Lisa Valerie Kudrow is an American actress, comedian and producer. After making guest appearances in several television sitcoms, including Cheers, she came to prominence with her recurring role of Ursula in Mad About You. Kudrow gained worldwide recognition for portraying Phoebe Buffay on the television sitcom Friends, for which she received several accolades, including a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series from six nominations, two Screen Actors Guild Awards from 12 nominations, a Golden Globe Award nomination. Kudrow starred in the cult comedy film Romy and Michele's High School Reunion and followed it with an acclaimed performance in the romantic comedy The Opposite of Sex, which won her the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actress and a nomination for the Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Female. In 2005, she went on to produce and star in the HBO comedy series The Comeback, revived nine years for a second season. Kudrow received two Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Comedy Series nominations for both seasons.
In 2007, Kudrow received praise for her starring role in the film Kabluey and appeared in the box office hit film P. S. I Love You, she produced and starred in the Showtime program Web Therapy, nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award. She is a producer on the TLC reality program Who Do You Think You Are, which garnered her four Primetime Emmy Award nominations. Kudrow has made several notable film appearances, including roles in Analyze This, Dr. Dolittle 2, Hotel for Dogs, Easy A, Neighbors and its sequel Neighbors 2: Sorority Rising, The Girl on the Train, The Boss Baby. Lisa Kudrow was born in Los Angeles, California, to Nedra S. a travel agent, Lee N. Kudrow, a physician who specialized in the treatment of headaches, she has an older sister, Helene Marla, an older brother, Santa Monica neurologist David B. Kudrow. Kudrow had a Bat Mitzvah ceremony, her ancestors emigrated from Belarus, Germany and Poland, some of them lived in the village of Ilya, in the Minsk area. Kudrow's paternal grandparents were Gertrude Farberman.
Her paternal great-grandmother, Mera Mordejovich, was murdered in Ilya during the Holocaust. Her paternal grandmother immigrated to Brooklyn. Kudrow attended Portola Middle School in California. In 1979, at the age of 16, she underwent rhinoplasty to reduce the size of her nose, she graduated from Taft High School in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles where N. W. A. member Ice Cube attended. Kudrow received her Bachelor of Arts degree in Biology from Vassar College, intending to follow in her father's footsteps and research headaches. Kudrow worked on her father's staff for eight years while breaking into acting, earning a research credit on his study on the comparative likelihood of left-handed individuals developing cluster headaches. At the urging of her brother's childhood friend, comedian Jon Lovitz, she began her comedic career as a member of The Groundlings, an improv and sketch comedy school in Los Angeles. Kudrow has credited Cynthia Szigeti, her improv teacher at The Groundlings, for changing her perspective on acting, calling her "the best thing that happened, on so many levels."
Kudrow joined with Conan O'Brien and director Tim Hillman in the short-lived improv troupe Unexpected Company. She was the only regular female member of the Transformers Comedy Troupe, she played a role in an episode of the NBC sitcom Cheers. She tried out for Saturday Night Live in 1990, she had a recurring role as Kathy Fleisher in three episodes of season one of the Bob Newhart sitcom Bob, a role she played after taking part in the memorable series finale of Newhart's previous series Newhart. Prior to Friends, she appeared in at least two produced network pilots: NBC's Just Temporary in 1989, playing Nicole. Kudrow was cast to play the role of Roz Doyle in Frasier, but the role was re-cast with Peri Gilpin during the taping of the pilot episode. Kudrow said in 2000. I could feel it all slipping away, I was panicking, which only made things worse." Her first recurring television role was Ursula Buffay, the eccentric waitress on the NBC sitcom Mad About You. Kudrow would reprise the character on the NBC sitcom Friends, in which Kudrow co-starred as massage therapist Phoebe Buffay, Ursula's twin sister.
For her starring role as Phoebe on Friends Kudrow won the 1998 Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, Kudrow and co-stars Jennifer Aniston and Courteney Cox became the highest paid TV actresses of all time, earning $1 million per episode for the ninth and tenth seasons of Friends. During her tenure on Friends Kudrow appeared in multiple comedic films such as Romy and Michele's High School Reunion, Hanging Up, Marci X, Dr. Dolittle 2, Analyze This and its sequel Analyze That, dramatic films, such as Wonderland and The Opposite of Sex, she guest starred on numerous television series during Friends, including The Simpsons and Gloria, King of the Hill, hosting Saturday Night Live. Kudrow starred as protagonist Valerie Cherish on the single-season HBO series The Comeback, about
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
A Place Called Here
A Place Called Here is Irish writer Cecelia Ahern's fourth novel, published in 2006. The book was entitled "There's No Place Like Here" in the United States. Sandy Shortt has been obsessed with finding things which have been lost, since her childhood rival Jenny-May Butler went missing. Having worked for the Garda, the police force of the Republic of Ireland, she left her job to start an agency which looks for missing people. A man named Jack Ruttle asks Sandy for help looking for his younger brother Donal, who went missing the year before, she agrees, never expecting to become missing herself as she discovers the world where everything, lost goes to, a place called Here. Jack goes on a search for Sandy believing that she is the key to finding his brother but learning more about her personal life than he should. Meanwhile, Sandy's possessions keeps getting found in this world. Something is bound to happen but the both of them have yet to know what it is. Sandy Shortt She was named Sandy. Although, they turned a coal-black colour as she grew.
She is known to be a tall person, being 6'1", because of this, her classmate Jenny-May bullied her and called her "daddy-longlegs". She is obsessed with finding things since her classmate disappeared, it fascinates her and leaves her dissatisfied when something goes missing without a trace and she will spend as much time as she can to find it, resistant to buy new items to replace the ones she lost. She labels her possessions, she has a habit of coming and going as she pleases for her job, the reason no one else than Jack searched for her in the duration she went missing. After she has arrived to Here, she finds all her missing belongings but one by one, they go missing meaning they have been found in this world; this occurrence is kept a secret as it may result in chaos or false hope as it is believed that you cannot leave Here. She continues to live in Here and being breathless due to meeting people she has searched for years. Though told not to be, she remained positive and stubborn that she will go back home.
Jenny-May ButlerJenny-May is a childhood rival of Sandy and a neighbour. She has been portrayed to be mean and a bully but when she went missing, she was the angelic little girl whose parents want to find her, she had blonde hair and blue eyes and would tease Sandy about her height. Gregory BurtonGregory was Sandy's psychiatrist whose Sandy's parents hired to help her through her obsessions, he is charming and the person Sandy trusted the most. However, their relationship bloomed into romance as an off/on relationship, he runs his own counselling called Scáthach's House. Jack RuttleJack is one of Sandy's customers, his brother, Donal went missing last year. He decides to give it a try, he spends nights talking on the phone with Sandy. On the day of their meeting, he bumps into Sandy but due to the fact that they've never met in person, he didn't know it was her. After Sandy goes missing, he finds Sandy's car with her cellphone inside. Dissatisfied, he starts searching for her though he was discouraged and warned.
Donal RuttleJack Ruttle's younger brother. Bobby DukeIs one of the people than Sandy wanted to find, he went missing when he was sixteen and is nineteen. She found, his given last name is Stanley. He is one of the few people, he is known to have an infectious high-pitch laugh. Glamour calls A Place Called Here'a beautifully written love story.', with Marie Claire describing the ending as'warm and cosy'. Review Centre gives the book 3.2/5 stars
Bartholomew Patrick "Bertie" Ahern is a former Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Taoiseach from 1997 to 2008, Leader of Fianna Fáil from 1994 to 2008, Leader of the Opposition from 1994 to 1997, Tánaiste and Minister for Arts and the Gaeltacht from November 1994 to December 1994, Deputy Leader of Fianna Fáil from 1992 to 1994, Minister for Industry and Commerce in January 1993, Minister for Finance from 1991 to 1994, Minister for Labour from 1987 to 1991, Government Chief Whip and Minister of State at the Department of Defence from March 1982 to December 1982 and Lord Mayor of Dublin from 1986 to 1987. He served as a Teachta Dála from 1977 to 2011. In 1994, Ahern was elected the sixth Leader of Fianna Fáil. Under Ahern's leadership, Fianna Fáil led three coalition governments. After Éamon de Valera, Bertie Ahern's term as Taoiseach is the longest. Ahern resigned as Taoiseach on 6 May 2008, in the wake of revelations made in Mahon Tribunal, was succeeded by Minister for Finance Brian Cowen.
The Mahon Tribunal in 2012, found that Ahern, while not judged corrupt, had received monies from developers and the Tribunal disbelieved his explanations of those payments. Fianna Fáil proposed to expel politicians censured by the tribunal, but Ahern resigned from the party prior to the expulsion motion being moved. In November 2016, it was announced that a decision had been made by Fianna Fáil to give Ahern the option of rejoining the party. Ahern was born in Drumcondra, the youngest of five children of Con and Julia Ahern, both natives of County Cork, who married in October 1937, they settled at Church Avenue, where they resided for the rest of their lives. The other four children are Maurice, Kathleen and Eileen. In Dublin, Ahern's father worked as a farm manager at All Hallows Drumcondra. Ahern's brother Noel is involved in politics and represented Dublin North-West in Dáil Éireann. Ahern's father Con was born into a farming family near Ballyfeard, located near Kinsale, County Cork, in 1904.
His mother came from a farming background and was from near Castledonovan, west County Cork. Ahern's father, Con left County Cork and went to Dublin in the early 1930s to train for the priesthood, but did not complete his studies with the Vincentian order, he had fought in the Irish Civil War. He was a supporter of Éamon de Valera and the Anti-Treaty IRA, he was a member of the 3rd Cork Brigade of the IRA. He remained a militant Irish Republican for decades after the War of Independence. Con Ahern died in 1990. Ahern's mother, died in 1998, aged 87 years. Ahern was educated at St. Patrick's National School, Drumcondra and at St. Aidan's Christian Brothers, Whitehall, he received his third level education at the College of Commerce, part of the Dublin Institute of Technology. Ahern has claimed or it has been claimed by others in circulated biographies that he was educated at University College Dublin and the London School of Economics, but neither university has any records that show Ahern was one of their students.
He worked in the Accounts Department of the Mater Hospital, but though a self-described accountant, as in a TV interview with Bryan Dobson in 2006 and radio interviews during May 2008, with George Hook, on his party's website, he never qualified as a member of any accountants' association. The Irish Independent described him as an accounts clerk. Ahern is an vocal fan of sport, he attends Dublin matches in Croke Park. He supports Manchester United F. C. and attends matches at Old Trafford and rugby matches at Lansdowne Road. He appeared as a pundit on RTÉ Two's The Premiership programme in 2001. Ahern first became involved in a Fianna Fáil by-election campaign in 1965, climbing lamp posts to hang election posters in Drumcondra. During the campaign, Ahern met future Taoiseach, Charles Haughey. Ahern became a member of Fianna Fáil at the age of 17, in the 1969 general election he assisted with the election campaign in his constituency. Ahern's first ran for office during the landslide 1977 general election, when Fianna Fáil formed the last single-party majority government with a 20-seat Dáil majority, the largest ever.
Ahern received 4,000 first preference votes in the newly created Dublin Finglas constituency and was elected with transfers from other candidates. He was elected to Dublin Corporation at the 1979 local elections for the Cabra East-Finglas West Local electoral area, he switched to the North Inner City LEA before standing down before the 1991 local elections. In subsequent elections Ahern became one of the highest vote-getters in the country. In his Dublin Central constituency Ahern was described as: During his first years as a Teachta Dála, Ahern was an anonymous backbencher, but did display ambition. In 1979, when Charles Haughey and George Colley, both constituency colleagues, fought a divisive battle for the position of party leader and Taoiseach, Ahern is believed to have backed Haughey. Ahern had served on a health committee with Haughey in the mid-1970s. Following Haughey's victory, Ahern was appointed Assistant-Government Chief Whip. In 1980, due to the illness of the actual Chief Whip, Seán Moore, he was running the office.
Ahern increased his personal vote in all three general elections of 1981 and 1982 out-polling his running mate, George Colley a candidate for Taoiseach. In the short-lived Fianna Fáil government of 1982, Ahern served as Government Chief Whip. Fianna Fáil were consigned to the opposition benches for five years. During this period Ahern became Fianna Fáil Spokesperson on Labour. In 1986, he became Lord Mayor of Dublin. During his tenure he organised the Dublin Mille
Clare County, Michigan
Clare County is a county in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 30,926; the county seat is Harrison. The county was created by the Michigan Legislature from part of Michilimackinac County in 1840, named Kaykakee County, it was renamed Clare County in 1843 after County Clare in Ireland. The county was administered by a succession of other Michigan counties prior to the organization of county government in 1871. Farwell was the first county seat. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 575 square miles, of which 564 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water, it is considered to be part of both Northern Central Michigan. Au Sable State Forest I-73 US 10 – runs east-west through bottom of county. Enters west county line at 3.7 miles north of SW corner of county. Runs easterly to intersection with US127 at 2.8 miles north of Clare. US 127 – runs north-south through eastern middle of county. Passes Harrison and Clare. M-18 – runs along east line of county, from NE corner for 3.5 miles turns east into Gladwin County.
M-61 – runs east-west through middle of county. Enters runs east to intersection with US127 at Harrison. M-115 – runs SE and east across bottom of county. Enters west line from Osceola County at 9 miles above SW corner of county and runs to intersection with US127 at Clare; the 2010 United States Census indicates Clare County had a 2010 population of 30,926. This decrease of 326 people from the 2000 United States Census represents a loss of 1.0% population. In 2010 there were 12,966 households and 8,584 families in the county; the population density was 54.8 per square mile. There were 23,233 housing units at an average density of 41.2 per square mile. The racial and ethnic makeup of the county was 95.8% White, 0.5% Black or African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 1.5% Hispanic or Latino, 0.1% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. There were 12,966 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were husband and wife families, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.8% were non-families, 28.0% were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.83. The county population contained 20.9% under age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 20.8% from 25 to 44, 30.4% from 45 to 64, 19.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females there were 99.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.9 males. The 2010 American Community Survey 3-year estimate indicates the median income for a household in the county was $33,338 and the median income for a family was $40,983. Males had a median income of $24,220 versus $13,587 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,516. About 2.3% of families and 23.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.8% of those under the age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Saginaw is the controlling regional body for the Catholic Church; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has one meetinghouse in the county, in Harrison. Clare County voters tend to vote Republican.
The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services. The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Clare County is in the middle of large state forests. Wildlife, including bear, eagles, Kirtland's warblers, turkeys, are located nearby. Local attractions include: Kirtland'a Warbler Habitat and Festival Michigan Shore-to-Shore Trail passes through the area, running from Empire to Oscoda and points beyond, it is a 500-mile interconnected system of trails. Activities include: Birding Boating Fishing Hiking Hunting Nordic skiing ORV and groomed snowmobile trails. Paddling Clare Harrison Farwell List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Clare County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Clare County, Michigan Official Visitor Information Site Clare County Convention & Visitors Bureau The Clare County Chamber of Commerce The Clare County Business Association WebsiteNews from Clare County The Clare County Review - Local newspaper Clare County government Clare Sentinel Newspaper Online via Clarke Historical Library and Central Michigan University
Raidió Teilifís Éireann
Raidió Teilifís Éireann is a semi-state company and the national public service media of Ireland. It both produces programmes and broadcasts them on television and the Internet; the radio service began on 1 January 1926, while regular television broadcasts began on 31 December 1961, making it one of the oldest continuously operating public service broadcasters in the world. RTÉ publishes a weekly lifestyle magazine called the RTÉ Guide. RTÉ is financed through advertising; some RTÉ services are only funded by advertising, while other RTÉ services are only funded by the licence fee. RTÉ is a statutory body, run by a board appointed by the Government of Ireland. General management of the organisation is in the hands of the Executive Board headed by the Director-General. RTÉ is regulated by the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland. Radio Éireann, RTÉ's predecessor and at the time a section of the Department of Posts and Telegraphs, was one of 23 founding organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950.
This section deals with the history of RTÉ as an organisation. For details on this history of the various services see the separate articles on those services. For history of the broadcasting service prior to 1960, see Minister for Posts and Telegraphs and RTÉ Radio 1. Broadcasting in Ireland began in 1926 with 2RN in Dublin. From that date until June 1960 the broadcasting service operated as a section of the Department of Posts and Telegraphs, those working for the service were directly employed by the Irish Government and regarded as civil servants. RTÉ was established on 1 June 1960 under the Broadcasting Authority Act 1960, the principal legislation under which it operates; the existing Radio Éireann service was transferred to the new authority, made responsible for the new television service. The television service started broadcasting on 31 December 1961, from the Kippure transmitter site near Dublin. Eamonn Andrews was the first Chairman of Radio Éireann, the first director general was Edward Roth.
The name of the authority was changed, at the suggestion of Áine Ní Cheanainn, to Radio Telefís Éireann by the Broadcasting Authority Act 1966, both the radio and television services became known as RTÉ in that year. The Broadcasting Act 2009 changed the name of the organisation from "Radio Telefís Éireann" to "Raidió Teilifís Éireann", to reflect the proper spelling of the name in Irish. However, the station retains "Radio Telefís Éireann" carved in stone at the entrance to its Donnybrook headquarters in Dublin. Under Section 31 of the Broadcasting Authority Act, 1960 the Minister for Posts and Telegraphs of the day could direct RTÉ "not to broadcast any matter, or any matter of any particular class". In 1971 the first such directive was issued by Gerry Collins, directing RTÉ not to broadcast "any matter that could be calculated to promote the aims or activities of any organisation which engages in, encourages or advocates the attaining of any particular objective by violent means". A year Collins dismissed the entire RTÉ Authority over a report of an interview with Seán Mac Stíofáin, the chief of staff of the Provisional IRA.
RTÉ reporter Kevin O'Kelly, who reported the Mac Stiofáin interview, was jailed for contempt in a court case arising out of the interview. Kelly refused to identify Mac Stiofáin's as the voice on a tape seized from his house by the Garda Síochána. In 1976 Conor Cruise O'Brien, Minister for Posts and Telegraphs, amended Section 31 and thereafter issued a new annually-based directive to the RTÉ authority. RTÉ was now explicitly banned from broadcasting interviews or reports of interviews with spokespersons for Sinn Féin, the Provisional IRA, or any organisation banned in Northern Ireland under the UK's Northern Ireland Act 1973; these directives were reissued on an annual basis until the final one appeared in January 1993. During the late 1970s RTÉ was accused of extending the censorship rules into a system of self-censorship. A small minority of programme makers emerged who approved of Section 31 supporters of the Workers' Party, including Eoghan Harris, Gerry Gregg who opposed that party's official policy.
Opponents of censorship were portrayed as secret IRA sympathizers. The effect of this ban was greater than and similar to, though less harsh than, the censorship provision introduced in 1988 in the United Kingdom; the UK ban did not prevent reports of interviews with spokespersons. This allowed interviews using actors' voices dubbing the direct speech of censored persons; this was not permissible on RTÉ. In 1992–93, in O'Toole vs RTÉ, RTÉ was found by the High Court and Supreme Court to have illegally and unconstitutionally extended the censorship ban to Sinn Féin members who were not speaking on behalf of the party; the RTÉ ban did not affect UK stations broadcasting in the Republic of Ireland as, until 1988 at least, viewers in the Republic were still able to hear the voices of Sinn Féin representatives. The following figures were issued by RTÉ as part of their annual report in 2012. In 2012 RTÉ received in total €180,894,000 in public funding from the licence fee, it received €127,100,000 in commercial revenue.
RTÉ total expenditure in 2012 was €327,023,000. They had restructuring costs of €46,161,000 in 2012. Losses for the year came to €65,147,000. Profit and Loss across radio and online services. RTÉ receives income from two main sources: The television licence fee. Within the State, it is necessary to pay a fee of €160 per annum to possess any piece of
Gerard James Butler is a Scottish actor, producer and musician. After studying law, Butler turned to acting in the mid-1990s with small roles in productions such as Mrs Brown, the James Bond film Tomorrow Never Dies, Tale of the Mummy. In 2000, he starred as Dracula in the horror film Dracula 2000 with Christopher Plummer and Jonny Lee Miller, he subsequently played Attila the Hun in the miniseries Attila and appeared in the films Reign of Fire with Christian Bale and Lara Croft: Tomb Raider – The Cradle of Life with Angelina Jolie, before playing André Marek in the adaptation of Michael Crichton's science fiction adventure Timeline. He was cast as the role of Erik, The Phantom in Joel Schumacher's 2004 film adaptation of the musical The Phantom of the Opera alongside Emmy Rossum; that role earned him a Satellite Award nomination for Best Actor. Although Attila and The Phantom of the Opera were important breaks, it was only in 2007 that Butler gained worldwide recognition for his portrayal of King Leonidas in Zack Snyder's fantasy war film 300.
That role earned him nominations for an Empire Award for Best Actor and a Saturn Award for Best Actor and a win for MTV Movie Award for Best Fight. In the 2010s, he voiced the role of Stoick the Vast in the animated action-fantasy film How to Train Your Dragon, a role he reprised in Legend of the Boneknapper Dragon, Gift of the Night Fury, How to Train Your Dragon 2, How to Train Your Dragon: The Hidden World, he played military leader Tullus Aufidius in the 2011 film Coriolanus, a modernized adaptation of Shakespeare's tragedy of the same name. He played Sam Childers in the 2011 action biopic Machine Gun Preacher. Gerard James Butler was born on 13 November 1969 in Paisley, Scotland, the youngest of three children of Margaret and Edward Butler, a bookmaker, he is from a Catholic family of Irish descent. Butler's family moved to Montreal, when he was six months old; when her marriage broke down, his mother left Quebec and returned to Scotland with baby Gerard aged 18 months. Butler was head boy at St Mirin's & St Margaret's High School in Paisley and won a place at University of Glasgow School of Law.
He attended Scottish Youth Theatre while a teenager. Butler did not see his father again until he was 16 years old, when Edward Butler called to meet him at a Glasgow restaurant. After this meeting, Butler cried for hours, recalled later: "That emotion showed me how much pain can sit in this body of yours. Butler became close to his father after this reunion. During his time as a student, he was the President of the university law society, a position Butler said he "kind of blagged my way into", he sang in a rock band called Speed. While Butler was a 22-year-old student, his father died, he said of this period in his life: "I had gone from a 16-year-old who couldn't wait to grasp life to a 22-year-old who didn't care if he died in his sleep."Before his final year of law school, Butler took a year off to live in California. He lived in Venice Beach, working at different jobs, travelling and, according to him, drinking at one point being arrested for alcohol-related disorderly conduct. Butler described this year as, "I was out of control, justifying it with this idea that'I'm young, this is life.
This is me just being boisterous." After his time off in America, he returned to Scotland to take his final year at law school. Butler had an ear surgery, he still is hard of hearing in his right ear. Upon graduation, he took a position as a trainee lawyer at an Edinburgh law firm. However, he continued to stay out late drinking and he missed work because of this. One week before he qualified as a lawyer, he was fired. At the age of 25, an unqualified lawyer, Butler moved to London to pursue his dream of becoming famous, he admitted, "When I started out, I'm not sure I was in it for the right reasons. I wanted much to be famous."Unable to win any acting roles he worked in a variety of jobs including as a waiter, a telemarketer and a demonstrator of how toys work at fairs. Whilst in London, he met an old friend from his teenage days in the Scottish Youth Theatre, now a London casting director. At that time, he was her assistant, she took him to an audition for Steven Berkoff's play of Coriolanus. The director said of Butler's audition, "When he read, he had such vigour and enthusiasm—so much that it made the other actors seem limp—that I decided to cast him in the ensemble."Then aged 27, Butler had his first professional acting job.
Less than a year he won a part in a theatre adaptation of Trainspotting, which he performed at the Edinburgh Festival. At age 30, Butler decided to move to Los Angeles. In London, Butler held a series of odd jobs until being cast by actor and director Steven Berkoff in a stage production of Coriolanus, he was cast as Ewan McGregor's character Renton in the stage adaptation of Trainspotting, the same play that had inspired him to become an actor. His film debut was, his film career continued with small roles, first in the James Bond film Tomorrow Never Dies and Russell Mulcahy's Tale of the Mummy. In 2000, Butler was cast in two breakthrough roles, the first being Attila the Hun in the American TV miniseries Attila; the film's producers wanted a k