Paul Thomas Mann was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate. His symbolic and ironic epic novels and novellas are noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and the intellectual, his analysis and critique of the European and German soul used modernized versions of German and Biblical stories, as well as the ideas of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Nietzsche and Arthur Schopenhauer. Mann was a member of the Hanseatic Mann family and portrayed his family and class in his first novel, Buddenbrooks, his older brother was the radical writer Heinrich Mann and three of Mann's six children, Erika Mann, Klaus Mann and Golo Mann became significant German writers. When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, Mann fled to Switzerland; when World War II broke out in 1939, he moved to the United States returned to Switzerland in 1952. Mann is one of the best-known exponents of the so-called Exilliteratur, German literature written in exile by those who opposed the Hitler regime.
Mann's work influenced many authors, including Heinrich Böll, Joseph Heller, Yukio Mishima, Orhan Pamuk. Paul Thomas Mann was born to a bourgeois family in Lübeck, the second son of Thomas Johann Heinrich Mann and his wife Júlia da Silva Bruhns, a Brazilian woman of German and Portuguese ancestry, who emigrated to Germany with her family when she was seven years old, his mother was Roman Mann was baptised into his father's Lutheran religion. Mann's father died in 1891, his trading firm was liquidated; the family subsequently moved to Munich. Mann first studied science at a Lübeck gymnasium attended the Ludwig Maximillians University of Munich as well as the Technical University of Munich, where, in preparation for a journalism career, he studied history, art history and literature. Mann lived in Munich from 1891 until 1933, with the exception of a year spent in Palestrina, with his elder brother, the novelist Heinrich. Thomas worked at the South German Fire Insurance Company in 1894–95, his career as a writer began.
Mann's first short story, "Little Mr Friedemann", was published in 1898. In 1905, Mann married Katia Pringsheim, who came from a wealthy, secular Jewish industrialist family, she joined the Lutheran church. The couple had six children. In 1912, he and his wife moved to a sanatorium in Davos, to inspire his 1924 novel The Magic Mountain, he was appalled by the risk of international confrontation between Germany and France, following the Agadir Crisis in Morocco, by the outbreak of the First World War. In 1929, Mann had a cottage built in the fishing village of Nidden, Memel Territory on the Curonian Spit, where there was a German art colony and where he spent the summers of 1930–1932 working on Joseph and His Brothers. Today the cottage is a cultural center dedicated with a small memorial exhibition. In 1933, while travelling in the South of France, Mann heard from his eldest children Klaus and Erika in Munich, that it would not be safe for him to return to Germany; the family emigrated to Küsnacht, near Zurich, Switzerland but received Czechoslovak citizenship and a passport in 1936.
In 1939, following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, he emigrated to the United States. He moved to Princeton, New Jersey where he lived on 65 Stockton Road and began to teach at Princeton University. In 1942, the Mann family moved to 1550 San Remo Drive in the Pacific Palisades neighborhood of Los Angeles, California; the Manns were prominent members of the German expatriate community of Los Angeles, would meet other emigres at the house of Salka and Bertold Viertel in Santa Monica, at the Villa Aurora, the home of fellow German exile Lion Feuchtwanger. On 23 June 1944 Thomas Mann was naturalized as a citizen of the United States; the Manns lived in Los Angeles until 1952. The outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, prompted Mann to offer anti-Nazi speeches to the German people via the BBC. In October 1940 he began monthly broadcasts, recorded in the U. S. and flown to London, where the BBC broadcast them to Germany on the longwave band. In these eight-minute addresses, Mann condemned Hitler and his "paladins" as crude philistines out of touch with European culture.
In one noted speech he said, "The war is horrible, but it has the advantage of keeping Hitler from making speeches about culture."Mann was one of the few publicly active opponents of Nazism among German expatriates in the U. S. While some Germans claimed after the war that in his speeches he had endorsed the notion of collective guilt, others felt he had been critical of the politically unstable Weimar Republic that preceded the Third Reich. With the start of the Cold War he was frustrated by rising McCarthyism; as a'suspected communist', he was required to testify to the House Un-American Activities Committee, where he was termed "one of the world's foremost apologists for Stalin and company." He was listed by HUAC as being "affiliated with various peace organizations or Communist fronts." Being in his own words a non-communist rather than an anti-communist, Mann opposed the allegations: "As an American citizen of German birth I testify that I am painfully familiar with certain political trends.
Spiritual intolerance, political inquisitions, declining legal security, all this in the name of an alleged'state of emergency.'... That is how it started in Germany." As Mann joined protests against the jailing of the
Elizabeth Craig (writer)
Elizabeth Josephine Craig, MBE, FRSA was a Scottish journalist, home economist and a notable author on cookery. Elizabeth Craig was born on 16 February 1883 in Addiewell, West Lothian to Catherine Anne Nicoll and Reverend John Mitchell Craig. Craig was one of eight children and her father was a minister of the Free Church of Scotland; the family lived at the Manse in Memus, Scotland. She attended Forfar Academy and George Watson's Ladies' College in Edinburgh before returning to Forfar Academy as a teacher. Craig's writing career began in Dundee, she first published a cookery feature in the Daily Express in 1920, following comments from the Daily Mail's film editor who declared she was "the only woman in Fleet Street who could cook". Craig was a founding member of the International P. E. N. and at the request of the founder, Catharine Dawson Scott, attended the first meeting of the association at the Florence Restaurant in London where John Galsworthy was elected its first president Craig started to cook when she was six years old and began collecting recipes from age 12.
She declared that the only formal training she had in cookery was a "three months course in Dundee". She began publishing cookery books after the end of World War I and proceeded through World War II and into the 1980s, she began writing in times when food was scarce and rationing was relied upon, her career ended when the majority of households had a refrigerator and an opportunity to access a much wider variety of foods: this can be observed in her writing as more diverse dishes appear in her books. Her contribution to English culinary literature comprises a large corpus of traditional British recipes, although not only this: included are a considerable collection of recipes from other countries which she liked to collect during visits abroad. Craig's engagement to American war correspondent and broadcaster Arthur E. Mann of Washington, D. C. was announced on 11 August 1919, they were married at St Martin in the Fields Church, Trafalgar Square. 19?? The Woman's Journal Cookery Book 19?? Elizabeth Craig's Menus for a Year 19??
Elizabeth Craig's Springtime Cookery Book 1923 The Stage Favourites' Cook Book 1932 New Standard Cookery Illustrated 1932 Cooking with Elizabeth Craig 1932 The Up-to-Date Cookery Book 1933 Madeira: wine and sauce 1933 Entertaining with Elizabeth Craig 1934 Cakes and Candies: How to make them 1934 The Vicomte in the Kitchen 1934 Elizabeth Craig's Standard Recipes 1934 Wine in the Kitchen 1934 Elizabeth Craig's Economical Cookery 1934 Elizabeth Craig's Simple Cooking 1935 Elizabeth Craig's Family Cookery: a new standard economical cookery on comprehensive lines 1935 Elizabeth Craig's Everyday Cooking 1936 Cookery Illustrated and Household Management 1936 Woman, Wine and a Saucepan 1936 Bubble and Squeak 1937 278 Tested Recipes 1940 Cooking in War-Time 1940 Cookery: a Time-Saving Cook Book 1940 1500 Everyday Menus 1950 Cooking for Today 1952 Elizabeth Craig's Practical Cooking 1953 Court Favourites. More Everyday Dishes 19?? Primula Presents Recipes by Elizabeth Craig 19?? The Kikkoman Book of Recipes 19??
101 Recipes and Uses for Malt Vinegar Known dates1930 250 Recipes for use with Borwick's Baking Powder 1932 New Ways of using Custard 1934 The Importance of Eating Potatoes 1937 The Way to a Good Table: electric cookery 1938 Cooking Made Easier 1940 OxO Meat Cookery! The Oxo Way 1940 Slim While You Eat, a calendar with over 100 recipes 1949 Elizabeth Craig's Invalid Recipe Book 1949 Chicken in the Kitchen 1954 Waterless Cooking 1936 Elizabeth Craig's Simple Housekeeping 1936 The Housewives' Monthly Calendar 1936 Keeping House with Elizabeth Craig 1937 Modern House-Keeping by Elizabeth Craig <link> 1937 Elizabeth Craig's Household Library 1938 Elizabeth's Craig's Simple Gardening 1940 Gardening with Elizabeth Craig 1941 Elizabeth Craig's Needlecraft 1947 Housekeeping: a book for the single-handed housewife 1947 1000 Household Hints 1948 Gardening with Elizabeth Craig.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations referred to as NGOs, are non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations that are active in humanitarian, health care, public policy, human rights and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives. They are thus a subgroup of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services and premises only to members. Sometimes the term is used as a synonym of "civil society organization" to refer to any association founded by citizens, but this is not how the term is used in the media or everyday language, as recorded by major dictionaries; the explanation of the term by NGO.org is ambivalent. It first says an NGO is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group, organized on a local, national or international level, but goes on to restrict the meaning in the sense used by most English speakers and the media: Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
NGOs are funded by donations, but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run by volunteers. NGOs are diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, take different forms in different parts of the world; some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation; the number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 10 million. Russia had about 277,000 NGOs in 2008. India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India. China is estimated to have 440,000 registered NGOs. About 1.5 million domestic and foreign NGOs operated in the United States in 2017. The term'NGO' is not always used consistently.
In some countries the term NGO is applied to an organization that in another country would be called an NPO, vice versa. Political parties and trade unions are considered NGOs only in some countries. There are many different classifications of NGO in use; the most common focus is on "orientation" and "level of operation". An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities; these activities might include human rights, improving health, or development work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, national, or international; the term "non-governmental organization" was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations was created. The UN, itself an intergovernmental organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized international non-state agencies — i.e. non-governmental organizations — to be awarded observer status at its assemblies and some of its meetings. The term became used more widely. Today, according to the UN, any kind of private organization, independent from government control can be termed an "NGO", provided it is not-for-profit, non-prevention, but not an opposition political party.
One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention, or a global ban on landmines. Public surveys reveal that NGOs enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful - but not always sufficient - proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. NGO/GRO types can be understood by their level of how they operate. Charitable orientation involves a top-down effort with little participation or input by beneficiaries, it includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the disadvantaged people groups. Service orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services in which the programme is designed by the NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the service.
Participatory orientation is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, land, labour etc. In the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages. Empowering orientation aims to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social and economic factors affecting their lives, to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. There is maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators. Community-based organizations arise out of people's own initiatives, they can be responsible for raising the consciousness of the urban poor, helping them to understand their rights in accessing needed services, providing such services. City-wide organizations include organizations such as chambers of commerce and industry, coaliti
Freedom of speech
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or legal sanction. The term "freedom of expression" is sometimes used synonymously but includes any act of seeking and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. Freedom of expression is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Article 19 of the UDHR states that "everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference" and "everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; the version of Article 19 in the ICCPR amends this by stating that the exercise of these rights carries "special duties and responsibilities" and may "therefore be subject to certain restrictions" when necessary "or respect of the rights or reputation of others" or "or the protection of national security or of public order, or of public health or morals".
Freedom of speech and expression, may not be recognized as being absolute, common limitations or boundaries to freedom of speech relate to libel, obscenity, sedition, fighting words, classified information, copyright violation, trade secrets, food labeling, non-disclosure agreements, the right to privacy, the right to be forgotten, public security, perjury. Justifications for such include the harm principle, proposed by John Stuart Mill in On Liberty, which suggests that: "the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others."The idea of the "offense principle" is used in the justification of speech limitations, describing the restriction on forms of expression deemed offensive to society, considering factors such as extent, motives of the speaker, ease with which it could be avoided. With the evolution of the digital age, application of the freedom of speech becomes more controversial as new means of communication and restrictions arise, for example the Golden Shield Project, an initiative by Chinese government's Ministry of Public Security that filters unfavorable data from foreign countries.
Freedom of speech and expression has a long history that predates modern international human rights instruments. It is thought that ancient Athenian democratic principle of free speech may have emerged in the late 6th or early 5th century BC; the values of the Roman Republic included freedom of freedom of religion. Concepts of freedom of speech can be found in early human rights documents; the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, adopted during the French Revolution in 1789 affirmed freedom of speech as an inalienable right. The Declaration provides for freedom of expression in Article 11, which states that: The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man; every citizen may, speak and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law. Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948, states that: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.
Today, freedom of speech, or the freedom of expression, is recognized in international and regional human rights law. The right is enshrined in Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Article 13 of the American Convention on Human Rights and Article 9 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights. Based on John Milton's arguments, freedom of speech is understood as a multi-faceted right that includes not only the right to express, or disseminate and ideas, but three further distinct aspects: the right to seek information and ideas; this means that the protection of freedom of speech as a right includes not only the content, but the means of expression. The right to freedom of speech and expression is related to other rights, may be limited when conflicting with other rights; the right to freedom of expression is related to the right to a fair trial and court proceeding which may limit access to the search for information, or determine the opportunity and means in which freedom of expression is manifested within court proceedings.
As a general principle freedom of expression may not limit the right to privacy, as well as the honor and reputation of others. However greater latitude is given; the right to freedom of expression is important for media, which plays a special role as the bearer of the general right to freedom of expression for all. However, freedom of the press does not enable freedom of speech. Judith Lichtenberg has outlined conditions in which freedom of the press may constrain freedom of speech, for example where the med
Robie Mayhew Macauley was an American editor and critic whose literary career spanned more than 50 years. Robie Macauley was born on May 1919, in Grand Rapids, Michigan, he was the older brother of the noted photographer and movie producer C. Cameron Macauley, his uncle owned and published the Hudsonville newspaper, The Ottawa Times, Macauley used the printing press to publish his first books of fiction and poetry. At age 18 he printed and bound a limited edition of Solomon's Cat, a unpublished poem by Walter Duranty, setting the type and engraving the illustrations; as an undergraduate at Olivet College, he was a student of Ford Madox Ford and won a three-year literary prize scholarship and transferred to Kenyon College to be a student of John Crowe Ransom. There he lived in a writer's house with Robert Lowell, Peter Taylor, Randall Jarrell, he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa during February 1941, the same year was awarded a fellowship to attend the Bread Loaf Writers' Conference. He graduated summa cum laude from Kenyon in June 1941.
He was drafted in March 1942 and served in World War II as a special agent in the Counterintelligence Corps with the 97th Infantry Division, in the "Ruhr Pocket" and in Japan after the war. On April 23, 1945 Macauley's division helped liberate Flossenbürg concentration camp. Macauley said, "I entered some concentration camps the day we liberated them-- the most horrifying days of my life. My job was to interview survivors. Most of the bodies that I saw had been stripped and it was impossible to tell which were those of Jews and which of Christians. Nazi murder was a great leveler ecumenical... Hitler's bell tolled for all..." Macauley wrote four autobiographical short stories based on his experiences doing intelligence work, collected in The End of Pity and Other Stories. In "A Nest of Gentlefolk", he describes the CIC's futile search for Nazi war criminals in the war-ravaged town of Hohenlohe. Macauley described Beahan as "a young captain with a college-boy face had suffered some strange mutation of feeling so deep and so destructive..."
According to Macauley's letters archived at the University of North Carolina, while in Karuizawa he was friends with former Japanese Ambassador to the US Saburō Kurusu and German Admiral Paul Wenneker, as well as pianist Leo Sirota and artist Paul Jacoulet. He was acquainted with former Japanese Prime Minister Prince Fumimaro Konoe, to whom he presented a copy of The American Leviathan: The Republic in the Machine Age by Charles A. Beard. In his capacity as CIC Station Chief he supervised the arrests, on October 30, 1945 of a number of major Nazi leaders who were in hiding in Karuizawa: Dr. Franz Joseph Spahn, Nazi Gruppenleiter in Japan. Most of these individuals were released by the CIC. Robie Macauley was awarded the Legion of Merit for his work in detaining members of the Gestapo in Japan. After the war he taught at Bard College worked at Gourmet Magazine and for Henry Holt and Company. During 1947 he taught at the University of Iowa Writer's Workshop with Paul Engle, Robert Lowell and Anthony Hecht, where he befriended Flannery O'Connor, advising her on drafts of her first novel, Wise Blood.
He completed his MFA at the University of Iowa in 1950 and spent the next three years at the Woman's College where he taught modern American literature and writing. Macauley received a Rockefeller Fellowship and during 1953 Cord Meyer offered him a position in the International Organizations Division of the Central Intelligence Agency. With John Crowe Ransom's encouragement, Macauley accepted and relocated to Paris where he participated in the Congress for Cultural Freedom. Macauley assisted in the publication of Quadrant magazine, an Australian literary journal that at the time had "an anticommunist thrust". Pybus, Cassandra, He was U. S. representative to the International PEN Congress in Tokyo and Brazil. During 1958 he returned to the US to succeed John Crowe Ransom as editor of The Kenyon Review. Ransom described Macauley as "wise and thorough experienced, an excellent critic.... During the next seven years Macauley published works by John Barth, T. S. Eliot, Nadine Gordimer, Robert Graves, Randall Jarrell, Richmond Lattimore, Doris Lessing, Robert Lowell, V. S. Naipaul, Joyce Carol Oates, Frank O'Conno
The Arab Spring was a series of anti-government protests and armed rebellions that spread across the Middle East in late 2010. It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living, beginning with protests in Tunisia. In the news, social media has been heralded as the driving force behind the swift spread of revolution throughout the world, as new protests appear in response to success stories shared from those taking place in other countries. In many countries, the governments have recognized the importance of social media for organizing and have shut down certain sites or blocked Internet service especially in the times preceding a major rally. Governments have scrutinized or suppressed discussion in those forums through accusing content creators of unrelated crimes or shutting down communication on specific sites or groups, such as through Facebook; the effects of the Tunisian Revolution spread to five other countries: Libya, Yemen and Bahrain, where either the regime was toppled or major uprisings and social violence occurred, including riots, civil wars or insurgencies.
Sustained street demonstrations took place in Morocco, Algeria, Iranian Khuzestan, Jordan, Kuwait and Sudan. Minor protests occurred in Djibouti, the Palestinian National Authority, Saudi Arabia, the Moroccan-occupied Western Sahara. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world is ash-shaʻb yurīd isqāṭ an-niẓām; the wave of initial revolutions and protests faded by mid-2012, as many Arab Spring demonstrations were met with violent responses from authorities, as well as from pro-government militias, counter-demonstrators and militaries. These attacks were answered with violence from protestors in some cases. Large-scale conflicts resulted: the Syrian Civil War. A power struggle continued after the immediate response to the Arab Spring. While leadership changed and regimes were held accountable, power vacuums opened across the Arab world, it resulted in a contentious battle between a consolidation of power by religious elites and the growing support for democracy in many Muslim-majority states.
The early hopes that these popular movements would end corruption, increase political participation, bring about greater economic equity collapsed in the wake of the counter-revolutionary moves by foreign state actors in Yemen and of the Saudi-UAE-linked military deep state in Egypt, the regional and international military interventions in Bahrain and Yemen, the destructive civil wars in Syria, Iraq and Yemen. Some have referred to still ongoing conflicts as the Arab Winter; as of May 2018, only the uprising in Tunisia has resulted in a transition to constitutional democratic governance. The term "Arab Spring" is an allusion to the Revolutions of 1848, which are sometimes referred to as the "Springtime of Nations", the Prague Spring in 1968. In the aftermath of the Iraq War, it was used by various commentators and bloggers who anticipated a major Arab movement towards democratization; the first specific use of the term Arab Spring as used to denote these events may have started with the American political journal Foreign Policy.
Political scientist Marc Lynch described "Arab Spring" as "a term I may have unintentionally coined in a 6 January 2011 article" for Foreign Policy magazine. Joseph Massad on Al Jazeera said the term was "part of a US strategy of controlling aims and goals" and directing it towards western-style liberal democracy; when Arab Spring protests in some countries were followed by electoral success for Islamist parties, some American pundits coined the terms "Islamist Spring" and "Islamist Winter". Some observers have drawn comparisons between the Arab Spring movements and the Revolutions of 1989 that swept through Eastern Europe and the Second World, in terms of their scale and significance. Others, have pointed out that there are several key differences between the movements, such as the desired outcomes, the effectiveness of civil resistance, the organizational role of Internet-based technologies in the Arab revolutions; the world watched the events of the Arab Spring unfold, "gripped by the narrative of a young generation peacefully rising up against oppressive authoritarianism to secure a more democratic political system and a brighter economic future."
The Arab Spring is believed to have been instigated by dissatisfaction of youth and unions, with the rule of local governments, though some have speculated that wide gaps in income levels and pressures caused by the Great Recession may have had a hand as well. Some activists had taken part in programs sponsored by the U. S.-funded National Endowment for Democracy, but the U. S. government claimed. Numerous factors led to the protests, including issues such as monarchy, human rights violations, political corruption, economic decline, extreme poverty, a number of demographic structural factors, such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the entire population. Catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries included the concentration of wealth in the hands of monarchs in power for decades, insufficient transparency of its redistribution and the refusal of the youth to
John Galsworthy was an English novelist and playwright. Notable works include A Modern Comedy and End of the Chapter, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1932. Galsworthy was born at what is now known as Galsworthy House on Kingston Hill in Surrey, the son of John and Blanche Bailey Galsworthy, his family was prosperous and well established, with a large property in Kingston upon Thames, now the site of three schools: Marymount International School, Rokeby Preparatory School, Holy Cross Preparatory School. He attended New College, Oxford, he took a Second in Law at Oxford in 1889 trained as a barrister and was called to the bar in 1890. However, he was not keen to begin practising law and instead travelled abroad to look after the family's shipping business. During these travels he met Joseph Conrad the first mate of a sailing-ship moored in the harbour of Adelaide and the two future novelists became close friends. In 1895 Galsworthy began an affair with Ada Nemesis Pearson Cooper, the wife of his cousin Major Arthur Galsworthy.
After her divorce ten years they were married on 23 September 1905 and stayed together until his death in 1933. Before their marriage, they stayed clandestinely in a farmhouse called Wingstone in the village of Manaton on Dartmoor, Devon. In 1908 Galsworthy took a long lease on part of the building and it was their regular second home until 1923. From the Four Winds, a collection of short stories, was Galsworthy's first published work in 1897; these and several subsequent works were published under the pen name of John Sinjohn, it was not until The Island Pharisees that he began publishing under his own name owing to the recent death of his father. His first full-length novel, was published in an edition of 750 under the name of John Sinjohn—he refused to have it republished, his first play, The Silver Box,—in which the theft of a prostitute's purse by a rich'young man of good family' is placed beside the theft of a silver cigarette case from the rich man's father's house by'a poor devil', with different repercussions, though justice was done in each case—became a success, he followed it up with The Man of Property, the first book of a Forsyte trilogy.
Although he continued writing both plays and novels, it was as a playwright that he was appreciated at the time. Along with those of other writers of the period, such as George Bernard Shaw, his plays addressed the class system and other social issues, two of the best known being Strife and The Skin Game, he is now far better known for his novels The Forsyte Saga, his trilogy about the eponymous family and connected lives. These books, as with many of his other works, deal with social class, upper-middle class lives in particular. Although sympathetic to his characters, he highlights their insular and acquisitive attitudes and their suffocating moral codes, he is viewed as one of the first writers of the Edwardian era who challenged some of the ideals of society depicted in the preceding literature of Victorian England. The depiction of a woman in an unhappy marriage furnishes another recurring theme in his work; the character of Irene in The Forsyte Saga is drawn from Ada Pearson, though her previous marriage was not as miserable as that of the character.
Through his writings Galsworthy campaigned for a variety of causes, including prison reform, women's rights, animal welfare, against censorship. During the First World War he worked in a hospital in France as an orderly, after being passed over for military service, in 1917 turned down a knighthood, for which he was nominated by Prime Minister David Lloyd George, on the precept that a writer's reward comes from writing itself. In 1921 he was elected as the first president of the PEN International literary club and was appointed to the Order of Merit in 1929. Galsworthy was awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize for Literature, having been nominated that same year by Henrik Schück, a member of the Swedish Academy, he was too ill to attend the Nobel Prize presentation ceremony on December 10, 1932, died seven weeks later. Galsworthy lived for the final seven years of his life at Bury in West Sussex, he died from a brain tumour at Grove Lodge, Hampstead. In accordance with his will he was cremated at Woking, with his ashes being scattered over the South Downs from an aeroplane, but there are memorials to him in Highgate'New' Cemetery and in the cloisters of New College, cut by Eric Gill.
The popularity of his fiction waned after his death but the hugely successful television adaptation of The Forsyte Saga in 1967 renewed interest in his work. A number of John Galsworthy's letters and papers are held at the University of Birmingham Special Collections. In 2007, Kingston University opened a new building named in recognition of his local birth. Galsworthy Road in Kingston, the location of Kingston Hospital, is named for him. Galsworthy's sister Lilian was married to the German painter and lithographer Georg Sauter from 1894. With the beginning of World War I Sauter was interned as an enemy alien at Alexandra Palace and expelled, their son Rudolf Sauter was a painter and graphic artist, who among other things, illustrated the works of his uncle. The Forsyte Saga has been filmed several times: That Forsyte Woman, dir. by Compton Bennett, an MGM adaptation in which Errol Flynn played a rare villainous role as Soames. BBC television drama, directed by James Cellan Jones, David Giles, starring Eric Porter, Nyree Dawn Porte