Stephen Grover Cleveland was an American politician and lawyer, the 22nd and 24th president of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office. He won the popular vote for three presidential elections—in 1884, 1888, 1892—and was one of two Democrats to be elected president during the era of Republican political domination dating from 1861 to 1933. Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariffs, Free Silver, inflation and subsidies to business, farmers, or veterans, his crusade for political reform and fiscal conservatism made him an icon for American conservatives of the era. Cleveland won praise for his honesty, self-reliance and commitment to the principles of classical liberalism, he fought political corruption and bossism. As a reformer, Cleveland had such prestige that the like-minded wing of the Republican Party, called "Mugwumps" bolted the GOP presidential ticket and swung to his support in the 1884 election.
As his second administration began, disaster hit the nation when the Panic of 1893 produced a severe national depression, which Cleveland was unable to reverse. It ruined his Democratic Party, opening the way for a Republican landslide in 1894 and for the agrarian and silverite seizure of the Democratic Party in 1896; the result was a political realignment that ended the Third Party System and launched the Fourth Party System and the Progressive Era. Cleveland was a formidable policymaker, he drew corresponding criticism, his intervention in the Pullman Strike of 1894 to keep the railroads moving angered labor unions nationwide in addition to the party in Illinois. Critics complained that Cleveland had little imagination and seemed overwhelmed by the nation's economic disasters—depressions and strikes—in his second term. So, his reputation for probity and good character survived the troubles of his second term. Biographer Allan Nevins wrote, "n Grover Cleveland, the greatness lies in typical rather than unusual qualities.
He had no endowments. He possessed honesty, firmness and common sense, but he possessed them to a degree other men do not." By the end of his second term, public perception showed him to be one of the most unpopular U. S. presidents, he was by rejected by most Democrats. Today, Cleveland is considered by most historians to have been a successful leader ranked among the upper-mid tier of American presidents. Stephen Grover Cleveland was born on March 18, 1837, in Caldwell, New Jersey, to Ann and Richard Falley Cleveland. Cleveland's father was a Congregational and Presbyterian minister, from Connecticut, his mother was the daughter of a bookseller. On his father's side, Cleveland was descended from English ancestors, the first of the family having emigrated to Massachusetts from Cleveland, England in 1635, his father's maternal grandfather, Richard Falley Jr. fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill, was the son of an immigrant from Guernsey. On his mother's side, Cleveland was descended from Anglo-Irish Protestants and German Quakers from Philadelphia.
Cleveland was distantly related to General Moses Cleaveland, after whom the city of Cleveland, was named. Cleveland, the fifth of nine children, was named Stephen Grover in honor of the first pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell, where his father was pastor at the time, he became known as Grover in his adult life. In 1841, the Cleveland family moved to Fayetteville, New York, where Grover spent much of his childhood. Neighbors described him as "full of fun and inclined to play pranks," and fond of outdoor sports. In 1850, Cleveland's father moved to Clinton, New York, to work as district secretary for the American Home Missionary Society. Despite his father's dedication to his missionary work, the income was insufficient for the large family. Financial conditions forced him to remove Grover from school into a two-year mercantile apprenticeship in Fayetteville; the experience was valuable and brief, the living conditions quite austere. Grover returned to his schooling at the completion of the apprentice contract.
In 1853, when missionary work began to take a toll on his health, Cleveland's father took an assignment in Holland Patent, New York and the family moved again. Shortly after, he died from a gastric ulcer, with Grover reputedly hearing of his father's death from a boy selling newspapers. Cleveland received his elementary education at the Fayetteville Academy and the Clinton Liberal Academy. After his father died in 1853, he again left school to help support his family; that year, Cleveland's brother William was hired as a teacher at the New York Institute for the Blind in New York City, William obtained a place for Cleveland as an assistant teacher. He returned home to Holland Patent at the end of 1854, where an elder in his church offered to pay for his college education if he would promise to become a minister. Cleveland declined, in 1855 he decided to move west, he stopped first in New York, where his uncle, Lewis F. Allen, gave him a clerical job. Allen was an important man in Buffalo, he introduced his nephew to influential men there, including the partners in the law firm of Rogers and Rogers.
Millard Fillmore, the 13th president of the United States, had worked for the partnership. Cleveland took a clerkship with the firm, began to read the law, was admitted to the New York bar in 1859. Cleveland
Patrick J. Kennedy
Patrick Joseph Kennedy II is an American politician and mental health advocate. From 1995 to 2011, he served as a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from Rhode Island's 1st congressional district, he is the founder of the Kennedy Forum, a former member of the President’s Commission on Combatting Drug Addiction and the Opioid Crisis, co-founder of One Mind. A member of the Kennedy family, he is the youngest child and second son of the long-time Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy and is a nephew of former U. S. President John F. Kennedy. At the time of his father's 2009 death, Patrick was the last remaining member of the Kennedy family to serve in an elective office in Washington. After he chose not to seek re-election in 2010 and left office the following year, it was the first time without a member of the Kennedy family holding elected office since 1947. Patrick Kennedy was born in Massachusetts, he is the youngest of three children born to Senator Edward Moore Kennedy Sr. and musician/socialite/former model Virginia Joan Kennedy, née Bennett.
His sister Kara was a television and film producer, while his brother Ted Jr. is a lawyer and member of the Connecticut State Senate. Patrick was named after his paternal great-grandfather and politician P. J. Kennedy. Kennedy graduated from Phillips Academy in Andover and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree from Providence College in Providence, Rhode Island. While a Junior at Providence College, Kennedy defeated five-term incumbent John F. Skeffington Jr. for the Democratic nomination in District 9. In 1988, Kennedy became the youngest member of the Kennedy family to hold elected office, when he won election to the Rhode Island House of Representatives at age 21, he served two terms in the House representing District 9 in Providence. He was succeeded by Anastasia P. Williams. In 1994, Kennedy was elected as a Democrat to represent the 1st Congressional District of Rhode Island, he was re-elected seven times, serving from January 3, 1995, to January 3, 2011. In the House, Kennedy served on the Armed Services and Natural Resources Committees before being appointed to the Appropriations Committee.
Kennedy was lead sponsor of the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act, which passed on October 3, 2008. Kennedy authored and co-sponsored the Positive Aging Act, the Foundations for Learning Act, which established a grant program to improve mental and emotional health for school children through screening and early intervention, the National Neurotechnology Initiative Act and Personalized Medicine Act, he joined the Congressional Boating Caucus. He was a founder of the Rhode Island Chapter of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse and chaired the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee for two years. During his tenure as DCCC chairman, Kennedy became a headliner at Democratic political events and fundraisers around the country. U. S. House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice and Related Agencies U. S. House Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor and Human Services and Related Agencies U. S. House Appropriations Subcommittee on Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, Related Agencies U.
S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Labor and Human Services and Related Agencies Kennedy campaigned for the seat being vacated by U. S. Representative Ronald Machtley in the 1994 Rhode Island 1st congressional district election, he won the election. Kennedy was one of four Democrats in the 1994 congressional elections to win a congressional seat, held by a Republican, while Republicans gained dozens of seats to take over the U. S. House, he was re-elected every two years from 1996 until 2008 and did not run for re-election in 2010. In 2000, Kennedy considered running against Republican Lincoln Chafee in the U. S. Senate instead chose to run for re-election. Kennedy had won appointment to the House Appropriations Committee, a high-profile assignment that caused him to pass up the Senate race, he again instead chose to run for re-election. Kennedy did not run for re-election in 2010 and completed his final term in January 2011, he finished his 8th term at the completion of the 111th United States Congress.
Since leaving Congress, Kennedy has written and spoken publicly about his long struggle with bipolar disorder and drug addiction and become a leading advocate for a stronger mental health care system in the United States. Partnering with Shari and Garen Staglin in 2011, Kennedy launched One Mind with the intention of promoting the study of brain diseases. One Mind supports better diagnostics and new therapies to advance neuroscience discovery and fills the gaps in research funding by disseminating donor-supported funds. Kennedy founded The Kennedy Forum in 2013, a behavioral health nonprofit, of which he is CEO, with the mission of leading
County Wexford is an eastern county in Ireland, bordered by the Irish Sea. It is part of the South-East Region, it is named after the town of Wexford and was based on the historic Gaelic territory of Hy Kinsella, whose capital was Ferns. Wexford County Council is the local authority for the county; the population of the county was 149,722 at the 2016 census. The county is rich in evidence of early human habitation. Portal tombs exist at Newbawn -- and date from the Neolithic period or earlier. Remains from the Bronze Age period are far more widespread. Early Irish tribes formed the Kingdom of Uí Cheinnsealaig, an area, larger than the current County Wexford. County Wexford was one of the earliest areas of Ireland to be Christianised, in the early 5th century. From 819 onwards, the Vikings invaded and plundered many Christian sites in the county. Vikings settled at Wexford town near the end of the 9th century. In 1169, Wexford was the site of the invasion of Ireland by Normans at the behest of Diarmuid Mac Murrough, King of Uí Cheinnsealaig and king of Leinster.
This was followed by the subsequent colonisation of the country by the Anglo-Normans. The native Irish began to regain some of their former territories in the 14th century in the north of the county, principally under Art MacMurrough Kavanagh. Under Henry VIII, the great religious houses were dissolved, 1536–41. On 23 October 1641, a major rebellion broke out in Ireland, County Wexford produced strong support for Confederate Ireland. Oliver Cromwell and his English Parliamentarian Army captured it; the lands of the Irish and Anglo-Normans were confiscated and given to Cromwell's soldiers as payment for their service in the Parliamentarian Army. At Duncannon, in the south-west of the county, James II, after his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne, embarked for Kinsale and to exile in France. County Wexford was the most important area in which the Irish Rebellion of 1798 was fought, during which significant battles occurred at The Battle of Oulart Hill during the 1798 rebellion. Vinegar Hill and New Ross.
The famous ballad "Boolavogue" was written in remembrance of the Wexford Rising. At Easter 1916, a small rebellion occurred on cue with that in Dublin. During World War II, German planes bombed Campile. In 1963 John F. Kennedy President of the United States, visited the county and his ancestral home at Dunganstown, near New Ross. Wexford is the 13th largest of Ireland's thirty-two counties in area, 14th largest in terms of population, it is the largest of Leinster's 12 counties in size, fourth largest in terms of population. The county is located in the south-east corner of the island of Ireland, it is bounded by the sea on two sides—on the south by the Atlantic Ocean and on the east by St. George's Channel and the Irish Sea; the River Barrow forms its western boundary. The Blackstairs Mountains form part of the boundary to the north, as do the southern edges of the Wicklow Mountains; the adjoining counties are Waterford, Kilkenny and Wicklow. County Town: Wexford Market Town: Gorey County Wexford is known as Ireland's "sunny southeast" because, in general, the number of hours of sunshine received daily is higher than in the rest of the country.
This has resulted in Wexford becoming one of the most popular places in Ireland in. The county has a changeable, oceanic climate with few extremes; the North Atlantic Drift, a continuation of the Gulf Stream, moderates winter temperatures. There is a meteorological station located at Rosslare Harbour. January and February are the coldest months, with temperatures ranging from 4–8 °C on average. July and August are the warmest months, with temperatures ranging from 12–18 °C on average; the prevailing winds are from the south-west. Precipitation falls throughout the year. Mean annual rainfall is 800–1,200 millimetres; the county receives less snow than more northerly parts of Ireland. Heavy snowfalls are rare, but can occur; the one exception is Mount Leinster, visible from a large portion of the county, covered with snow during the winter months. Frost is frequent in coastal areas. Low-lying fertile land is the characteristic landscape of the county; the highest point in the county is Mount Leinster at 795 metres, in the Blackstairs Mountains in the north-west on the boundary with County Carlow.
Other high points: Black Rock Mountain, 599 m. It is located within County Wexford. Croghan Mountain on the Wexford-Wicklow border - 606 m Annagh Hill, 454 m, near the Wicklow border Slieveboy, 420 m Notable hills include: Carrigbyrne Hill; the major rivers are the Barrow. At 192 km in length, the river Barrow is the second-longest river on the island of Ireland. Smaller rivers of note are the Owenduff, Corrock, Boro, Owenavorragh and Bann rivers. There are no significant fresh-water lakes in the county. Small seaside lakes or lagoons exist at two locations – one is called Lady's Island Lake and the other Tacumshin Lake; the Wexford Cot is a flat bottomed boat used for fishing on the tidal mudflats in Wexford a canoe shaped
Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
Joseph Patrick Kennedy Jr. was a United States Navy lieutenant. He was killed in action during World War II while serving as a land-based patrol bomber pilot, was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross, he was the eldest of nine children born to Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. He was the only Kennedy son. Joe Sr. had aspirations for Joe Jr. to become president. However, Joe Jr. was killed while participating in a top-secret mission in 1944, the high expectations of the father fell upon Joe Jr.'s younger brother John, elected president. Kennedy was born on July 1915, in Hull, Massachusetts, he first attended the Dexter School in Brookline, with his brother, John. In 1933, he graduated from the Choate School in Connecticut, he entered Harvard College in Cambridge, graduating in 1938. Kennedy participated in football and crew, he served on the student council. Kennedy spent a year studying under the tutelage of Harold Laski at the London School of Economics before enrolling in Harvard Law School. From a young age, Kennedy was groomed by his father and predicted to be the first Roman Catholic president of the United States.
When he was born, his grandfather John F. Fitzgerald Mayor of Boston, told the news, "This child is the future president of the nation." He boasted that he would be president without help from his father. He was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1940. Kennedy planned to run for the U. S. House from Massachusetts's 11th congressional district in 1946. Kennedy expressed approval of Adolf Hitler, his father sent him to visit Nazi Germany in 1934. He wrote to his father, praising Hitler's sterilization policy as "a great thing" that "will do away with many of the disgusting specimens of men." He explained that "Hitler is building a spirit in his men that could be envied in any country." Kennedy left before his final year of law school at Harvard to enlist in the U. S. Naval Reserve on June 24, 1941, he entered flight training to be a Naval Aviator, after training, he received his wings and was commissioned an ensign on May 5, 1942. He was assigned to Patrol Squadron 203 and Bombing Squadron 110.
In September 1943, he was sent to Britain and became a member of Bomber Squadron 110, Special Air Unit ONE, in 1944. He piloted land-based PB4Y Liberator patrol bombers on anti-submarine details during two tours of duty in the winter of 1943–1944. Kennedy was eligible to return home, he instead volunteered for an Operation Aphrodite mission. Operation Aphrodite & Operation Anvil made use of unmanned, explosive-laden Army Air Corps Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and Navy Consolidated PB4Y-1 Liberator bombers that were deliberately crashed into their targets under radio control; these aircraft could not take off safely on their own, so a crew of two would take off and fly to 2,000 feet before activating the remote control system, arming the detonators, parachuting from the aircraft. Kennedy was appointed a Lieutenant on July 1, 1944. After the U. S. Army Air Corps operation missions were drawn up on July 23, 1944, Lieutenants Wilford John Willy and Kennedy were designated as the first Navy flight crew.
Willy, the executive officer of Special Air Unit ONE, had volunteered for the mission and "pulled rank" over Ensign James Simpson, Kennedy's regular co-pilot. Kennedy and Willy flew a BQ-8 "robot" aircraft for the U. S. Navy's first Aphrodite mission. Two Lockheed Ventura mother planes and a Boeing B-17 navigation plane took off from RAF Fersfield at 1800 on August 12, 1944; the BQ-8 aircraft, loaded with 21,170 lb of Torpex, took off. It was to be used against the U-boat pens at Heligoland in the North Sea. Following them in a USAAF F-8 Mosquito to film the mission were pilot Lt. Robert A. Tunnel and combat camera man Lt. David J. McCarthy, who filmed the event from the perspex nose of the aircraft; as planned and Willy remained aboard as the BQ-8 completed its first remote-controlled turn at 2,000 ft near the North Sea coast. Kennedy and Willy removed the safety pin, arming the explosive package, Kennedy radioed the agreed code Spade Flush, his last known words. Two minutes the Torpex explosive detonated prematurely and destroyed the Liberator, killing Kennedy and Willy instantly.
Wreckage landed near the village of Blythburgh in Suffolk, causing widespread damage and small fires, but there were no injuries on the ground. According to one report, a total of 59 buildings were damaged in a nearby coastal town. Attempted first Aphrodite attack Twelve August with robot taking off from Fersfield at One Eight Zero Five Hours. Robot exploded in the air at two thousand feet eight miles southeast of Halesworth at One Eight Two Zero hours. Wilford J. Willy Sr Grade Lieutenant and Joseph P. Kennedy Sr Grade Lieutenant, both USNR, were killed. Commander Smith, in command of this unit, is making full report TO US Naval Operations. A more detailed report will be forwarded to you when interrogation is completed According to USAAF records, the trailing Mosquito "was flying 300 feet above and about 300 yards to the rear of the robot. Engineer photographer on this ship was injured, the ship was damaged by the explosion." The Mosquito, which made an immediate emergency landing at RAF Halesworth, belonged to the 325th Reconnaissance Wing, a unit under the command of the son of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, th
Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy, Countess of the Holy Roman Church was an American philanthropist and the matriarch of the Kennedy family. She was embedded in the "lace curtain" Irish Catholic community in Boston, where her father was mayor, she was the wife of businessman and investor Joseph P. Kennedy Sr., United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom, formally known as Ambassador to the Court of St. James's in the UK, their nine children included President John F. Kennedy, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, longtime Senator Ted Kennedy. In 1951 she was ennobled by Pope Pius XII, becoming the sixth American woman to be granted the rank of Papal countess. Rose was born at 4 Garden Court in the North End neighborhood of Massachusetts, she was the eldest of six children born to Boston Mayor John Francis "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald and Mary Josephine "Josie" Hannon. Her siblings were Agnes, John Jr. Eunice, Frederick; as a young child, she lived in an Italianate/Mansard-style home in the Ashmont Hill section of Dorchester and attended the local Girls' Latin School.
The home burned down, but a plaque at Welles Avenue and Harley Street proclaims "Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy Square". The plaque was dedicated by her son, Senator Ted Kennedy, on her 102nd birthday in 1992. Fitzgerald studied at the convent school Kasteel Bloemendal in Vaals, The Netherlands, graduated from Dorchester High School in 1906, she attended the New England Conservatory in Boston, where she studied piano. After being refused permission by her father to attend Wellesley College, Fitzgerald enrolled at the Manhattanville College of the Sacred Heart in Manhattan, an institution that did not grant degrees at the time. In 1908, Fitzgerald and her father embarked on a tour of Europe, she and Honey Fitz had a private audience with Pope St. Pius X at the Vatican. On October 7, 1914 at age 24, she married Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy after a courtship of more than seven years; the long courtship was due to her father's disapproval of Kennedy. He was the elder son of Mary Augusta Hickey, they lived in a home in Brookline, Massachusetts, now the John Fitzgerald Kennedy National Historic Site, a 15-room vacation home at Hyannis Port on Cape Cod, which became the Kennedy family's lasting base.
Their nine children were Joseph Jr. John, Kathleen, Patricia, Robert and Edward. Joseph provided well for their family, his affairs included one with Gloria Swanson. When Rose was eight months pregnant with the couple's fourth child, she temporarily went back to her parents, returning to Joseph after her father told her divorce was not an option. In turning a blind eye to her husband's affairs, Rose depended on medication. Ronald Kessler found records for prescription tranquilizers Seconal, Placidyl and Dalmane to relieve Rose's nervousness and stress, Lomotil, Bentyl and Tagamet for her stomach. Rose Kennedy was a strict Catholic throughout her life. After her 100th birthday, she missed Sunday Mass and maintained an "extremely prudish" exterior, her strict beliefs placed her at odds with her children. Jacqueline Kennedy described her mother-in-law in her correspondence to Father Joseph Leonard, an Irish priest: "I don't think Jack's mother is too bright – and she would rather say a rosary than read a book."Rose Kennedy stated that she felt fulfilled as a full-time homemaker.
In her 1974 autobiography, Times to Remember, she wrote, "I looked on child rearing not only as a work of love and a duty, but as a profession, as interesting and challenging as any honorable profession in the world and one that demanded the best I could bring to it..... What greater aspiration and challenge are there for a mother than the hope of raising a great son or daughter?" After her son John was elected President in 1960, Rose "became a sort of quiet celebrity" and appeared on the International Best Dressed List. Most of her social activities consisted of involvement in women's groups. Rose took brisk ocean swims outside her Cape Cod house in fifty-degree weather. After suffering a stroke in 1984, she used a wheelchair for the remaining eleven years of her life, she maintained her residence at the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis Port and was cared for by private nurses and staff. On January 22, 1995, Kennedy died from complications from pneumonia at age 104 at the Kennedy family compound in Hyannis Port.
She was survived by five of her children as well as many great-grandchildren. Rose Kennedy was interred with her husband at Holyhood Cemetery in Massachusetts. In 1951, Pope Pius XII granted Kennedy the title of countess in recognition of her "exemplary motherhood and many charitable works." In 1992, when she turned 102, the intersection of Welles Avenue and Harley Street in Boston was proclaimed "Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy Square". The plaque was dedicated by Senator Edward M. Kennedy; the Rose Kennedy Greenway in Boston, Massachusetts – the park, created when the city's Central Artery was sunk below ground level in the "Big Dig" – was named after her on July 26, 2004. Well known for her philanthropic efforts and for leading the Grandparents' Parade at age 90 at the Special Olympics, Kennedy's life and work are documented in the Oscar-nominated short documentary Rose Kennedy: A Life to Remember, she was a lifelong autograph collector. Kennedy, Rose Fitzgerald. Times To Remember. Doubleday and Company.
Kennedy, Rose Fitzgerald. Times To Remember. Doubleday and Compa
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem