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PARC (company)

PARC is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California. Formed in 1970, the company was a subsidiary of Xerox, was tasked with creating computer technology-related products and hardware systems. Founded by Jacob E. "Jack" Goldman, Xerox Corporation's chief scientist, Xerox PARC has been in large part responsible for such developments as laser printing, the modern personal computer, graphical user interface and desktop paradigm, object-oriented programming, ubiquitous computing, electronic paper, amorphous silicon applications, the mouse and advancing very-large-scale integration for semiconductors. Xerox formed Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated as a wholly owned subsidiary in 2002. In 1969, Jack Goldman, Xerox's Chief Scientist, spoke to George Pake, a physicist specializing in nuclear magnetic resonance and provost of Washington University in St. Louis, about starting a second research center for the company. On July 1, 1970, the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center opened. While the 3,000-mile buffer between it and Xerox headquarters in Rochester, New York afforded scientists at the new lab great freedom to undertake their work, the distance served as an impediment in persuading management of the promise of some of their greatest achievements.

PARC's West Coast location proved to be advantageous in the mid-1970s, when the lab was able to hire many employees of the nearby SRI Augmentation Research Center as that facility's funding began falling, from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration and U. S. Air Force. Being situated on Stanford Research Park land leased from Stanford University encouraged Stanford graduate students to be involved in PARC research projects and PARC scientists to collaborate with academic seminars and projects. Much of PARC's early success in the computer field was under the leadership of its Computer Science Laboratory manager Bob Taylor, who guided the lab as associate manager from 1970 to 1977 and as manager from 1977 to 1983. After three decades as a division of Xerox, PARC was transformed in 2002 into an independent, wholly owned subsidiary company dedicated to developing and maturing advances in science and business concepts with the support of commercial partners and clients.

Using an open innovation approach, PARC today provides custom R&D services, user experience expertise, intellectual property to Fortune 500 and Global 1000 companies and government agencies. Xerox remains the company's largest customer, but PARC has many other clients including Samsung, Thin Film Electronics ASA, Boeing, P&G, Alphabet/GoogleX, Novartis, Teledyne, BASF, Honda Motor Co. Ltd. Daikin, Sandvik, JR East, DARPA, NIH, NSF, many more. PARC's current work is centered around a series of Focus Areas which include: Artificial Intelligence and Human-Machine Collaboration. Many technologies are available for license and commercialization through PARC's Commercialization Program, such as: Wavelength Shift Detector. PARC's thin-film and optoelectronics cleanroom facilities allow clients to design, develop new processes, build prototypes, transition technology to manufacturing. PARCs Thin-film Cleanroom can be used to prototype display and imager thin film transistor backplanes compatible with manufacturing facilities.

Optoelectronic cleanroom services include work with AlGalnN semiconductor materials. PARC's research areas encompass a range of disciplines in hardware, social sciences, design. Areas include ubiquitous sensing, electrochemical energy systems, material deposition systems and composite materials, semiconductor materials, printing for manufacturing, optical sensors and mechanical microsystems and hybrid electronics, large-area thin-film electronics, optoelectronic devices, user experience design, systems security, system prognosis and health management and simulation of cyber-physical systems, interactive machine learning, human-machine collaboration and spatial reasoning, data science, conversational agents, computer vision and image synthesis. Xerox PARC has been the inventor and incubator of many elements of modern computing in the contemporary office work place: Laser printers Computer-generated bitmap graphics The graphical user interface, featuring skeuomorphic windows and icons, operated with a mouse The WYSIWYG text editor Interpress, a resolution-independent graphical page-description language and the precursor to PostScript Ethernet as a local-area computer network Fully formed object-oriented programming in the Smalltalk programming language and integrated development environment Prototype-based programming in the Self programming language Model–view–controller software architecture AspectJ an aspect-oriented programming extension for the Java programming language Most of these developments were included in the Alto, which added the now familiar Stanford Research Institute developed mouse, unifying into a single model most aspects of now-standard personal computer use.

The integration of Ethernet prompted the development of the PARC Universal Packet architecture, much like today's Internet. Xe

Abraham Nathanson

Abraham Nathanson was an American graphic designer. He created the game Bananagrams, a game that uses letter tiles similar to Scrabble with the addition of the element of speed. Nathanson was born in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, on November 26, 1929, where he graduated from Pawtucket East Senior High School. Following the completion of his service in the United States Army, Nathanson enrolled at Pratt Institute, where he studied graphic design, he opened a design studio in Pawtucket with his brother. He went into business for himself, opening George Nathan Design in a historic mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, a firm that made graphics for gift items. Frustrated with the slow pace of a Scrabble game he was playing with his grandson, Nathanson sought to create a game that combined the word game aspect of Scrabble, but that had the excitement of the element of speed, he told the Boston Globe that "we need an anagrams game so fast, it'll drive you bananas". At the age of 76, he created Bananagrams, which uses a set of 144 tiles and no board, with players arranging the tiles to form words in crossword fashion.

The first player to play out all of his tiles in a crossword grid shouts "Bananas" to indicate he has won. The banana-shaped pouch was designed by his former wife, he manufactured 50 copies of the game, half of which his daughter sold in England and the other half he sold in the U. S. Another 500 sets were manufactured and sold; the game was an instant hit at the 2006 London Toy Fair and was named game of the year by the Toy Industry Association in 2009. In addition to domino-like Appletters and spelling game Pairs in Pears, the Banagrams brand has been spun off to Facebook and the iPhone, with the original game selling 3 million copies in 2009. Nathanson, a resident of Cranston, Rhode Island, died at age 80 of cancer on June 6, 2010, at his summer home in Narragansett, he was survived by three daughters and four grandchildren

Valsad–Bandra Terminus Passenger

The 59046 Valsad - Bandra Terminus Passenger is a passenger train of the Indian Railways connecting Valsad in Gujarat and Bandra Terminus of Maharashtra. It is being operated with 59046 train number on daily basis; the 59046/Valsad - Bandra Terminus Passenger has average speed of 39 km/hr and covers 183 km in 4 hrs 40 mins. The 59046/Valsad - Bandra Terminus Passenger runs from Valsad via Vapi, Dahanu Road, Virar, Vasai Road and Andheri to Bandra Terminus; the train consist of 18 coaches: 16 General Unreserved 2 Seating cum Luggage Rake Train is hauled by a Locomotive shed, Vadodara based WAP-5 or Locomotive shed, Valsad based WAG-5B. The train share its rake with 59037/59038 Virar - Surat Passenger, 59039 Virar - Valsad Shuttle, 59040 Vapi - Virar Shuttle, 59045 Bandra Terminus - Vapi Passenger 59046/Valsad - Bandra Terminus Passenger