The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series. In total, around 600,000 PDP-11s of all models were sold, making it one of DEC's most successful product lines; the PDP-11 is considered by some experts to be the most popular minicomputer ever. The PDP-11 included a number of innovative features in its instruction set and additional general-purpose registers that made it much easier to program than earlier models in the PDP series. Additionally, the innovative Unibus system allowed external devices to be interfaced to the system using direct memory access, opening the system to a wide variety of peripherals; the PDP-11 replaced the PDP-8 in many real-time applications, although both product lines lived in parallel for more than 10 years. The ease of programming of the PDP-11 made it popular for general-purpose computing uses as well; the design of the PDP-11 inspired the design of late-1970s microprocessors including the Intel x86 and the Motorola 68000.

Design features of PDP-11 operating systems, as well as other operating systems from Digital Equipment, influenced the design of other operating systems such as CP/M and hence MS-DOS. The first named version of Unix ran on the PDP-11/20 in 1970, it is stated that the C programming language took advantage of several low-level PDP-11–dependent programming features, albeit not by design. An effort to expand the PDP-11 from 16 to 32-bit addressing led to the VAX-11 design, which took part of its name from the PDP-11. In 1963, DEC introduced what is considered to be the first commercial minicomputer in the form of the PDP-5; this was a 12-bit design adapted from the 1962 LINC machine, intended to be used in a lab setting. DEC simplified the LINC system and instruction set, aiming the PDP-5 at smaller settings that did not need the power of their larger 18-bit PDP-4; the PDP-5 was a success selling about 50,000 examples. During this period, the computer market was moving from computer word lengths based on units of 6 bits to units of 8 bits, following the introduction of the 7-bit ASCII standard.

In 1967–68, DEC engineers designed a 16-bit machine, the PDP-X, but management canceled the project as it did not appear to offer a significant advantage over their existing 12- and 18-bit platforms. Several of the engineers from the PDP-X formed Data General; the next year they introduced the 16-bit Data General Nova. The Nova was a major success, selling tens of thousands of units and launching what would become one of DEC's major competitors through the 1970s and 80s. A subsequent effort, code-named "Desk Calculator", looked at a variety of options before choosing what became the 16-bit PDP-11. DEC sold over 170,000 PDP-11s in the 1970s. Manufactured of small-scale transistor–transistor logic, a single-board large scale integration version of the processor was developed in 1975. A two-or-three-chip processor, the J-11 was developed in 1979; the last models of the PDP-11 line were the PDP-11/94 and -11/93 introduced in 1990. The PDP-11 processor architecture has a orthogonal instruction set. For example, instead of instructions such as load and store, the PDP-11 has a move instruction for which either operand can be memory or register.

There are output instructions. More complex instructions such as add can have memory, input, or output as source or destination. Most operands can apply any of eight addressing modes to eight registers; the addressing modes provide register, absolute, relative and indexed addressing, can specify autoincrementation and autodecrementation of a register by one or two. Use of relative addressing lets a machine-language program be position-independent. Early models of the PDP-11 had no dedicated bus for input/output, but only a system bus called the Unibus, as input and output devices were mapped to memory addresses. An input/output device determined the memory addresses to which it would respond, specified its own interrupt vector and interrupt priority; this flexible framework provided by the processor architecture made it unusually easy to invent new bus devices, including devices to control hardware that had not been contemplated when the processor was designed. DEC published the basic Unibus specifications offering prototyping bus interface circuit boards, encouraging customers to develop their own Unibus-compatible hardware.

The Unibus made the PDP-11 suitable for custom peripherals. One of the predecessors of Alcatel-Lucent, the Bell Telephone Manufacturing Company, developed the BTMC DPS-1500 packet-switching network and used PDP-11s in the regional and national network management system, with the Unibus directly connected to the DPS-1500 hardware. Higher-performance members of the PDP-11 family, starting with the PDP-11/45 Unibus and 11/83 Q-bus systems, departed from the single-bus approach. Instead, memory was interfaced by dedicated circuitry and space in the CPU cabinet, while the Unibus continued to be used for I/O only. In the PDP-11/70, this was taken a step further, with the addition of a dedicated interface between disks and tapes and memory, via the Massbus. Although input/output devices continued to be mapped into memory addresses, some additional programming was necessary to set up the added bus interfaces; the PDP-11 supports hardware interrupts


Laffa known as lafa, is a popular Israeli flatbread of Iraqi Jewish origin, most used to wrap sandwiches such as falafel and schwarma, to dip in hummus and other dips, or with shakshouka, other dishes. It is the traditional bread used in sabich, an Israeli eggplant sandwich. Laffa originated within the Jewish community of Iraq, as a bread baked in their communal outdoor wood or coal fired ovens, among whom it was their traditional bread and served as an accompaniment to a myriad of dishes, who existed in Iraq for thousands of years since the time of the Babylonian exile until a series of Nazi-affiliated pogroms and forced expulsion from the country forced the Iraqi Jews to seek refuge in Israel during the mid-20th century. With the community's arrival in Israel en masse, they brought with them their culinary traditions including laffa, t'bit, what would become sabich. With the arrival of Jewish refugees from Iraq and around the world to the newly-established state of Israel, various foods from the different ethnicities of the Jewish diaspora residijg in the country began to become part of a unique fusion cuisine, that would become Israeli cuisine.

Over the years the use of laffa spread to other groups in Israel, it's popularity became widespread outside the Iraqi Jewish community for the first time. Laffa has since become a popular bread among all ethnicities in Israel, is used for various sandwiches and dips. Laffa is a large, thin flatbread with a soft, pillowy texture, thinner than a pita, but thicker than a lavash, or Druze mountain bread. Unlike Israeli and other pitas, laffa does not form a pocket. Laffa is prepared by creating a dough made up of flour, yeast, salt and olive oil; the dough is kneaded and often left to rise for several hours or overnight. It is divided into several balls of dough, which are left to rise. Traditionally a wood - or coal-fired oven is similar to a tandoor; the dough is rolled out into a large, thin piece, much thinner than an Israeli pita, placed in a hot oven, pan, or grill and baked for several minutes until it has risen and cooked through. Laffa is a popular bread in Israel, where it is paired with dips such as chummus and other mezzes.

It is the traditional bread used in sabich, is commonly used to wrap sandwiches in such as schnitzel, turkey, chicken, or lamb schwarma, others. Laffa is served across the United States at restaurants serving Israeli cuisine. Falafel Israeli pita Sabich Taboon bread Yufka

My Teacher Is a Thug

My Teacher Is a Thug is a 25 episode Singaporean drama produced and telecast on Mediacorp Channel 8. The show had a repeat telecast at 8 am the following day, it is to commemorate Drama35 in Conjunction of Teacher's Day. It stars Li Bonnie Loo as the casts of the series; the drama will be re-aired again at 5.30pm after succeeding While We Are Young. Jia Tianxiong is a gambler and addicted to drinking, he was disguised himself as a teacher in SCP school. He met a teacher in the school. But, on Kaixin's birthday, her foster father told her. Kaixin was devastated and felt angry with her biological father for not reuniting with her and her mother who had passed away. Will Kaixin find her biological father? Bonnie Loo Third collaboration with Li Nanxing & Terence Cao after C. L. I. F. 3 & C. L. I. F. 4 This is Bonnie Loo's first role as the female lead. This is the second time where Li Nanxing and Phyllis Quek pairs up, after The New Adventures of Wisely. Filming began in April and wrapped in July 2017 The series was not nominated for competition at Star Awards 2018.

List of MediaCorp Channel 8 Chinese drama series