspaper, in 1813. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Taylor, John". Dictionary of National Biography. 55. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Profile and works of John Taylor, Esq Footnote on John Taylor, Esq. in a paper by Jan Seewald, Theatrical Sculpture, p. 102
A burgee is a distinguishing flag, regardless of its shape, of a recreational boating organization. In most cases, they have the shape of a pennant. Yacht clubs and their members may fly their club's burgee while under way and at anchor, day or night. Sailing vessels may fly the burgee either from the main masthead or from a halyard under the lowermost starboard spreader. Most all powerboats fly the burgee off a short staff at the bow; the officers of a yacht club may fly various burgees appropriate to their rank: for example, the commodore may fly a swallow-tailed version of the club burgee. A past-commodore may be given a distinctively-shaped flag. Broad pennant Civil ensign Courtesy flag Ensign Maritime flag Naval ensign Flags of Yacht Clubs Crystal Lake Yacht Club's Burgee collection