PHP is a popular general-purpose scripting language, suited to web development. It was created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994. PHP stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive initialism PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP code is processed on a web server by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module, a daemon or as a Common Gateway Interface executable. On a web server, the result of the interpreted and executed PHP code — which may be any type of data, such as generated HTML or binary image data — would form the whole or part of a HTTP response. Various web template systems, web content management systems, web frameworks exist which can be employed to orchestrate or facilitate the generation of that response. Additionally, PHP can be used for many programming tasks outside of the web context, such as standalone graphical applications and robotic drone control. Arbitrary PHP code can be interpreted and executed via command line interface; the standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under the PHP License.

PHP has been ported and can be deployed on most web servers on every operating system and platform, free of charge. The PHP language evolved without a written formal specification or standard until 2014, with the original implementation acting as the de facto standard which other implementations aimed to follow. Since 2014, work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification; as of February 2020, over half of sites on the web using PHP are still on discontinued/"EOLed" version 5.6 or older. PHP development began in 1994 when Rasmus Lerdorf wrote several Common Gateway Interface programs in C, which he used to maintain his personal homepage, he extended them to work with web forms and to communicate with databases, called this implementation "Personal Home Page/Forms Interpreter" or PHP/FI. PHP/FI could be used to build dynamic web applications. To accelerate bug reporting and improve the code, Lerdorf announced the release of PHP/FI as "Personal Home Page Tools version 1.0" on the Usenet discussion group comp.infosystems.www.authoring.cgi on June 8, 1995.

This release had the basic functionality that PHP has today. This included Perl-like variables, form handling, the ability to embed HTML; the syntax was simpler, more limited and less consistent. An example of the early PHP syntax: Early PHP was not intended to be a new programming language, grew organically, with Lerdorf noting in retrospect: "I don't know how to stop it, there was never any intent to write a programming language I have no idea how to write a programming language, I just kept adding the next logical step on the way." A development team began to form and, after months of work and beta testing released PHP/FI 2 in November 1997. The fact that PHP was not designed, but instead was developed organically has led to inconsistent naming of functions and inconsistent ordering of their parameters. In some cases, the function names were chosen to match the lower-level libraries which PHP was "wrapping", while in some early versions of PHP the length of the function names was used internally as a hash function, so names were chosen to improve the distribution of hash values.

Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans rewrote the parser in 1997 and formed the base of PHP 3, changing the language's name to the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. Afterwards, public testing of PHP 3 began, the official launch came in June 1998. Suraski and Gutmans started a new rewrite of PHP's core, producing the Zend Engine in 1999, they founded Zend Technologies in Ramat Gan, Israel. On May 22, 2000, PHP 4, powered by the Zend Engine 1.0, was released. As of August 2008 this branch reached version 4.4.9. PHP 4 will any security updates be released. On July 14, 2004, PHP 5 was released, powered by the new Zend Engine II. PHP 5 included new features such as improved support for object-oriented programming, the PHP Data Objects extension, numerous performance enhancements. In 2008, PHP 5 became the only stable version under development. Late static binding had been missing from PHP and was added in version 5.3. Many high-profile open-source projects ceased to support PHP 4 in new code as of February 5, 2008, because of the GoPHP5 initiative, provided by a consortium of PHP developers promoting the transition from PHP 4 to PHP 5.

Over time, PHP interpreters became available on most existing 32-bit and 64-bit operating systems, either by building them from the PHP source code, or by using pre-built binaries. For PHP versions 5.3 and 5.4, the only available Microsoft Windows binary distributions were 32-bit IA-32 builds, requiring Windows 32-bit compatibility mode while using Internet Information Services on a 64-bit Windows platform. PHP version 5.5 made. Official security support for PHP 5.6 ended on 31 December 2018, but Debian 8.0 Jessie will extend support until June 2020. PHP received mixed reviews due to lacking native Unicode support at the core language level. In 2005, a project headed by Andrei Zmievski was initiated to bring native Unicode support throughout PHP, by embedding the International Components for Unicode library, representing text strings as UTF-16 internally. Since this wo


Edstone is a civil parish in the Ryedale district of the county of North Yorkshire, the principal settlement in, the village of Great Edstone. Edstone has a population of 217 according to the 2011 census. In 1870–72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described Edstone as EDSTONE, a township and a parish in Helmsley district, N. R. Yorkshire; the township lies on the river Dove, 2½ miles SSE of Kirkbymoorside, 6 W by S of Pickering r. station.. Acres, 1, 190. Real property, £2, 123. Pop. 135. Houses, 27; the parish contains the township of North Holme. Acres, 1,800." The name'Edstone' has an original meaning when broken down into old English which is: "Eadin's farm/settlement." The nearest schools to Edstone are: Welburn Hall School, Kirkbymoorside Community Primary School and Ryedale School. The North York Moors national park is located 2 miles to the north of Edstone village; the hill upon which Great Edstone was built was formed by glaciers in about 30,000 BC. While the Ice Age melted, the hill was left to be an island in the middle of a lake which covered the Vale of Pickering – which itself receded once all trace of the Ice Age left.

When the ice did melt, the fertile soils of the land are to have encouraged farming. Great Edstone was a key place for evacuees to stay during the Second World War, as can be seen in the still-remaining village hall. In the 1970s -- 80s the school was removed. Since the village has decreased in size, presently all that remains is about 30–50 houses, a church, a village hall, a post box and a telephone box; however the village continues to grow in population as new houses are built, it has seen an increase in the number of young families. The major residential street of Great Edstone is the Wapping, upon which many of the houses are built. Throughout the area, the feeling of community is strong, people do tend to help each other wherever possible; the church is open and is worth a view, while the views from the door are breathtaking. Information on the church: "GREAT EDSTONE, a parish in the wapentake of Rydale; the living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Marquis of Salisbury. Pop. 156. Over the south door of the Church is a Saxon Dial with an inscription, similar to that at Kirkdale sundial, but not so perfect.

The church is an ancient structure, but the numerous modern repairs have removed all traces of its early architecture. According to the latest census of 2011 it has a population of 217 residents; the population has increased from the 2001 census, when the population was 192. This population graph shows an overall increase over 130 years from 1881–2011 in terms of the number of residents that have moved into the village of Edstone. However, the most noticeable difference being within a 50-year time period, from 1961 where the population increased from 113 residents to 217 residents in 2011 an overall increase of 105 inhabitants. Although, prior to the 1961 population of Edstone, the general trend saw the population decrease by 89 residents from 1821 to 1921; the most prominent and the oldest building is The Manor House, a house visible from many miles away. Media related to Edstone at Wikimedia Commons Great Edstone village website

List of colonial governors and administrators of Saint Vincent

This is a list of viceroys in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines from British settlement in 1763 until it gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1979. George Maddison, 1763–1764 Joseph Higginson, 1764–1766 Lauchlin McLean, 1766 Ulysses FitzMaurice, 1766–1772 Valentin Morris, 1772–1776 Valentin Morris, 1776–1779, continued Charles-Marie de Trolong du Rumain, 1779 Antoine Dumontet, 1779–1780 Philibert-François Rouxel de Blanchelande 1780-1781 Jean-Baptiste Vigoureux Duplessis, 1781–1782 Pierre-Jean-François de Feydeau, March 1782–1783, interim Edmund Lincoln, 1783–1787 James Seton, 1787–1798 William Bentinck, 1798–1802 Henry William Bentinck, 1802–1806 George Beckwith, 1806–1808 Charles Brisbane, 1808–1829 William John Struth, 1829–1831, acting Sir George Hill, Bt 1831–1833 In 1833, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines became part of the British Windward Islands. A lieutenant governor was appointing in Saint Vincent, subordinate to the Governor of Barbados or the Governor of the Windward Islands.

George Tyler, 1833–1842 Richard Doherty, 1842–1845 John Campbell, 1845–1853 Richard Graves MacDonnell, 1853–1854 Edward John Eyre, 1854–1861 Anthony Musgrave, 1861–1864 George Berkeley 1864–1871 William Hepburn Rennie, 1871–1875 George Dundas, 1875–1880 Augustus Frederick Gore, 1880–1886 Robert Baxter Llewelyn, 1886–1889 Irwin Charles Maling, 1889–1893 John Hartley Sandwith, 1893–1895 Harry Langhorne Thompson, 1895–1901 Edward John Cameron, 1901–1909 Charles Gideon Murray, 1909–1915 Reginald Popham Lobb, 1915–1923 Robert Walter, 1923–1929 Herbert Walter Peebles, 1929–1933 Arthur Francis Grimble, 1933–1936 Arthur Alban Wright, 1936–1938 William Bain Gray, 1938–1941 Alexander Elder Beattie, 1941–1944 Ronald Herbert Garvey, 1944–1948 Walter Coutts, 1948–1955 Alexander Falconer Giles, 1955–1961 Samuel Horatio Graham, 1961–1966 John Lionel Chapman, 1966–1967 Hywel George, 1967–27 October 1969 On 27 October 1969, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines became an associated state of the United Kingdom, responsible for its own internal affairs.

Hywel George, 27 October 1969–27 October 1970, continued Rupert Godfrey John, 27 October 1970 – 1976 Sidney Gun-Munro, 1976–27 October 1979On 27 October 1979, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines gained independence from the United Kingdom. For a list of viceroys after independence, see the list of Governors-General, starting with Sidney Gun-Munro continuing in post. History of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines World Statesmen