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The PDP-1 is the first computer in Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP series and was first produced in 1959. It is famous for being the computer most important in the creation of hacker culture at MIT, BBN and elsewhere; the PDP-1 is the original hardware for playing history's first game on a minicomputer, Steve Russell's Spacewar! The PDP-1 uses an 18-bit word size and has 4096 words as standard main memory, upgradable to 65,536 words; the magnetic core memory's cycle time is 5.35 microseconds. Signed numbers are represented in ones' complement; the PDP-1 has computing power equivalent to a 1996 pocket organizer and a little less memory. The PDP-1 uses 3,000 diodes, it is built of DEC 1000-series System Building Blocks, using micro-alloy and micro-alloy diffused transistors with a rated switching speed of 5 MHz. The System Building Blocks are packaged into several 19-inch racks; the racks are themselves packaged into a single large mainframe case, with a hexagonal control panel containing switches and lights mounted to lie at table-top height at one end of the mainframe.

Above the control panel is the system's standard input/output solution, a punched tape reader and writer. The PDP-1 weighed about 1,600 pounds; the design of the PDP-1 is based on the pioneering TX-0 and TX-2 computers and built at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Benjamin Gurley was the lead engineer on the project. After showing a prototype at the Eastern Joint Computer Conference in December 1959, DEC delivered the first PDP-1 to Bolt and Newman in November 1960, it was formally accepted in early 1961. In September 1961, DEC donated the PDP-1 to MIT, where it was placed in the room next to its ancestor, the TX-0 computer, by on indefinite loan from Lincoln Laboratory. In this setting, the PDP-1 replaced the TX-0 as the favorite machine among the budding hacker culture, served as the platform for a long list of computing innovations; this list includes one of the earliest digital video games, Spacewar!, the first text editor, the first word processor, the first interactive debugger, the first credible computer chess program, one of the earliest time-sharing systems, some of the earliest computerized music.

At the Computer History Museum TX-0 alumni reunion in 1984, Gordon Bell said DEC's products developed directly from the TX-2, the successor to the TX-0, developed at what Bell thought was a bargain price at the time, about US$3 million. At the same meeting, Jack Dennis said Ben Gurley's design for the PDP-1 was influenced by his work on the TX-0 display; the PDP-1 sold in basic form for US$120,000. BBN's system was followed by orders from Lawrence Livermore and Atomic Energy of Canada, 53 PDP-1s were delivered until production ended in 1969. All of these machines were still being used in 1970, several were saved. MIT's example was donated to The Computer Museum and from there ended up at the Computer History Museum. A late version of Spacewar! on paper tape was still tucked into the case. PDP-1 #44 was found in a barn in Wichita, Kansas in 1988 formerly owned by one of the many aviation companies in the area, rescued for the Digital Historical Collection eventually ending up at the CHM. AECL's computer was sent to Science North, but was scrapped.

The launch of the PDP-1 marked a radical shift in the philosophy of computer design: it is the first commercial computer that focuses on interaction with the user rather than just the efficient use of computer cycles. The first reference to malicious hacking is'telephone hackers' in MIT's student newspaper, The Tech of hackers trying up the lines with Harvard, configuring the PDP-1 to make free calls, war dialing and accumulating large phone bills; the PDP-1 uses punched paper tape as its primary storage medium. Unlike punched card decks, which could be sorted and re-ordered, paper tape is difficult to physically edit; this inspired the creation of text-editing programs such as Expensive Typewriter and TECO. Because it is equipped with online and offline printers that were based on IBM electric typewriter mechanisms, it is capable of what, in 1980s terminology, would be called "letter-quality printing" and therefore inspired TJ-2, arguably the first word processor; the console typewriter is the product of a company named Soroban Engineering.

It uses an IBM Model B Electric typewriter mechanism, modified by the addition of switches to detect keypresses, solenoids to activate the typebars. It uses a traditional typebar mechanism, not the "golfball" IBM Selectric typewriter mechanism, not introduced until the next year. Lettercase is selected by lowering the massive type basket; the Soroban is equipped with a two-color inked ribbon, the interface allows color selection. Programs use color-coding to distinguish user input from machine responses; the Soroban mechanism is unreliable and prone to jamming when shifting case or changing ribbon color. Offline devices are Friden Flexowriters that have been specially built to operate with the FIO-DEC character coding used by the PDP-1. Like the console typewriter, these are built around a typing mechanism, mechanically the same as an IBM Electric typewriter. However, Flexowriters are reliab

Josie Ho

Josephine "Josie" Ho Chiu-yi, born 26 December 1974) is a singer and actress from Hong Kong. She is the daughter of the Macao casino magnate Stanley Ho, she has played many roles, including portraying the parts of prostitutes, which were in strong contrast to her own wealthy upbringing as a billionaire's daughter. For the film Exiled, Ho did not work with a script. Recalling the experience in a recent interview, she said of director Johnnie To, " tells actors what to do... Johnnie wants us to come to the set with our mind clean, like a white piece of paper; that way, he can draw whatever he wishes on us." Ho starred alongside Eason Chan in Dream Home. In 2009, Ho along with husband Conroy Chan, Andrew Ooi, co-founded 852 Films, a film production company. Ho is Ho's second wife Lucina Lam, she has 3 elder sisters and 1 younger brother, Daisy and Lawrence, as well as numbers of half-brothers and half-sisters. In November 2003, Ho married musician-actor Conroy Chan Chi-chung in Australia, she credits her eldest sister Pansy with supporting her early efforts to establish a singing career over the objections of their father.

Josie Ho on IMDb Josie Ho at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase Official Josie Ho website Josie Ho at Hong Kong Cinemagic Josie Ho at ChineseMov Josie Ho interview The Establishing Shot talks to Josie Ho about Dream Home Clifford Coonan: Hong Kong's poster girl is not your average heiress, Irish Times, 4 October 2011 Alexandra A. Seno: Josie Ho: Tracking a star, from Hong Kong to Sundance, New York Times, 8 January 2008 Johannes Pong: Billionaire heiress Josie Ho,, 20 May 2010

Leon Gouré

Leon Gouré was a Russian-born American political scientist and analyst. His studies for the RAND Corporation were important influences on US policy in the 1960s and 1970s on civil defense preparedness in the Soviet Union, on the morale of the Viet Cong in Vietnam, he was born in Moscow, the son of Boris and Sophie Gourevitsch, who were Mensheviks who opposed the Bolshevik regime and went into exile in Berlin in 1923. They escaped from Nazi persecution into France in 1933 and in 1940, fled from Paris to the United States, where the family settled in Hoboken, New Jersey. Leon Gouré enlisted in the US Army and became a US citizen in 1943, he fought as an infantryman in World War II, before serving in counterintelligence and, after the war, interviewed Nazis and their collaborators who were held as prisoners. After his discharge he studied at New York University, graduating in 1947, received a master's degree from Columbia University in 1949, he joined the Rand Corporation in Washington, D. C. in 1954, transferring to the organization's offices in Santa Monica, California, in 1959.

He received a doctorate in political science from Georgetown University in 1961. As an analyst at Rand, he began to develop his ideas on civil defense in the Soviet Union. In 1961, he wrote an influential report suggesting that the Soviet Union had massively increased their civil defense preparations so as to protect large numbers of people in the event of a nuclear war, his reports on the subject contributed to the expansion of civil defense measures in the US during the 1970s and 1980s. In 1973, he wrote that: The fundamental Soviet view is that the better the USSR is prepared for war, the greater and more credible is its ability to deter its adversary from risking military confrontation; this is the main reason why Moscow categorically rejects any concept of security based on a balance of'mutual assured destruction.' He advised President Lyndon Johnson's administration on the war in Vietnam. According to Malcolm Gladwell, writing in 2013, Gouré was "brilliant, charismatic charming and ruthless".

He established the Vietnam Motivation and Morale Project, in 1964 lived for a period in Saigon where his staff were sent to interview Viet Cong combatants. His report would surrender after further bombing, his opinions were opposed by fellow analyst Konrad Kellen. Events proved Kellen to be right, but it was Gouré's analysis. Gouré joined the University of Miami in 1969, as director of Soviet studies at the Center for Advanced International Studies. In 1980, he moved to consultancy firm Science Applications International Corp. where he remained until his retirement in 2004. A resident of Potomac, Maryland, he died in 2007 of congestive heart failure in Arlington at the age of 84, his books included The Siege of Leningrad and Civil Defense in the Soviet Union, both published in 1962. In 2009, his papers were acquired by the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. Publications at Rand Corporation Leon Gouré at

Wellington Fault

The Wellington Fault is an active seismic fault in the southern part of the North Island of New Zealand. It is a dextral strike-slip fault with variable amounts of vertical movement causing uplift to the northwest, as expressed by a series of ranges, it forms part of the North Island Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. The Wellington Fault consists of three main sections; this 75 km long curved fault segment is mapped on the floor of the Cook Strait before crossing the Wellington peninsula through Long Gully and along the northwestern edge of Wellington Harbour, past Lower Hutt terminating near Kaitoke. This segment has had a lateral slip-rate of 6.0–7.6 mm per year for at least the last 140,000 years, from the progressive offset of dated river terraces. The most recent rupture event along this section is constrained to 150–450 yrs BP; this section is interpreted to give rise to characteristic earthquakes involving rupture of the entire fault segment, with a single-event displacement of 3.8–4.6 m.

The recurrence interval is 500–770 years. The Kaitoke basin is a small pull-apart basin formed at the 2 km lateral offset between this segment and the Tararua segment, near Kaitoke, it is possible that the Māori legend of the formation of Whanganui-a-Tara derives from an oral record of an early quake along this fault. The 53 km long arcuate Tararua segment starts just north of Kaitoke along the eastern side of the Tararua Range, it terminates near Putara. It consists of two active fault strands, the southeasterly of which carries most of the displacement, as shown by offset drainage patterns; the strike of this section changes from 041° in the south to 020° in the north. The dextral slip rate for this section is 4.9–7.6 mm/yr, with a single-event displacement of 3.5–5.5 m and a recurrence interval of 500–1120 years. This 42 km long segment runs from near Putara in the south to near Woodville in the north, where the fault branches into the Ruahine and Mohaka Faults; this segment is linear with a strike of 033°.

The dextral slip rate for this section is 4.9–6.2 mm/yr, with a single-event displacement of 4.5±1 m and a recurrence interval of 560–1120 years. Although no historic earthquake has been recorded for this fault, the potential impact of rupture along the Wellington-Hutt Valley section on the Wellington area makes it one of the greatest natural hazards in New Zealand; the Wellington Fault is capable of producing earthquakes of up to magnitude-8. While a major rupture on the Wellington Fault can be expected anytime in the next 500 years, a significant earthquake on other faults in the Wellington area have a shorter 150 year return time. Geology of New Zealand Geology of the Wellington Region North Island Fault System Wairarapa Fault Richard W. Heine: A New Interpretation of the Geomorphology of Wellington. In Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Juni 1982, p. 189–205 Wellington Fault at GNS Science Wellington Fault – video by GNS Science "Images of Wellington Fault c1956". Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand.


Madison Township

Madison Township may refer to: Madison Township, Grant County, Arkansas, in Grant County, Arkansas Madison Township, Howard County, Arkansas, in Howard County, Arkansas Madison Township, St. Francis County, Arkansas, in St. Francis County, Arkansas Madison Township, Richland County, Illinois Madison Township, Allen County, Indiana Madison Township, Carroll County, Indiana Madison Township, Clinton County, Indiana Madison Township, Daviess County, Indiana Madison Township, Dubois County, Indiana Madison Township, Jay County, Indiana Madison Township, Jefferson County, Indiana Madison Township, Montgomery County, Indiana Madison Township, Morgan County, Indiana Madison Township, Pike County, Indiana Madison Township, Putnam County, Indiana Madison Township, St. Joseph County, Indiana Madison Township, Tipton County, Indiana Madison Township, Washington County, Indiana Madison Township, Buchanan County, Iowa Madison Township, Butler County, Iowa Madison Township, Clarke County, Iowa Madison Township, Fremont County, Iowa Madison Township, Hancock County, Iowa Madison Township, Johnson County, Iowa Madison Township, Jones County, Iowa Madison Township, Lee County, Iowa Madison Township, Madison County, Iowa Madison Township, Mahaska County, Iowa Madison Township, Polk County, Iowa Madison Township, Poweshiek County, Iowa Madison Township, Winneshiek County, Iowa Madison Township, Greenwood County, Kansas Madison Township, Lincoln County, Kansas, in Lincoln County, Kansas Madison Township, Riley County, Kansas, in Riley County, Kansas Madison Charter Township, Michigan, in Lenawee County Madison Township, Lac qui Parle County, Minnesota Madison Township, Cedar County, Missouri Madison Township, Clark County, Missouri Madison Township, Grundy County, Missouri Madison Township, Harrison County, Missouri Madison Township, Johnson County, Missouri Madison Township, Mercer County, Missouri Madison Township, Jasper County, Missouri Madison Township, Fillmore County, Nebraska Madison Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, now Old Bridge Township Madison Township, Guilford County, North Carolina Madison Township, Rockingham County, North Carolina Madison Township, Hettinger County, North Dakota, in Hettinger County, North Dakota Madison Township, Butler County, Ohio Madison Township, Clark County, Ohio Madison Township, Columbiana County, Ohio Madison Township, Fairfield County, Ohio Madison Township, Fayette County, Ohio Madison Township, Franklin County, Ohio Madison Township, Guernsey County, Ohio Madison Township, Hancock County, Ohio Madison Township, Highland County, Ohio Madison Township, Jackson County, Ohio Madison Township, Lake County, Ohio Madison Township, Licking County, Ohio Madison Township, Montgomery County, Ohio Madison Township, Muskingum County, Ohio Madison Township, Perry County, Ohio Madison Township, Pickaway County, Ohio Madison Township, Richland County, Ohio Madison Township, Sandusky County, Ohio Madison Township, Scioto County, Ohio Madison Township, Vinton County, Ohio Madison Township, Williams County, Ohio Madison Township, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania Madison Township, Clarion County, Pennsylvania Madison Township, Columbia County, Pennsylvania Madison Township, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania Madison Township, Edmunds County, South Dakota, in Edmunds County, South Dakota Madison Township, Grant County, South Dakota, in Grant County, South Dakota

Mike Hastings (ice hockey)

Mike Hastings is the current head ice hockey coach of the Minnesota State University, Mankato Mavericks. He was the head coach and general manager of the Omaha Lancers in the United States Hockey League, he is the coach for the United States World Juniors team. He was the head coach of the Omaha/River City Lancers from 1994–2008 where he was twice named the USHL Coach of the Year and five times was named the USHL General Manager of the Year. After a successful 14-year run in the USHL Hastings returned to the college ranks, joining the staff at Minnesota as an assistant for a year before becoming an associate head coach at Nebraska–Omaha. After three years with the Mavericks Hastings accepted the head coaching position at Minnesota State. Hastings arrived in Mankato the program had only one winning season in the previous nine years and he turned the program around. In his first year the team doubled their win total, going 24–14–3 and making the second NCAA tournament appearance since joining Division I in 1996.

The team improved in each of the next two seasons, winning the WCHA tournament both years and was the #1 seed in the 2015 NCAA Tournament. While postseason success has eluded him, Hastings' 5 consecutive 20+ win seasons to start his career led to Minnesota State giving him a 10-year contract extension in the spring of 2017. Mike Hastings career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database