In 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any surface of an object in three dimensions via specialized software. The product is called a 3D model. Someone who works with 3D models may be referred to as a 3D artist, it can be displayed as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering or used in a computer simulation of physical phenomena. The model can be physically created using 3D printing devices. Models may be created manually; the manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting. 3D modeling software is a class of 3D computer graphics. Individual programs of this class are called modeling modelers. Three-dimensional models represent a physical body using a collection of points in 3D space, connected by various geometric entities such as triangles, curved surfaces, etc. Being a collection of data, 3D models scanned, their surfaces may be further defined with texture mapping.
3D models are used anywhere in 3D graphics and CAD. Their use predates the widespread use of 3D graphics on personal computers. Many computer games used pre-rendered images of 3D models as sprites before computers could render them in real-time; the designer can see the model in various directions and views, this can help the designer see if the object is created as intended to compared to their original vision. Seeing the design this way can help the designer/company figure out changes or improvements needed to the product. Today, 3D models are used in a wide variety of fields; the medical industry uses detailed models of organs. The movie industry uses them as objects for animated and real-life motion pictures; the video game industry uses them as assets for video games. The science sector uses them as detailed models of chemical compounds; the architecture industry uses them to demonstrate proposed buildings and landscapes in lieu of traditional, physical architectural models. The engineering community uses them as designs of new devices and structures as well as a host of other uses.
In recent decades the earth science community has started to construct 3D geological models as a standard practice. 3D models can be the basis for physical devices that are built with 3D printers or CNC machines. All 3D models can be divided into two categories. Solid – These models define the volume of the object they represent. Solid models are used for engineering and medical simulations, are built with constructive solid geometry Shell/boundary – these models represent the surface, e.g. the boundary of the object, not its volume. All visual models used in games and film are shell models. Solid and shell modeling can create functionally identical objects. Differences between them are variations in the way they are created and edited and conventions of use in various fields and differences in types of approximations between the model and reality. Shell models must be manifold to be meaningful as a real object. Polygonal meshes are by far the most common representation. Level sets are a useful representation for deforming surfaces which undergo many topological changes such as fluids.
The process of transforming representations of objects, such as the middle point coordinate of a sphere and a point on its circumference into a polygon representation of a sphere, is called tessellation. This step is used in polygon-based rendering, where objects are broken down from abstract representations such as spheres, cones etc. to so-called meshes, which are nets of interconnected triangles. Meshes of triangles are popular. Polygon representations are not used in all rendering techniques, in these cases the tessellation step is not included in the transition from abstract representation to rendered scene. There are three popular ways to represent a model: Polygonal modeling – Points in 3D space, called vertices, are connected by line segments to form a polygon mesh; the vast majority of 3D models today are built as textured polygonal models, because they are flexible and because computers can render them so quickly. However, polygons can only approximate curved surfaces using many polygons.
Curve modeling – Surfaces are defined by curves, which are influenced by weighted control points. The curve follows the points. Increasing the weight for a point will pull the curve closer to that point. Curve types include nonuniform rational B-spline, splines and geometric primitives Digital sculpting – Still a new method of modeling, 3D sculpting has become popular in the few years it has been around. There are three types of digital sculpting: Displacement, the most used among applications at this moment, uses a dense model and stores new locations for the vertex positions through use of an image map that stores the adjusted locations. Volumetric, loosely based on voxels, has similar capabilities as displacement but does not suffer from polygon stretching when there are not enough polygons in a region to achieve a deformation. Dynamic te
The aegis, as stated in the Iliad, is carried by Athena and Zeus, but its nature is uncertain. It had been interpreted as a shield, sometimes bearing the head of a Gorgon. There may be a connection with a deity named Aex or Aix, a daughter of Helios and a nurse of Zeus or alternatively a mistress of Zeus; the aegis of Athena is referred to in several places in the Iliad. "It produced a sound as from a myriad roaring dragons and was borne by Athena in battle... and among them went bright-eyed Athene, holding the precious aegis, ageless and immortal: a hundred tassels of pure gold hang fluttering from it, tight-woven each of them, each the worth of a hundred oxen."The modern concept of doing something "under someone's aegis" means doing something under the protection of a powerful, knowledgeable, or benevolent source. The word aegis is identified with protection by a strong force with its roots in Greek mythology and adopted by the Romans. Virgil imagines the Cyclopes in Hephaestus' forge, who "busily burnished the aegis Athena wears in her angry moods—a fearsome thing with a surface of gold like scaly snake-skin, the linked serpents and the Gorgon herself upon the goddess's breast—a severed head rolling its eyes", furnished with golden tassels and bearing the Gorgoneion in the central boss.
Some of the Attic vase-painters retained an archaic tradition that the tassels had been serpents in their representations of the aegis. When the Olympian deities overtook the older deities of Greece and she was born of Metis and "re-born" through the head of Zeus clothed, Athena wore her typical garments; when the Olympian shakes the aegis, Mount Ida is wrapped in clouds, the thunder rolls and men are struck down with fear. "Aegis-bearing Zeus", as he is in the Iliad, sometimes lends the fearsome aegis to Athena. In the Iliad when Zeus sends Apollo to revive the wounded Hector, holding the aegis, charges the Achaeans, pushing them back to their ships drawn up on the shore. According to Edith Hamilton's Mythology: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes, the Aegis is the breastplate of Zeus, was "awful to behold". However, Zeus is portrayed in classical sculpture holding a thunderbolt or lightning, bearing neither a shield nor a breastplate. Classical Greece interpreted the Homeric aegis as a cover of some kind borne by Athena.
It was supposed by Euripides that the aegis borne by Athena was the skin of the slain Gorgon, yet the usual understanding is that the Gorgoneion was added to the aegis, a votive offering from a grateful Perseus. In a similar interpretation, Aex, a daughter of Helios, represented as a great fire-breathing chthonic serpent similar to the Chimera, was slain and flayed by Athena, who afterwards wore its skin, the aegis, as a cuirass, or as a chlamys; the Douris cup shows that the aegis was represented as the skin of the great serpent, with its scales delineated. John Tzetzes says that aegis was the skin of the monstrous giant Pallas whom Athena overcame and whose name she attached to her own. In a late rendering by Gaius Julius Hyginus, Zeus is said to have used the skin of a pet goat owned by his nurse Amalthea which suckled him in Crete, as a shield when he went forth to do battle against the Titans; the aegis appears in works of art sometimes as an animal's skin thrown over Athena's shoulders and arms with a border of snakes also bearing the Gorgon head, the gorgoneion.
In some pottery it appears as a tasselled cover over Athena's dress. It is sometimes represented on the statues of Roman emperors and warriors, on cameos and vases. A vestige of that appears in a portrait of Alexander the Great in a fresco from Pompeii dated to the first century BC, which shows the image of the head of a woman on his armor that resembles the Gorgon. Herodotus thought he had identified the source of the ægis in ancient Libya, always a distant territory of ancient magic for the Greeks. "Athene's garments and ægis were borrowed by the Greeks from the Libyan women, who are dressed in the same way, except that their leather garments are fringed with thongs, not serpents."Robert Graves in The Greek Myths asserts that the ægis in its Libyan sense had been a shamanic pouch containing various ritual objects, bearing the device of a monstrous serpent-haired visage with tusk-like teeth and a protruding tongue, meant to frighten away the uninitiated. In this context, Graves identifies the aegis as belonging first to Athena.
One current interpretation is that the Hittite sacral hieratic hunting bag, a rough and shaggy goatskin, established in literary texts and iconography by H. G. Güterbock, was a source of the aegis; the Greek αἰγίς aigis, has many meanings including: "violent windstorm", from the verb ἀίσσω aïssō = "I rush or move violently". Akin to καταιγίς kataigis, "thunderstorm"; the shield of a deity as described above. "goatskin coat", from treating the word as meaning "something grammatically feminine pertaining to goat": Greek αἴξ aix = "goat", + suffix -ίς -is. The original meaning may have been the first, Ζεὺς Αἰγίοχος Zeus Aigiokhos = "Zeus who holds the aegis" may have meant "Sky/Heaven, who holds the thunderstorm"; the transition to the meaning "shield" or "goatskin" may have come by folk etymology among a people familiar with draping an animal skin over the left arm a
Third-person shooter is a subgenre of 3D shooter games in which the player character is visible on-screen during gaming, the gameplay consists of shooting. A third-person shooter is a game structured around shooting, in which the player can see the avatar on-screen in a third-person view. Third-person shooter is a game where instead of seeing the games through the main character’s eyes, you see the main character moving and shooting in the game and the game is focused on shooting, it is a 3D genre, that has grown to prominence in recent years on consoles. It combines the shooting elements of the first-person shooter with the jumping and climbing elements of puzzle-based games and brawlers. Third-person shooter games always incorporate an aim-assist feature, since aiming from a third-person camera is difficult. Most have a first-person view, which allows precise shooting and looking around at environment features that are otherwise hidden from the default camera. In most cases, the player must stand still to use first-person view, but newer titles allow the player to play like a FPS.
These games are related to first-person shooters, which tie the perspective of the player to an avatar, but the two genres are distinct. While the first-person perspective allows players to aim and shoot without their avatar blocking their view, the third-person shooter shows the protagonist from an "over the shoulder shot" or "behind the back" perspective. Thus, the third-person perspective allows the game designer to create a more characterized avatar and directs the player's attention as in watching a film. In contrast, a first-person perspective provides the player with greater immersion into the game universe; this difference in perspective affects gameplay. Third-person shooters allow players to see the area surrounding the avatar more clearly; this viewpoint facilitates more interaction between the character and their surrounding environment, such as the use of tactical cover in Gears of War, or navigating tight quarters. As such, the third-person perspective is better for interacting with objects in the game world, such as jumping on platforms, engaging in close combat, or driving a vehicle.
However, the third-person perspective can interfere with tasks. Third-person shooters sometimes compensate for their distinct perspective by designing larger, more spacious environments than first-person shooters; the boundaries between third-person and first-person shooters are not always clear. For example, many third-person shooters allow the player to use a first-person viewpoint for challenges that require precise aiming; the first-person shooter Halo: Combat Evolved was designed as a third-person shooter, but added a first-person perspective to improve the interface for aiming and shooting. The game switches to a third-person viewpoint when the avatar is piloting a vehicle, this combination of first-person for aiming and third-person for driving has since been used in other games. Metroid Prime is another first-person shooter that switches to a third-person perspective when rolling around the environment using the morph ball. Alexander R. Galloway writes that the "real-time, over-the-shoulder tracking shots of Gus Van Sant's Elephant evoke third-person shooter games like Max Payne, a close cousin of the FPS".
2D third-person shooters have existed since the earliest days of video games, dating back to Spacewar!. Arcade shooters with a 3D third-person perspective include Nintendo's Radar Scope, Atari's Tempest, Nihon Bussan's Tube Panic, Sega's Space Harrier, Atari's Xybots, Square's 3-D WorldRunner. and JJ Third-person shooters for home computers include Dan Gorlin's Airheart and Paul Norman's Beyond Forbidden Forest. Konami's run & gun shooter Contra featured several third-person shooter levels where the player trudges through indoor enemy bases. Konami's Devastators is a third-person shooter where, rather than moving forward automatically, the player walks forward by holding the Up direction, as the background scales toward the screen. Devastators featured various obstacles that could be used to take cover from enemy fire, as well as two-player cooperative gameplay. A similar shooter released that same year was Cabal, which inspired many of its own "Cabal clones," such as NAM-1975 and Wild Guns.
Kurt Kalata of Hardcore Gaming 101 cites Sega's Last Survivor, released for arcades and ported to the FM Towns and FM Towns Marty, featuring eight-player deathmatch. He notes that it has a perspective and split-screen similar to Xybots, but with different gameplay and controls. In 1993, Namco released a two-player competitive 3D third-person shooter vehicle combat game, Cyber Sled. A year Elite Systems Ltd. released Virtuoso on the 3DO. This was an early example of a home console third-person shooter which featured a human protagonist on-foot, as opposed to controlling a vehicle, made use of polygonal 3D graphics along with sprites in a 3D environment. Fade to Black was a 3D third-person shooter released around this time, but as well as featuring an on-foot protagonist rather than a vehicle, utilised polygonal 3D graphics. Tomb Raider by Eidos Interactive is claimed by some commentators as a third-person shooter, Jonathan S. Harbour of the University of Advancing Technology argues that it's "largely responsible for the popularity of th
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Boss (video gaming)
In video gaming, a boss is a significant computer-controlled enemy. A fight with a boss character is referred to as a boss battle or boss fight. Boss battles are seen at a climax of a particular section of the game at the end of a level or stage, or guarding a specific objective, the boss enemy is far stronger than the opponents the player has faced up to that point, is faced solo. A miniboss is a boss weaker or less significant than the main boss in the same area or level.. A superboss is much more powerful than the bosses encountered as part of the main game's plot and optional to encounter. A final boss is the main antagonist of a game's story and the defeat of that character provides ultimate satisfaction to the game player. For example, in a combat game all regular enemies might use pistols while the boss uses a machine gun. A boss enemy is quite larger in size than other enemies and the player character. At times, bosses are hard impossible, to defeat without being adequately prepared and/or knowing the correct fighting approach.
Bosses take strategy and special knowledge to defeat, such as how to attack weak points, or avoiding specific attacks. Bosses are common in many genres of video games, but they are common in story-driven titles. RPGs, FPSs, platform games of all ilks, fighting games are associated with boss battles, they may be less common in puzzle games, card video games, sports games, simulation games. The first game to feature a boss fight was the 1975 RPG dnd; the concept has expanded to new genres, like rhythm games, where there may be a "boss song", more difficult. The first interactive game to feature a boss was dnd, a 1975 role-playing video game for the PLATO system. One of the earliest dungeon crawls, dnd implemented many of the core concepts behind Dungeons & Dragons; the objective of the game is to retrieve an "Orb" from the bottommost dungeon. The orb is kept in a treasure room guarded by a high-level enemy named the Gold Dragon. Only by defeating the Dragon can the player claim the orb, complete the game, be eligible to appear on the high score list.
A 1980 example is the fixed shooter Phoenix, wherein the player ship must fight a giant mothership in the fifth and final level. Bosses are more difficult than regular enemies, can sustain more damage, are found at the end of a level or area. While most games include a mixture of boss opponents and regular opponents, some games have only regular opponents and some games have only bosses; some bosses are encountered several times through a single game with alternate attacks and a different strategy required to defeat it each time. A boss battle can be made more challenging if the boss in question becomes progressively stronger and/or less vulnerable as their health decreases, requiring players to use different strategies to win; some bosses may contain or be composed of smaller parts that can be destroyed by the player in battle, which may or may not grant an advantage. In games such as Doom and Castlevania: Order of Ecclesia, an enemy may be introduced via a boss battle, but appear as a regular enemy, after the player has become stronger or had a chance to find more powerful weaponry.
Boss battles are seen as dramatic events. As such, they are characterized with unique music and cutscenes before and after the boss battle. Recurring bosses and final bosses may have their own specific theme music to distinguish them from other boss battles; this concept extends beyond combat-oriented video games. For example, a number of titles in the Dance Dance Revolution rhythm game series contain "boss songs" that are called "bosses" because they are exceptionally difficult to perform on. A miniboss known as a "middle boss", "mid-boss", "half-boss", "sub-boss", or "semi-boss", is a boss weaker or less significant than the main boss in the same area or level; some minibosses are stronger versions of regular enemies, as in the Kirby games. Other video game characters who take the role of a miniboss are the Koopalings, Dark Link and Allen O'Neil. There is a subtype nicknamed the "Wolfpack Boss", for its similarity to a pack of wolves consisting of a group of strong normal enemies that are easy to defeat on their own, but a group of them can be as difficult as a boss battle.
A superboss is a type of boss most found in role-playing video games. They are considered optional enemies, though optional bosses are not all superbosses, do not have to be defeated to complete the game, they are much more powerful than the bosses encountered as part of the main game's plot or quest, more difficult than the final boss, the player is required to complete a sidequest or the entire game to fight the superboss. For example, in Final Fantasy VII, the player may choose to seek out and fight the Ruby and Emerald Weapons; some superbosses will take the place of the final boss. This is common in fighting games, such as Akuma in Super Street Fighter II Turbo; some superbosses can yield special items or skills that cannot be found any other way that can give a player a significant advantage during playthrough of the rest of the game, such as added experience or an powerful weapon. For example, the "raid bosses" from Borderlands 2 give rare loot unavailable anywhere else; some superbosses in online games have an immense amount of health and must be defeated within a time limit by having a large number of players or parties working together to defeat the boss.
Examples of such superbosses can be found in games like Shadow Fight 2 and
Electronic Gaming Monthly
Electronic Gaming Monthly is a monthly American video game magazine. It offers video game news, coverage of industry events, interviews with gaming figures, editorial content, product reviews; the magazine was founded in 1988 as U. S. National Video Game Team's Electronic Gaming Monthly under Sendai Publications. In 1994, EGM spun off EGM ², which focused on expanded tricks, it became Expert Gamer and the defunct GameNOW. After 83 issues, EGM switched from Sendai Publishing to Ziff Davis publisher; until January 2009, EGM only covered gaming on console software. In 2002, the magazine's subscription increased by more than 25 percent; the magazine was discontinued by Ziff Davis in January 2009, following the sale of 1UP.com to UGO Networks. The magazine's February 2009 issue was completed, but was not published. In May 2009, EGM founder Steve Harris purchased its assets from Ziff Davis; the magazine was relaunched in April 2010 by Harris' new company EGM Media, LLC, widening its coverage to the PC and mobile gaming markets.
Notable contributors to Electronic Gaming Monthly have included Martin Alessi, Ken Williams, "Trickman" Terry Minnich, Andrew "Cyber-Boy" Baran, Danyon Carpenter, Marc Camron, Mark "Candyman" LeFebvre, Todd Rogers, Mike Weigand a.k.a. Major Mike, Al Manuel, Howard Grossman, Arcade Editor Mark "Mo" Hain, Mike "Virus" Vallas, Jason Streetz, Ken Badziak, Scott Augustyn, Chris Johnston, Che Chou, Dave Ruchala, Crispin Boyer, Greg Sewart, Jeanne Trais, Jennifer Tsao, artist Jeremy Norm Scott, Shawn "Shawnimal" Smith, West Coast Editor Kelly Rickards, Kraig Kujawa, Dean Hager, Jeremy Parish, Mark Macdonald. Writers who served stints as editor-in chief include Ed Semrad, Joe Funk, John Davison, James Mielke, artist Jeremy "Norm" Scott, Seanbaby. In addition, writers of EGM's various sister publications – including GameNow, Computer Gaming World/Games for Windows: The Official Magazine, Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine – would contribute to EGM, vice versa; the magazine is known for making April Fools jokes.
Its April 1992 issue was the source of the Sheng Long hoax in Street Fighter II: The World Warrior. The magazine includes the following sections: Insert Coin Letter from the editor - the editorial Login - Letters from readers and replies by the magazine Press Start This section contains a general article about video gaming EGM RoundTable - discussions around video games The Buzz - industry rumors The EGM Hot List - background information about a critically acclaimed game Features - feature articles The EGM Interview - interview with a person from the gaming industry Cover Story - preview of the game featured on the magazine cover Next Wave - previews of upcoming games Launch Point - short previews of upcoming games Review Crew - review section Review Recap - recapitulation of the review scores from the preceding issue Game Over - Commentary articles on video gaming related topics EGM's current review scale is based on a letter grade system in which each game receives a grade based on its perceived quality.
Games are reviewed by one member, except for "the big games", which were reviewed by one of a pool of editors known as "The Review Crew." They each write a few paragraphs about their opinion of the game. The magazine makes a strong stance. Towards the top of the scale, awards are given to games that average a B- or higher from the three individual grade: "Silver" awards for games averaging a grade of B- to B+; the current letter grade system replaced a long-standing 0–10 scale in the April 2008 issue. In that system, Silver went to a game with an average rating from 8 to 9, Gold to a game reviewed at 9 to 10, Platinum to a game that received nothing but 10 ratings; until 1998, as a matter of editorial policy, the reviewers gave scores of 10, never gave a Platinum Award. That policy changed when the reviewers gave Metal Gear Solid four 10 ratings in 1998, with an editorial announcing the shift. In addition, they gave the game with the highest average score for that issue a "Game of the Month" award.
If a "Game of the Month" title receives a port to another console, that version is disqualified from that month's award, such as with Resident Evil 4, which won the award for the Nintendo GameCube version and subsequently received the highest scores for the PlayStation 2 port months and Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 2, which won the Platinum award for two separate versions of the game. In 2002, EGM began giving games; as there is not always such a game in each issue, this award is only given out when a game qualifies. A team of four editors reviewed all the games; this process was dropped in favor of a system that added more reviewers to the staff so that no one person reviewed all the games for the month. Though the scores ranged from 0–10 on the previous numerical scale, the score of zero was never utilized, with exceptions being Mortal Kombat Advance, The Guy Game, Ping Pals. EGM en Español was released in Mexico in November 2002, it is edited by a different staff. Sometimes the content was more focused to
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne