Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "
Stamping is the process of placing flat sheet metal in either blank or coil form into a stamping press where a tool and die surface forms the metal into a net shape. Stamping includes a variety of sheet-metal forming manufacturing processes, such as punching using a machine press or stamping press, embossing, bending and coining; this could be a single stage operation where every stroke of the press produces the desired form on the sheet metal part, or could occur through a series of stages. The process is carried out on sheet metal, but can be used on other materials, such as polystyrene. Progressive dies are fed from a coil of steel, coil reel for unwinding of coil to a straightener to level the coil and into a feeder which advances the material into the press and die at a predetermined feed length. Depending on part complexity, the number of stations in the die can be determined. Stamping is done on cold metal sheet. See Forging for hot metal forming operations. Stamped parts were used for mass-produced bicycles in the 1880s.
Stamping replaced die forging and machining, resulting in reduced cost. Although not as strong as die forged parts, they were of good enough quality. Stamped bicycle parts were being imported into the United States from Germany in 1890. U. S. companies started to have stamping machines custom built by U. S. machine tool makers. Through research and development Western Wheel was able to stamp most bicycle parts. Several automobile manufacturers adopted stamped parts before Ford Motor Company. Henry Ford resisted the recommendations of his engineers to use stamped parts, but when the company could not satisfy the demand with die forged parts, Ford was forced to use stampings. Over the history of metal stamping and deep drawing, presses of all types are the backbone of metals manufacturing; the processes continue to evolve and improve in moving more metal in one stroke of a metal stamping press. Press and interconnected automation devices increase production rates, reduce labor costs and provide higher safety levels for factory workers.
In today's metal stamping environment, controls such as I-PRESS with Connected Enterprise are able to capture history, send reports or the I-PRESS & Automation control can be viewed from remote or mobile devices. A new trend in gathering information on today's production for historical data. Bending - the material is deformed or bent along a straight line. Flanging - the material is bent along a curved line. Embossing - the material is stretched into a shallow depression. Used for adding decorative patterns. See Repoussé and chasing. Blanking - a piece is cut out of a sheet of the material to make a blank for further processing. Coining - a pattern is compressed or squeezed into the material. Traditionally used to make coins. Drawing - the surface area of a blank is stretched into an alternate shape via controlled material flow. See deep drawing. Stretching - the surface area of a blank is increased by tension, with no inward movement of the blank edge. Used to make smooth auto body parts. Ironing - the material is squeezed and reduced in thickness along a vertical wall.
Used for beverage cans and ammunition cartridge cases. Reducing/Necking - used to reduce the diameter of the open end of a vessel or tube. Curling - deforming material into a tubular profile. Door hinges are a common example. Hemming - folding an edge over onto itself to add thickness; the edges of automobile doors are hemmed. Piercing and cutting can be performed in stamping presses. Progressive stamping is a combination of the above methods done with a set of dies in a row through which a strip of the material passes one step at a time; the Tribology process generates friction which requires the use of a lubricant to protect the tool and die surface from scratching or galling. The lubricant protects the sheet metal and finished part from the same surface abrasion as well as facilitate elastic material flow preventing rips, tears or wrinkles. There are a variety of lubricants available for this task, they include plant and mineral oil based, animal fat or lard based, graphite based and acrylic based dry films.
The newest technology in the industry is polymer based synthetic lubricants known as oil-free lubricants or non-oil lubricants. The term "Water-Based" lubricant refers to the larger category that includes more traditional oil and fat based compounds. Sheet metal forming simulation is a technology that calculates the process of sheet metal stamping, predicting common defects such as splits, wrinkles and material thinning. Known as forming simulation, the technology is a specific application of non-linear finite element analysis; the technology has many benefits in the manufacturing industry the automotive industry, where lead time to market and lean manufacturing are critical to the success of a company. Recent research by the Aberdeen research company found that the most effective manufacturers spend more time simulating upfront and reap the rewards towards the end of their projects. Stamping simulation is used when a sheet metal part designer or toolmaker desires to assess the likelihood of manufacturing a sheet metal part, without the expense of making a physical tool.
Stamping simulation allows any sheet metal part forming process to be simulated in the virtual environment of a PC for a fraction of the expense of a physical tryout. Results from a stamping simulation allow sheet metal part designers to assess alternative designs quickly to optimize their part for low cost manufacture. While the concept of stamping sheet metal components has traditionally focused on the macro level (e.g. vehicle and packag
A machine pistol is a handgun-style machine gun, capable of automatic or burst fire. The term is a calque of the German word "Maschinenpistole", they were developed during World War I, issued to German artillery crews who needed a self-defense weapon, lighter than a rifle but more effective than a standard pistol. Today, machine pistols are considered a special purpose weapon with limited utility, difficult for all but the best shooters to control. During World War I, the Austrians introduced the world's first machine pistol the Steyr Repetierpistole M1912/P16; the Germans experimented with machine pistols, by converting various types of semi-automatic pistols to full-auto, leading to the development of the first practical submachine gun. During World War II, machine pistol development was more or less ignored as the major powers were focused on mass-producing submachine guns. After the war, machine pistols development was limited and only a handful of manufacturers would develop new designs, with varying degrees of success.
During World War I, a machine pistol version of the Steyr M1912 called the Repetierpistole M1912/P16 was produced. It used a 16-round fixed magazine loaded via 8 round stripper clips, a detachable shoulder stock and a rather large exposed semi-auto/full-auto selector on the right side of the frame above the trigger, it fires the 9×23mm Steyr cartridge, with a full-auto rate-of-fire of about 800 to 1000 rounds-per-minute. It weighed about 2.6 pounds. Introduced in 1916, it is considered the world's first machine pistol, only 960 M1912/P16 were made; the Germans experimented with machine pistols, by converting various types of semi-automatic pistols to full-auto, such as Luger P08 "Artillery Pistol" with its long barrel, detachable stock and 32-round drum magazine. It was issued to German artillery crews who needed a self-defence weapon, lighter than a rifle but more effective than a standard pistol, it fired the newly developed 9mm Parabellum pistol cartridge, designed for low recoil without sacrificing penetration and stopping power.
These machine pistols proved to be quite effective in close range trench warfare and led the Germans to develop the 9 mm Parabellum Bergmann MP-18, the first practical submachine gun. The Mauser C96 was introduced in 1896, it was one of the first commercially successful and practical semi-automatic pistols. During World War I, the Germans experimented with machine pistols by converting both 7.63mm Mauser and 9 mm Parabellum semi-automatic C96 pistols to full-auto. In the late 1920s, Spanish gunmakers introduced select fire copies of the C96 with 20 round detachable magazines. In the early 1930s, Mauser engineers followed suit, introduced the Model 1932 or Model 712 Schnellfeuer variant, which included 20 round detachable magazine and a select fire mechanism allowing automatic fire at a rate of 1000 rounds/minute. During World War II machine pistol development was more or less ignored as the major powers were focused on mass-producing submachine guns. With one exception, the 9 mm Parabellum Browning Hi-Power machine pistol.
The artillery version with its adjustable tangent rear-sight, shoulder-stock, 13 round magazine and 20 round magazine was converted to full-auto-only. In German service, it was used by Waffen-SS and Fallschirmjäger personnel along with Mauser M1932 Schnellfeuer machine pistol; the 9×18mm Makarov Stechkin automatic pistol is a Russian selective-fire machine pistol introduced into the Russian army in 1951. Like the other common Russian army pistol of this era, the Makarov, the Stechkin uses a simple unlocked blow-back mechanism and the double action trigger. In addition, the Stechkin APS has an automatic fire mode, selected using the safety lever. In burst or automatic fire, the pistol should be fitted with the wooden shoulder stock; the Stechkin was intended as a side arm for artillery soldiers and tank crews. In practice, it earned a strong following in the ranks of political and criminal police, special forces and the like. Many KGB and GRU operatives favored the Stechkin for 20 round magazine.
The Škorpion vz. 61 is a Czechoslovak 7.65 mm or.32 ACP machine pistol developed in 1959 and produced from 1961 to 1979. Although it was developed for use with security and special forces, the weapon was accepted into service with the Czechoslovak Army, as a personal sidearm for lower-ranking army staff, vehicle drivers, armoured vehicle personnel and special forces; the Skorpion's lower powered.32 ACP cartridge, coupled with a rate-of-fire limiting device housed in the grip makes it easier to control in full-auto than the more common 9 mm Parabellum designs. The weapon is in use with the armed forces of several countries as a sidearm; the Škorpion was licence-built in Yugoslavia, designated M84. The Beretta M951R, was based on the 9 mm Parabellum Beretta M1951 pistol and produced during the 1960s in response to a request made by the Italian special forces; the primary difference between the M951R and the original M1951 lied in the fire selector lever mounted on the right side of the weapon’s frame, enabling either semi-automatic or continuous fire – labelled "SEM" and "AUT", respectively.
Additionally, the weapon has a heavier slide, a folding wooden forward grip, the barrel was extended, so was the magazine, increasing capacity to 10 rounds. The MAC-10 and MAC-11 were 1970s blowback designed weapons with the magazine in the pistol grip and a fire selector switch. The.45 ACP MAC-10 had a 1,145 round-per-minute rate of fire, the 9×19mm version 1090 rounds-per-minute. The MAC-11 could fire 1200 rounds-per-minute w
The Soviet partisans were members of resistance movements that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis forces in the Soviet Union, the Soviet-occupied territories of interwar Poland in 1941–45 and eastern Finland. The activity emerged after the Nazi German Operation Barbarossa during World War II, according to Great Soviet Encyclopedia it was coordinated and controlled by the Soviet government and modelled on that of the Red Army; the partisans made significant contributions to the war by frustrating German plans to exploit occupied Soviet territories economically, gave considerable help to the Soviet Army by conducting systematic strikes against Germany's rear communication network, disseminated political work among the local population by publishing newspapers and leaflets, succeeded in creating and maintaining a feeling of insecurity among German forces. Soviet partisans operated on Polish and Baltic territories occupied by the Soviet Union in 1939-1940, but they had less support there and clashed violently with local self-defense and pro-independence and pro-Western national partisan groups.
After the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded the eastern regions of the Second Polish Republic and annexed the lands totalling 201,015 square kilometres with a population of 13,299,000 inhabitants including ethnic Belarusians, Poles, Jews and others. Belarusian emigre sources said that the actual number of Belarusians in Poland in 1931 was over 3.4 million or 77.9 percent of the total population in West Belarus. A Ukrainian geographer concluded that out of 9,198,000 people living in western Ukraine, Ukrainians amounted to 64.5 percent. Soviet era sources state that in 1939, Soviet forces took control of regions of the Polish Republic that had "a population of more than 12 million, including more than 6 million Ukrainians and about 3 million Belarusians."The program of the partisan war was outlined in Moscow after the German attack in 1941 against the USSR. Directives issued on July 29, 1941 and in further documents by the Soviet People's Commissaries Council and Communist Party called for the formation of partisan detachments and'diversionist' groups in the German-occupied territories.
Joseph Stalin iterated his commands and directives to the people in his radio speech on 3 July 1941, appointed himself Commander-in-Chief of the Red Army on 20 July 1941. In 1941, the core of the partisan movement were the remains of the Red Army units destroyed in the first phase of Operation Barbarossa, personnel of destruction battalions, the local Communist Party and Komsomol activists who chose to remain in Soviet-occupied prewar Poland; the most common unit of the period was a detachment. The first detachments commanded by Red Army officers and local Communist Party activists were formed in the first days of the war between former allies Germany and the Soviet Union, including the Starasyel'ski detachment of Major Dorodnykh in the Zhabinka district and the Pinsk detachment of Vasily Korzh on June 26, 1941; the first awards of the Hero of the Soviet Union order occurred on August 6, 1941. Some partisan detachments were parachuted into German-occupied territories in the summer of 1941. Urban underground groups were formed as a force complementing the activities of partisan units, operating in rural areas.
The network of underground structures developed and received a steady influx of specially chosen party activists. By the end of 1941, more than 2,000 partisan detachments operated in German-occupied territories. However, the activity of partisan forces were not centrally coordinated and supplied until spring of 1942. In order to coordinate partisan operations the Central Headquarters of the Partisan Movement under Stavka, headed by Panteleimon Ponomarenko and commanded by top Politburo member Kliment Voroshilov, was organized on May 30, 1942; the Staff had its liaison networks in the Military Councils of the Armies. The territorial Staffs were subsequently created, dealing with the partisan movement in the respective Soviet Republics and in the occupied provinces of the Russian SFSR; some formations calling themselves Soviet partisans operated a long way outside Soviet territory - organized by former Soviet citizens who had escaped from Nazi camps. One such formation, acted in France. In 1944 Soviet partisans provided "proletarian internationalist" help to the people of German-occupied Central Europe, with seven united formations and 26 larger detachments operating in Poland, 20 united formations and detachments operating in Czechoslovakia.
By Soviet estimates, in August 1941 about 231 detachments were operating already. Units formed and inserted into Belarus totaled 437 by the end of the 1941, comprising more than 7,200 personnel. However, as the front line moved further away, conditions worsened for the partisan units, as resources ran out, there was no large-scale support from beyond the front until March 1942. One particular difficulty was the lack of radio communication, not addressed until April 1942. A Polish source claims the partisan units lacked the support of local people; the strength and viability of the partisan detachments depended directly on support of the local population, which replenished partisan ranks with new fighters, provided food and clothing, collected weapon and ammunition for them, led reconnaissance against occupation forces. Without the support of the local population, the partisan movement would not have been viable. Reserves of partisan replenishment came from the local
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
The 7.62×25mm Tokarev cartridge is a Russian rimless bottlenecked pistol cartridge used in former Soviet satellite states, in China and Pakistan among other countries. The cartridge has since been replaced in most capacities by the 9×18mm Makarov in Russian service. Prior to the First World War, the 7.63×25mm Mauser C96 pistol gained in popularity worldwide. In 1908, the Tsarist army placed the C96 on a list of approved sidearms that officers could purchase at their own expense in lieu of carrying the Nagant M1895 revolver. Between 1914 and 1917, more Mauser pistols and ammunition were obtained as captured arms from German and Turkish forces; the Mauser and its cartridge were used on all fronts of the Russian Civil War and in the 1920s, during a period of close cooperation between Soviet Russia and the Weimar Republic, the Red Army purchased batches of the smaller Bolo version as well as ammunition for use by its officers. Although a copy of the cartridge was being produced at the Podolsky Ammunition Factory, the Soviets purchased a license and manufacturing equipment from DWM in Germany to produce the cartridge.
In 1929, the Soviet Artillery Committee made a proposal to develop a domestic pistol chambered for the Mauser cartridge. After considerable research and development, it was decided that the "Model 1930 7.62 mm pistol cartridge," the Mauser round with minor modifications, was to become the standard caliber for Soviet pistols and submachine guns. Early versions of the Vasily Degtyaryov-designed PPD-40 submachine gun were marked for Mauser cartridge caliber 7.62 mm. Although dimensionally similar to the Mauser cartridge, so much so that both cartridges will chamber and fire in any of these weapons, the Soviets increased the power of the Tokarev cartridge powder charge significantly; as such, while the lower-power Mauser rounds can be safely used in any of these weapons, the Tokarev cartridge is not safe for use in weapons which were not designed for the added pressure. The 7.62×25mm Tokarev has 1.09 ml cartridge case capacity. 7.62×25mm Tokarev maximum C. I. P. Cartridge dimensions All sizes in millimeters.
Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 = 19 degrees. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 240 mm, four grooves, diameter of lands = 7.62 mm, diameter of grooves = 7.92 mm, land width = 3.81 mm and the primer type is Berdan or boxer small pistol. According to the official C. I. P. Rulings the 7.62×25mm Tokarev case can handle up to 250.00 MPa Pmax piezo pressure. In C. I. P. Regulated countries every handgun cartridge combo has to be proofed at 130% of this maximum C. I. P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers. This means that 7.62×25mm Tokarev chambered arms in C. I. P. Regulated countries are proof tested at 325.00 MPa PE piezo pressure. The cartridge is in principle an enhanced Russian version of the 7.63×25mm Mauser. The Russians produced a wide array of loadings for this cartridge for use in submachine guns; these include armor-piercing and incendiary rounds. This cartridge has excellent penetration and can defeat lighter ballistic vests as well as some kevlar helmets, such as the American PASGT helmet.
When fired from a carbine-length barrel the cartridge may penetrate NIJ level II, but is stopped by the current standard armor NIJ level IIIA. Although most firearms chambered in this caliber were declared obsolete and removed from military inventories, some police and special forces units in Russia, Pakistan and in China may still use it because of the large quantity of stored ammunition available. There is a common misconception that 7.62 Tokarev surplus ammunition in the United States uses copper-coated mild steel bullets, that this increases the chance of dangerous ricochets when fired at hard targets and can damage bullet traps used on shooting ranges. While steel-core ammunition in 7.62×25 is available internationally, in the United States the importation of 7.62×25 cartridges loaded with copper-coated steel bullets is illegal. The so-called steel bullets sold in the United States are lead-core bullets with copper-washed steel jackets, these do not present a greater risk of ricochet than a standard copper-jacketed projectile.
Reloadable cartridge cases can be produced by resizing and trimming 9mm Winchester Magnum brass, or alternately by reforming 5.56×45mm NATO. The cartridge case is inserted into the open-topped die, which produces a shoulder in the correct position, the portion of the case projecting through the top is sawed off. Afterward, a reamer—which fits a tap handle—is used to ream out the new case neck to an acceptable thickness; this is necessary because a powerful rifle cartridge has just been cut back to where the brass is thick and must be thinned if excessive chamber pressures are to be avoided in the pistol. Alternately, reloaders in the US can purchase proper, new cases from Starline Mfg. Use.308" or.309" bullets for reloading for the Tokarev TT-33 and Czech CZ-52. Mauser C96 and C30 "Broomhandle" pistols have oversized bores, and.311" bullets may be needed to produce acceptable accuracy. Hornady makes an 85-grain.309" "XTP" bullet that functions well in all these pistols. On the Starline website, information is given about using the less powerful, but otherwise nearly identical ammunition designed for the Mauser C96 pistol from which the Tokarev cartridge was derived, in pistols chambered for the Tokarev round.