A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale. International relations theorists have posited that great power status can be characterized into power capabilities, spatial aspects, while some nations are widely considered to be great powers, there is no definitive list of them. Sometimes the status of great powers is formally recognized in such as the Congress of Vienna or the United Nations Security Council. Accordingly, the status of great powers has been formally and informally recognised in such as the G7. The term great power was first used to represent the most important powers in Europe during the post-Napoleonic era, the Great Powers constituted the Concert of Europe and claimed the right to joint enforcement of the postwar treaties. The formalization of the division between small powers and great powers came about with the signing of the Treaty of Chaumont in 1814, since then, the international balance of power has shifted numerous times, most dramatically during World War I and World War II.
In literature, alternative terms for power are often world power or major power. There are no set or defined characteristics of a great power and these characteristics have often been treated as empirical, self-evident to the assessor. However, this approach has the disadvantage of subjectivity, as a result, there have been attempts to derive some common criteria and to treat these as essential elements of great power status. Later writers have expanded this test, attempting to define power in terms of military, economic. These expanded criteria can be divided into three heads, power capabilities, spatial aspects, and status, as noted above, for many, power capabilities were the sole criterion. However, even under the more expansive tests, power retains a vital place and this aspect has received mixed treatment, with some confusion as to the degree of power required. Writers have approached the concept of power with differing conceptualizations of the world situation. This differed from earlier writers, notably from Leopold von Ranke and these positions have been the subject of criticism.
All states have a scope of interests, actions, or projected power. This is a factor in distinguishing a great power from a regional power. It has been suggested that a power should be possessed of actual influence throughout the scope of the prevailing international system. Arnold J. Toynbee, for example, observes that Great power may be defined as a political force exerting an effect co-extensive with the widest range of the society in which it operates, the Great powers of 1914 were world-powers because Western society had recently become world-wide
Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei is an Egyptian law scholar and diplomat who was the last Vice-President of Egypt serving on an interim basis from 14 July 2013 until his resignation on 14 August 2013. He was the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency and he and the IAEA were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. ElBaradei was born and raised in Cairo, Egypt and he was one of five children of Mostafa ElBaradei, an attorney who headed the Egyptian Bar Association. ElBaradeis father was a supporter of democratic rights in Egypt, supporting a free press, ElBaradei is married to Aida El-Kachef, an early-childhood teacher. They have two children, a daughter, who is a living in London, and a son, Mostafa. They have two granddaughters and Nina, a native speaker of Arabic, ElBaradei is fluent in English and French, and knows enough German to get by, at least in Vienna. His thesis was titled The right of passage through straits in time of peace, from 1974 to 1978, he was a special assistant to the foreign minister.
In 1980, he became a fellow in charge of the International Law Program at the United Nations Institute for Training. From 1981 to 1987, he was a professor of international law at the New York University School of Law. In 1984, ElBaradei became a staff member of the IAEA Secretariat, serving as the agencys legal adviser. ElBaradei is currently a member of both the International Law Association and the American Society of International Law, ElBaradei began to serve as Director General of the IAEA, which is based in Vienna, on 1 December 1997, succeeding Hans Blix of Sweden. He was re-elected for two more terms in 2001 and in 2005. His third and last term ended in November 2009, ElBaradeis tenure has been marked by high-profile, non-proliferation issues, which include the inspections in Iraq preceding the March 2003 invasion, and tensions over the nuclear program of Iran. When in office, ElBaradei launched a program to establish integrated safeguards combining the IAEA’s comprehensive safeguard agreements with the newly adopted Additional Protocol and we should work together to ensure that, by the year 2000, all states have concluded outstanding-safeguards agreements and the Additional Protocol.
ElBaradei repeated this call through his years as the Director General of the IAEA, in November 2009,93 countries had Additional Protocols in force. ElBaradei’s first term ended in November 2001, just two months after the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and these attacks made clear that more needed to be done to protect nuclear material and installations from theft or a terrorist attack. One of the issues during ElBaradei’s second term as the director general of the IAEA was the agency’s inspections in Iraq. ElBaradei disputed the U. S. rationale for the 2003 invasion of Iraq from the time of the 2002 Iraq disarmament crisis, ElBaradei told the UN Security Council in March 2003 that documents purporting to show that Iraq had tried to acquire uranium from Niger were not authentic
Joint Plan of Action
On 24 November 2013, the Geneva interim agreement, officially titled the Joint Plan of Action, was a pact signed between Iran and the P5+1 countries in Geneva, Switzerland. It consists of a freeze of portions of Irans nuclear program in exchange for decreased economic sanctions on Iran. It represented the first formal agreement between the United States and Iran in 34 years, implementation of the agreement began 20 January 2014. The Joint Plan of Action and the negotiations under it which followed led to an April 2015 framework agreement and a July 2015 final agreement. The nuclear program of Iran has been a matter of contention with the community since 2002. For what the IAEA judged to be continued non-compliance, the UN Security Council has voted four times since 2006 to impose limited economic sanctions against Iran, in its resolutions, the Council required Iran to fully cooperate with the IAEA and to suspend all uranium enrichment-related activities. Rouhani was Irans chief nuclear negotiator from 2003 to 2005, the report said that American and Iranian officials met face-to-face five times in Oman.
The secret meetings, personally authorised by U. S. President Barack Obama, were launched in March 2013 in Muscat, Obama informed Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of these talks when Netanyahu visited the White House on 30 September 2013. The sides agreed to meet again on 20 November, the 20 November negotiations were attended at the foreign minister level by the participant countries. The talks opened with an introduction from Lady Ashton and the leader of the Iranian delegation, foreign minister Mohammad Javad Zarif. U. S. Deputy Secretary of State William Burns and Jake Sullivan and they stayed at a separate hotel and entered through service doors. Burns and Sullivan were key members of the channel that President Obama sent to Oman to meet with Iranian officials. Burns was reported to be in the seat of the American negotiating team, even though it was officially being led by Kerry. Burns had met secretly with Iranian officials as far back as 2008, the interim Geneva Accord was signed between P5+1 countries and the Islamic Republic of Iran on 24 November 2013.
The deal consists of the freezing of key parts of the Iranian nuclear program in exchange for a decrease in sanctions. The agreement makes the following stipulations on the Iranian nuclear program, no new uranium at the 3. 5% enrichment level will be added to Irans current stock. No new centrifuges will be installed or prepared for installation, 50% of the centrifuges at the Natanz enrichment facility and 75% at the Fordow enrichment facility will be left inoperable. Iran will not use its advanced IR-2 centrifuges for enrichment, Iran will not develop any new uranium enrichment or nuclear reprocessing facilities
Geneva is the second most populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Republic, the municipality has a population of 198,072, and the canton has 484,736 residents. In 2014, the compact agglomération du Grand Genève had 946,000 inhabitants in 212 communities in both Switzerland and France, within Swiss territory, the commuter area named Métropole lémanique contains a population of 1.25 million. This area is essentially spread east from Geneva towards the Riviera area and north-east towards Yverdon-les-Bains, Geneva is the city that hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world. It is the place where the Geneva Conventions were signed, Geneva was ranked as the worlds ninth most important financial centre for competitiveness by the Global Financial Centres Index, ahead of Frankfurt, and third in Europe behind London and Zürich. A2009 survey by Mercer found that Geneva has the third-highest quality of life of any city in the world, the city has been referred to as the worlds most compact metropolis and the Peace Capital.
In 2009 and 2011, Geneva was ranked as, the city was mentioned in Latin texts, by Caesar, with the spelling Genava, probably from a Celtic toponym *genawa- from the stem *genu-, in the sense of a bending river or estuary. The medieval county of Geneva in Middle Latin was known as pagus major Genevensis or Comitatus Genevensis, the name takes various forms in modern languages, Geneva /dʒᵻˈniːvə/ in English, Genève, Genf, Italian and Romansh, Genevra. The city in origin shares its name, *genawa estuary, with the Italian port city of Genoa, Geneva was an Allobrogian border town, fortified against the Helvetii tribe, when the Romans took it in 121 BC. It became Christian under the Late Roman Empire, and acquired its first bishop in the 5th century, having been connected to the bishopric of Vienne in the 4th. In the Middle Ages, Geneva was ruled by a count under the Holy Roman Empire until the late 14th century, around this time the House of Savoy came to dominate the city. In the 15th century, a republican government emerged with the creation of the Grand Council.
In 1541, with Protestantism in the ascendancy, John Calvin, by the 18th century, Geneva had come under the influence of Catholic France, which cultivated the city as its own. France tended to be at odds with the ordinary townsfolk, in 1798, revolutionary France under the Directory annexed Geneva. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, on 1 June 1814, in 1907, the separation of Church and State was adopted. Geneva flourished in the 19th and 20th centuries, becoming the seat of international organizations. Geneva is located at 46°12 North, 6°09 East, at the end of Lake Geneva. It is surrounded by two chains, the Alps and the Jura
Four countries besides the five recognized Nuclear Weapons States have acquired, or are presumed to have acquired, nuclear weapons, Pakistan, North Korea, and Israel. None of these four is a party to the NPT, although North Korea acceded to the NPT in 1985, withdrew in 2003, Research into the development of nuclear weapons was undertaken during World War II by the United States, Germany and the USSR. The United States was the first and is the country to have used a nuclear weapon in war. With their loss during the war and Japan ceased to be involved in any nuclear weapon research, in August 1949, the USSR tested a nuclear weapon. The United Kingdom tested a nuclear weapon in October 1952, France developed a nuclear weapon in 1960. The Peoples Republic of China detonated a weapon in 1964. India exploded a device in 1974, and Pakistan conducted a series of nuclear weapon tests in May 1998. In 2006, North Korea conducted its first nuclear test, none of these efforts were explicitly public, because the weapon developments themselves were kept secret until the bombing of Hiroshima.
The Baruch Plan, which drew heavily from the Acheson–Lilienthal Report of 1946, proposed the verifiable dismantlement, Security Council could veto, and which would proportionately punish states attempting to acquire the capability to make nuclear weapons or fissile material. Baruchs plea for the destruction of nuclear weapons invoked basic moral, in one part of his address to the UN, Baruch said, Behind the black portent of the new atomic age lies a hope which, seized upon with faith, can work out our salvation. If we fail, we have damned every man to be the slave of Fear and we must elect World Peace or World Destruction. We must answer the worlds longing for peace and security, with this remark, Baruch helped launch the field of nuclear ethics, to which many policy experts and scholars have contributed. Although the Baruch Plan enjoyed wide support, it failed to emerge from the UNAEC because the Soviet Union planned to veto it in the Security Council. Still, it remained official American policy until 1953, when President Eisenhower made his Atoms for Peace proposal before the U. N.
General Assembly, eisenhowers proposal led eventually to the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1957. Efforts to conclude an agreement to limit the spread of nuclear weapons did not begin until the early 1960s. Although these efforts stalled in the early 1960s, they renewed once again in 1964, in 1968, governments represented at the Eighteen Nation Disarmament Committee finished negotiations on the text of the NPT. In June 1968, the U. N. General Assembly endorsed the NPT with General Assembly Resolution 2373, and in July 1968, the NPT entered into force in March 1970. The main materials whose generation and distribution is controlled are highly enriched uranium and plutonium, dual-use technology refers to the possibility of military use of civilian nuclear power technology
Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action
For the next 15 years, Iran will only enrich uranium up to 3. 67%. Iran agreed not to any new heavy-water facilities for the same period of time. Uranium-enrichment activities will be limited to a facility using first-generation centrifuges for 10 years. Other facilities will be converted to avoid proliferation risks, to monitor and verify Irans compliance with the agreement, the International Atomic Energy Agency will have regular access to all Iranian nuclear facilities. The agreement provides that in return for verifiably abiding by its commitments, European Union, and United Nations Security Council nuclear-related economic sanctions. A nuclear weapon uses a material to cause a nuclear chain reaction. The most commonly used materials have been uranium 235 and plutonium 239, both uranium 233 and reactor-grade plutonium have been used. Plutonium is almost nonexistent in nature, and natural uranium is about 99. 3% uranium 238 and 0. 7% U-235, therefore, to make a weapon, either uranium must be enriched, or plutonium must be produced.
Uranium enrichment is necessary for nuclear power. For this reason, uranium enrichment is a technology, a technology which can be used both for civilian and for military purposes. Key strategies to prevent proliferation of arms include limiting the number of operating uranium enrichment plants and controlling the export of nuclear technology. Iranian development of technology began in the 1970s, when the U. S. Atoms for Peace program began providing assistance to Iran, which was led by the Shah. Iran signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1968 as a non-nuclear weapons state, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini was initially opposed to nuclear technology, and Iran engaged in a costly war with Iraq from 1980 to 1988. Starting in the 1980s, Iran restarted its program, with assistance from Pakistan and Russia. Iran began pursuing a nuclear fuel cycle capability by developing a uranium mining infrastructure and experimenting with uranium conversion. According to the nonpartisan Nuclear Threat Initiative, U. S.
intelligence agencies have long suspected Iran of using its nuclear program as a cover for clandestine weapons development. Iran, in contrast, has insisted that its nuclear work is peaceful
Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant
The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant in Iran 17 kilometres southeast of the city of Bushehr, between the fishing villages of Halileh and Bandargeh along the Persian Gulf. Construction of the plant was started in 1975 by German companies, the site was repeatedly bombed during the Iran–Iraq war. Later, a contract for finishing the plant was signed between Iran and the Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy in 1995, with Russias Atomstroyexport named as the main contractor, the work was delayed several years by technical and financial challenges as well as by political pressure from the West. Delivery of nuclear fuel started the same year, the project is considered unique in terms of its technology, the political environment and the challenging physical climate. It is the first civilian nuclear power plant built in the Middle East, several research reactors had been built earlier in the Middle East, two in Iraq, two in Israel, one in Syria and three in Iran. In November 2014 Iran and Russia signed an agreement to two new nuclear reactors at the Bushehr site, with an option of six more at other sites later.
Construction formally started on 14 March 2017, the facility was the idea of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. He wanted a national electrical grid powered by power plants. Bushehr would be the first plant, and would supply energy to the city of Shiraz. In August 1974, the Shah said, Petroleum is a noble material and we envision producing, as soon as possible,23,000 megawatts of electricity using nuclear plants. In 1975, German Kraftwerk Union AG, a joint venture of Siemens AG and AEG Telefunken, the work was begun in the same year. The two 1,196 MWe reactors, subcontracted to ThyssenKrupp AG, were based on the Convoy design, the first reactor was to be finished by 1980 and the second one by 1981. The market here is about saturated, and the United States has cornered most of the rest of Europe, so we have to concentrate on the third world. Kraftwerk Union fully withdrew from the Bushehr nuclear project in July 1979, after work stopped in January 1979, with one reactor 50% complete, and they said they based their action on Irans non-payment of $450 million in overdue payments.
The company had received $2.5 billion of the total contract, shortly afterwards, Iraq invaded Iran and the nuclear program was stopped until the end of the war. In 1984, Kraftwerk Union did an assessment to see if it could resume work on the project. In April of that year, the U. S. State Department said, the spokesperson said that the light water power reactors at Bushehr are not particularly well-suited for a weapons program. The spokesman went on to say, In addition, we have no evidence of Iranian construction of facilities that would be necessary to separate plutonium from spent reactor fuel
Iran nuclear deal framework
The Iran nuclear deal framework was a preliminary framework agreement reached in 2015 between the Islamic Republic of Iran and a group of world powers, the P5+1 and the European Union. The parties announced, Today, we have taken a step, we have reached solutions on key parameters of a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action. Announcing the framework, Foreign Minister Zarif stated, No agreement has been reached so we do not have any obligation yet. On 14 July 2015, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action between Iran and the P5+1 and EU, an agreement based on the April 2015 framework, was announced. According to the joint statement in Switzerland, the P5+1 countries, in addition to the joint statement, the United States and Iran issued fact sheets of their own. The joint statement outlines the following, Irans enrichment capacity, enrichment level, there will be no enrichment facilities other than Natanz. Iran is allowed to research and development on centrifuges with an agreed scope. Fordow, the underground enrichment center, will be converted to a nuclear, the Heavy Water facility in Arak with help of international venture will be redesigned and modernized to Heavy Water Research Reactor with no weapon grade plutonium byproducts.
The spent fuel will be exported, there will be no reprocessing, implementation of the modified Code 3.1 and provisional application of the Additional Protocol. Iran agreed IAEA procedure which enhanced access by modern technologies to clarify past, when the IAEA verifies Irans implementation of its key nuclear commitments, The EU will terminate all nuclear-related economic sanctions. The United States will cease the application of all nuclear-related secondary economic, in addition to the final statement, both the United States and Iran have made public more detailed descriptions of their agreement. Officials of both sides acknowledge that they have different narratives on this draft, the U. S. government has published a fact sheet summarizing the main points of the deal. Shortly after it was published, top Iranian officials, including the Iranian supreme leader, in a speech the following Saturday, Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei added, Our policy will not change with regards to the arrogant US government.
According to details of the published by the US government. The level of enrichment must remain at 3. 67%, Iran will retain no more than 6,104 out of almost 20,000 centrifuges it possesses. There are two uranium enrichment facilities in Iran - Natanz and Fordo, under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action agreed on 14 July, the Natanz facility will be limited to installing no more than 5,060 of the oldest and least efficient centrifuges for 10 years. At Fordo, no enrichment will be permitted for 15 years,1,044 centrifuges at the site will produce radioisotopes for use in medicine, agriculture and science. This amount of enrichment - namely 3. 67% - would be enough just for peaceful and civil use to power parts of country and therefore is not sufficient for building a nuclear bomb