CeBIT was the largest and most internationally representative computer expo. The trade fair was held each year on the Hanover fairground, the world's largest fairground, in Hanover, Germany. In its day, it was considered a barometer of current trends and a measure of the state of the art in information technology, it was organized by Deutsche Messe AG. With an exhibition area of 450,000 m² and a peak attendance of 850,000 visitors during the dot-com boom, it was larger both in area and attendance than its Asian counterpart COMPUTEX and its no-longer held American equivalent COMDEX. CeBIT is a German language acronym for Centrum für Büroautomation, Informationstechnologie und Telekommunikation, which translates as "Center for Office Automation, Information Technology and Telecommunication"; the final CeBIT took place from June 11 to 15, 2018. CeBIT was traditionally the computing part of the Hanover Fair, a big industry trade show held every year, it was established in 1970, with the opening of the Hanover fairground's new Hall 1 the largest exhibition hall in the world.
However, in the 1980s the information technology and telecommunications part was straining the resources of the trade fair so much that it was given a separate trade show starting in 1986, held four weeks earlier than the main Hanover Fair. The number of visitors for the new exhibition increased to 830,000 in 2001, but by 2007 the CeBIT expo attendance had shrunk to around 200,000 attendance rebounded to 334,000 by 2010; the 2008 expo was marred by police raids of 51 exhibitors for patent infringement. In 2009, the U. S. state of California became official Partner State of Germany's IT and telecommunications industry association, BITKOM, of CeBIT 2009. Focusing on environmentally-friendly technologies. On November 28, 2018, Deutsche Messe AG announcedthat due to declining visitor and exhibitioner attendance, CeBIT would be canceled for the foreseeable future; this makes CeBIT 2018 the final event. As CeBIT continued to grow and was becoming too big on its own, it was decided to concentrate on the professional market, while the home and entertainment market was given a separate show, CeBIT Home, during summer, planned to be biennial.
However, after being held twice, the 2000 CeBIT Home was cancelled and the project was abandoned. Since 1999 the CeBIT sponsor Deutsche Messe AG has organized trade shows outside of Germany bearing the CeBIT name: CeBIT Asia, in Shanghai, China CeBIT Australia, in Sydney CeBIT Eurasia Bilişim, in Istanbul, Turkey CeBIT America/USA in New York City, United States, it was held in 2003 and 2004, but subsequently cancelled in 2005. CeBIT India, in Bangalore, India BITS Mexico powered by CeBIT. México City. Running over a five-day period in Hanover, the CeBIT Global Conferences are staged congruently with the CeBIT exhibition; the conferences are dedicated to providing a 360° overview of the digital industry’s four core markets: IT, Telecommunications, Digital Media and Consumer Electronics. Noted industry figures and researchers from across the globe are invited to speak on the latest relevant trends and innovations as well as their impact on society and the working world; the conference is divided up into keynote speeches and panel discussions.
The CGC conferences are produced by Deutsche Messe AG, with the German BITKOM association acting as the CGC patron since 2009. In 2014, the CGC were staged with 140 speakers on three stages with a program of 70 conference hours and 3000 participants. Target groups of the conference are CXOs, experts and out-of-the-box thinkers, Conference languages are English and German. Recent conferences have featured the following keynote themes: 2008: "Improving Life in the Global Village"; this installment of CGC attracted 1900 visitors and 43 speakers attending the keynotes and discussion sessions. 2009: "How Will We Be Working and Communicating in the Coming Years?" This CGC drew 3,133 visitors from 88 nations, with some 2,200 guests following the conference via live streaming. 2010: "The Challenges of a Changing World - ICT for Better Lives and Better Business", attracting some 4,000 guests from more than 100 nations. Just under 4,000 guests visited the conference via live streaming; the motto of the CeBIT Global Conferences for 2011 was "The Power of Creativity and Innovation".
Steve Wozniak, co-founder Apple Computer Jimmy Wales, founder Wikipedia Eugene Kaspersky, CEO and Chairman, Kaspersky Lab Mark Shuttleworth, Canonical Neelie Kroes, Vice President, European Commission Sir Nigel Shadbolt, Chairman and co-founder, Open Data Institute Dean Douglas, CEO Unify Cristina Riesen, General Manager Europe, Evernote Mikko Hyppönen, Chief Research Officer, F-SecureOver the past years, speakers at the CeBIT Global Conferences have included Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor of California. CeBIT was a platform for recognising achievement by ICT businesses in Australia; the awards include the Excellence in Communications Award, the Advanced Retail Technology Award, the Innovative IT Security Award, the Early Innovators Award. Notable past winners include Motorola, McAfee and eWAY. CES COMPUTEX Official website The history of CeBIT CeBIT Australia offici
X86 is a family of instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 microprocessor and its 8088 variant. The 8086 was introduced in 1978 as a 16-bit extension of Intel's 8-bit 8080 microprocessor, with memory segmentation as a solution for addressing more memory than can be covered by a plain 16-bit address; the term "x86" came into being because the names of several successors to Intel's 8086 processor end in "86", including the 80186, 80286, 80386 and 80486 processors. Many additions and extensions have been added to the x86 instruction set over the years consistently with full backward compatibility; the architecture has been implemented in processors from Intel, Cyrix, AMD, VIA and many other companies. Of those, only Intel, AMD, VIA hold x86 architectural licenses, are producing modern 64-bit designs; the term is not synonymous with IBM PC compatibility, as this implies a multitude of other computer hardware. As of 2018, the majority of personal computers and laptops sold are based on the x86 architecture, while other categories—especially high-volume mobile categories such as smartphones or tablets—are dominated by ARM.
In the 1980s and early 1990s, when the 8088 and 80286 were still in common use, the term x86 represented any 8086 compatible CPU. Today, however, x86 implies a binary compatibility with the 32-bit instruction set of the 80386; this is due to the fact that this instruction set has become something of a lowest common denominator for many modern operating systems and also because the term became common after the introduction of the 80386 in 1985. A few years after the introduction of the 8086 and 8088, Intel added some complexity to its naming scheme and terminology as the "iAPX" of the ambitious but ill-fated Intel iAPX 432 processor was tried on the more successful 8086 family of chips, applied as a kind of system-level prefix. An 8086 system, including coprocessors such as 8087 and 8089, as well as simpler Intel-specific system chips, was thereby described as an iAPX 86 system. There were terms iRMX, iSBC, iSBX – all together under the heading Microsystem 80. However, this naming scheme was quite temporary.
Although the 8086 was developed for embedded systems and small multi-user or single-user computers as a response to the successful 8080-compatible Zilog Z80, the x86 line soon grew in features and processing power. Today, x86 is ubiquitous in both stationary and portable personal computers, is used in midrange computers, workstations and most new supercomputer clusters of the TOP500 list. A large amount of software, including a large list of x86 operating systems are using x86-based hardware. Modern x86 is uncommon in embedded systems and small low power applications as well as low-cost microprocessor markets, such as home appliances and toys, lack any significant x86 presence. Simple 8-bit and 16-bit based architectures are common here, although the x86-compatible VIA C7, VIA Nano, AMD's Geode, Athlon Neo and Intel Atom are examples of 32- and 64-bit designs used in some low power and low cost segments. There have been several attempts, including by Intel itself, to end the market dominance of the "inelegant" x86 architecture designed directly from the first simple 8-bit microprocessors.
Examples of this are the iAPX 432, the Intel 960, Intel 860 and the Intel/Hewlett-Packard Itanium architecture. However, the continuous refinement of x86 microarchitectures and semiconductor manufacturing would make it hard to replace x86 in many segments. AMD's 64-bit extension of x86 and the scalability of x86 chips such as the eight-core Intel Xeon and 12-core AMD Opteron is underlining x86 as an example of how continuous refinement of established industry standards can resist the competition from new architectures; the table below lists processor models and model series implementing variations of the x86 instruction set, in chronological order. Each line item is characterized by improved or commercially successful processor microarchitecture designs. At various times, companies such as IBM, NEC, AMD, TI, STM, Fujitsu, OKI, Cyrix, Intersil, C&T, NexGen, UMC, DM&P started to design or manufacture x86 processors intended for personal computers as well as embedded systems; such x86 implementations are simple copies but employ different internal microarchitectures as well as different solutions at the electronic and physical levels.
Quite early compatible microprocessors were 16-bit, while 32-bit designs were developed much later. For the personal computer market, real quantities started to appear around 1990 with i386 and i486 compatible processors named to Intel's original chips. Other companies, which designed or manufactured x86 or x87 processors, include ITT Corporation, National Semiconductor, ULSI System Technology, Weitek. Following the pipelined i486, Intel introduced the Pentium brand name for their new set of superscalar x86 designs.
In computing, a file system or filesystem controls how data is stored and retrieved. Without a file system, information placed in a storage medium would be one large body of data with no way to tell where one piece of information stops and the next begins. By separating the data into pieces and giving each piece a name, the information is isolated and identified. Taking its name from the way paper-based information systems are named, each group of data is called a "file"; the structure and logic rules used to manage the groups of information and their names is called a "file system". There are many different kinds of file systems; each one has different structure and logic, properties of speed, security and more. Some file systems have been designed to be used for specific applications. For example, the ISO 9660 file system is designed for optical discs. File systems can be used on numerous different types of storage devices that use different kinds of media; as of 2019, hard disk drives have been key storage devices and are projected to remain so for the foreseeable future.
Other kinds of media that are used include SSDs, magnetic tapes, optical discs. In some cases, such as with tmpfs, the computer's main memory is used to create a temporary file system for short-term use; some file systems are used on local data storage devices. Some file systems are "virtual", meaning that the supplied "files" are computed on request or are a mapping into a different file system used as a backing store; the file system manages access to the metadata about those files. It is responsible for arranging storage space. Before the advent of computers the term file system was used to describe a method of storing and retrieving paper documents. By 1961 the term was being applied to computerized filing alongside the original meaning. By 1964 it was in general use. A file system consists of three layers. Sometimes the layers are explicitly separated, sometimes the functions are combined; the logical file system is responsible for interaction with the user application. It provides the application program interface for file operations — OPEN, CLOSE, READ, etc. and passes the requested operation to the layer below it for processing.
The logical file system "manage open file table entries and per-process file descriptors." This layer provides "file access, directory operations and protection."The second optional layer is the virtual file system. "This interface allows support for multiple concurrent instances of physical file systems, each of, called a file system implementation."The third layer is the physical file system. This layer is concerned with the physical operation of the storage device, it processes physical blocks being written. It handles buffering and memory management and is responsible for the physical placement of blocks in specific locations on the storage medium; the physical file system interacts with the device drivers or with the channel to drive the storage device. Note: this only applies to file systems used in storage devices. File systems allocate space in a granular manner multiple physical units on the device; the file system is responsible for organizing files and directories, keeping track of which areas of the media belong to which file and which are not being used.
For example, in Apple DOS of the early 1980s, 256-byte sectors on 140 kilobyte floppy disk used a track/sector map. This results in unused space when a file is not an exact multiple of the allocation unit, sometimes referred to as slack space. For a 512-byte allocation, the average unused space is 256 bytes. For 64 KB clusters, the average unused space is 32 KB; the size of the allocation unit is chosen. Choosing the allocation size based on the average size of the files expected to be in the file system can minimize the amount of unusable space; the default allocation may provide reasonable usage. Choosing an allocation size, too small results in excessive overhead if the file system will contain very large files. File system fragmentation occurs; as a file system is used, files are created and deleted. When a file is created the file system allocates space for the data; some file systems permit or require specifying an initial space allocation and subsequent incremental allocations as the file grows.
As files are deleted the space they were allocated is considered available for use by other files. This creates alternating unused areas of various sizes; this is free space fragmentation. When a file is created and there is not an area of contiguous space available for its initial allocation the space must be assigned in fragments; when a file is modified such that it becomes larger it may exceed the space allocated to it, another allocation must be assigned elsewhere and the file becomes fragmented. A filename is used to identify a storage location in the file system. Most file systems have restrictions on the length of filenames. In some file systems, filenames are not case sensitive. Most modern file systems allow filenames to contain a wide range of characters from the Unicode character set. However, they may have restrictions on the use of certain s
PTS-DOS is a disk operating system, a DOS clone, developed in Russia by PhysTechSoft and Paragon Technology Systems. PhysTechSoft was formed in 1991 in Moscow, Russia by graduates and members of MIPT, informally known as PhysTech. At the end of 1993, PhysTechSoft released the first commercially available PTS-DOS as PTS-DOS v6.4. The version numbering followed MS-DOS version numbers, as Microsoft released MS-DOS 6.2 in November 1993. In 1995, some programmers founded Paragon Technology Systems, they took source code with them and released their own version named PTS/DOS 6.51CD as well as S/DOS 1.0, a stripped down open-source version. According to official PhysTechSoft announcements, these programmers violated both copyright laws and Russian military laws, as PTS-DOS was developed in close relationship with Russia's military and thus may be subject to military secrets law. PhysTechSoft continued development on their own and released PTS-DOS v6.6 somewhere between and presented PTS-DOS v6.65 at the CeBIT exhibition in 1997.
The next version from PhysTechSoft, formally PTS/DOS Extended Version 6.70 was labeled PTS-DOS 2000 and is still being distributed as a last 16-bit PTS-DOS system, as of 2007. Paragon continued their PTS-DOS line and released Paragon DOS Pro 2000. According to Paragon, this was the last version and all development since ceased. Moreover, this release contained bundled source code of older PTS-DOS v6.51. PhysTechSoft continued developing PTS-DOS and released PTS-DOS 32, formally known as PTS-DOS v7.0, which added support for the FAT32 file system. PTS-DOS is certified by the Russian Ministry of Defense; the following list of commands are supported by PTS-DOS 2000 Pro. Intel 80286 CPU or better 512 KB RAM or more Comparison of DOS operating systems АДОС, unrelated to Russian MS-DOS Russian MS-DOS "PTS-DOS 2000 Pro User Manual". Buggingen, Germany: Paragon Technology GmbH. 1999. Archived from the original on 2018-05-12. Retrieved 2018-05-12. Official website Unofficial PTS-DOS FAQ Paragon GmbH homepage
Secrecy is the practice of hiding information from certain individuals or groups who do not have the "need to know" while sharing it with other individuals. That, kept hidden is known as the secret. Secrecy is controversial, depending on the content or nature of the secret, the group or people keeping the secret, the motivation for secrecy. Secrecy by government entities is decried as excessive or in promotion of poor operation, it is contrasted with social transparency. Secrecy can exist in a number of different ways, such as through obfuscation, where secrets are hidden in plain sight behind for example complex idiosyncratic language or steganography. Another classification proposed by Claude Shannon in 1948 reads there are three systems of secrecy within communication: concealment systems, including such methods as invisible ink, concealing a message in an innocent text, or in a fake covering cryptogram, or other methods in which the existence of the message is concealed from the enemy privacy systems, for example speech inversion, in which special equipment is required to recover the message “true” secrecy systems where the meaning of the message is concealed by cipher, etc. although its existence is not hidden, the enemy is assumed to have any special equipment necessary to intercept and record the transmitted signal Animals conceal the location of their den or nest from predators.
Squirrels bury nuts, hiding them, they try to remember their locations later. Humans attempt to consciously conceal aspects of themselves from others due to shame, or from fear of violence, harassment, loss of acceptance, or loss of employment. Humans may attempt to conceal aspects of their own self which they are not capable of incorporating psychologically into their conscious being. Families sometimes maintain "family secrets", obliging family members never to discuss disagreeable issues concerning the family with outsiders or sometimes within the family. Many "family secrets" are maintained by using a mutually agreed-upon construct when speaking with outside members. Agreement to maintain the secret is coerced through "shaming" and reference to family honor; the information may be something as trivial as a recipe. Secrets are sometimes kept to provide the pleasure of surprise; this includes keeping secret about a surprise party, not telling spoilers of a story, avoiding exposure of a magic trick.
Keeping one's strategy secret is important in many aspects of game theory. In anthropology secret sharing is one way for people to establish traditional relations with other people. A used narrative that describes this kind of behavior is Joseph Conrad's short story "The Secret Sharer". Governments attempt to conceal information from other governments and the public; these state secrets can include weapon designs, military plans, diplomatic negotiation tactics, secrets obtained illicitly from others. Most nations have some form of Official Secrets Act and classify material according to the level of protection needed. An individual needs a security clearance for access and other protection methods, such as keeping documents in a safe, are stipulated. Few people dispute the desirability of keeping Critical Nuclear Weapon Design Information secret, but many believe government secrecy to be excessive and too employed for political purposes. Many countries have laws that attempt to limit government secrecy, such as the U.
S. Freedom of Information Act and sunshine laws. Government officials sometimes leak information. Secrecy in elections is a growing issue secrecy of vote counts on computerized vote counting machines. While voting, citizens are acting in a unique sovereign or "owner" capacity in selecting their government servants, it is argued that secrecy is impermissible as against the public in the area of elections where the government gets all of its power and taxing authority. In any event, permissible secrecy varies with the context involved. Organizations, ranging from multi-national for profit corporations to nonprofit charities, keep secrets for competitive advantage, to meet legal requirements, or, in some cases, to conceal nefarious behavior. New products under development, unique manufacturing techniques, or lists of customers are types of information protected by trade secret laws; the patent system encourages inventors to publish information in exchange for a limited time monopoly on its use, though patent applications are secret.
Secret societies use secrecy as a way to attract members by creating a sense of importance. Shell companies may be used to launder money from criminal activity, to finance terrorism, or to evade taxes. Registers of beneficial ownership aim at fighting corporate secrecy in that sense. Other laws require organizations to keep certain information secret, such as medical records, or financial reports that are under preparation. Europe has strict laws about database privacy. In many countries, neoliberal reforms of government have included expanding the outsourcing of government tasks and functions to private businesses with the aim of improving efficiency and
In computer science, a for-loop is a control flow statement for specifying iteration, which allows code to be executed repeatedly. Various keywords are used to specify this statement: descendants of ALGOL use "for", while descendants of Fortran use "do". There are other possibilities, for example COBOL which uses "PERFORM VARYING". A for-loop has two parts: a header specifying the iteration, a body, executed once per iteration; the header declares an explicit loop counter or loop variable, which allows the body to know which iteration is being executed. For-loops are used when the number of iterations is known before entering the loop. For-loops can test a loop variable; the name for-loop comes from the English word for, used as the keyword in many programming languages to introduce a for-loop. The term in English dates to ALGOL 58 and was popularized in the influential ALGOL 60; the loop body is executed "for" the given values of the loop variable, though this is more explicit in the ALGOL version of the statement, in which a list of possible values and/or increments can be specified.
In FORTRAN and PL/I, the keyword DO is used for the same thing and it is called a do-loop. A for-loop statement is available in most imperative programming languages. Ignoring minor differences in syntax there are many differences in how these statements work and the level of expressiveness they support. For-loops fall into one of the following categories: The for-loop of languages like ALGOL, Simula, BASIC, Modula, Ada, Ocaml, F#, so on, requires a control variable with start- and end-values and looks something like this: Depending on the language, an explicit assignment sign may be used in place of the equal sign. An optional step-value may be included, although the exact syntaxes used for this differs a bit more between the languages; some languages require a separate declaration of the control variable, some do not. Another form was popularized by the C programming language, it requires 3 parts: the initialization, the condition, the afterthought and all these three parts are optional. The initialization declares.
The type of a variable should be same. The condition checks a condition, quits the loop if false; the afterthought is performed once every time the loop ends and repeats. Here is an example of the traditional for-loop in Java; these loops are sometimes called numeric for-loops when contrasted with foreach loops. This type of for-loop is a generalisation of the numeric range type of for-loop, as it allows for the enumeration of sets of items other than number sequences, it is characterized by the use of an implicit or explicit iterator, in which the loop variable takes on each of the values in a sequence or other data collection. A representative example in Python is: Where some_iterable_object is either a data collection that supports implicit iteration, or may in fact be an iterator itself; some languages have this in addition to another for-loop syntax. Some languages offer a for-loop that acts as if processing all iterations in parallel, such as the for all keyword in FORTRAN 95 which has the interpretation that all right-hand-side expressions are evaluated before any assignments are made, as distinct from the explicit iteration form.
For example, in the for statement in the following pseudocode fragment, when calculating the new value for A, except for the first the reference to A will obtain the new value, placed there in the previous step. In the for all version, each calculation refers only to the original, unaltered A. for i:= 2: N - 1 do A:= / 3. Some languages offer array assignment statements, that enable many for-loops to be omitted, thus pseudocode such as A:= 0. The example loop could be rendered as But whether that would be rendered in the style of the for-loop or the for all-loop or something else may not be described in the compiler manual. Introduced with ALGOL 68 and followed by PL/I, this allows the iteration of a loop to be compounded with a test, as in for i:= 1: N while A > 0 do etc. That is, a value is assigned to the loop variable i and only if the while expression is true will the loop body be executed. If the result were false the for-loop's execution stops short. Granted that the loop variable's value is defined after the termination of the loop the above statement will find the first non-positive element in array A, or, with suitable variations, the first non-blank character in a string, so on.
In computer programming a loop counter is the variable. It is so named because most uses of this construct result in the variable taking on a range of integer values in some orderly sequences (example. Starting at 0 and end at 10 in incre
For computer file systems, fdisk is a command-line utility that provides disk partitioning functions. It is available in DOS, FlexOS, OS/2, Microsoft Windows operating systems, in certain ports of FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, DragonFly BSD and macOS for compatibility reasons. In versions of the Windows NT operating system line from Windows 2000 onwards, fdisk is replaced by a more advanced tool called diskpart. Similar utilities exist for example, BSD disklabel. IBM introduced fdisk, Fixed Disk Setup Program version 1.00, with the March 1983 release of the IBM PC/XT, the first PC to store data on a hard disk, the IBM Personal Computer DOS version 2.0. Version 1 could be used to create one FAT12 DOS partition, delete it, change the active partition, or display partition data. Fdisk writes the master boot record; the other three were intended for other operating systems such as CP/M-86 and Xenix, which were expected to have their own partitioning utilities as fdisk did not support them. In August 1984, PC DOS 3.0 added.
In April 1987, PC DOS/fdisk 3.30 added support for extended partitions, which could hold up to 23 "logical drives" or volumes. Support for FAT16B was added with Compaq MS-DOS 3.31, became available with MS-DOS/PC DOS 4.0. Most DOS fdisk programs, including the fdisk program that came with the original Windows 95, are only capable of creating FAT partitions of types FAT12, FAT16 and FAT16B. A derivative of the MS-DOS fdisk was provided with Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows ME. Only those fdisk versions shipping with Windows 95B or are able to manipulate FAT32 partitions. Windows 2000 and do not use fdisk, they have the Logical Disk Manager feature, as well as DiskPart. Unlike the fdisk programs for other operating systems, the fdisk programs for DOS and Windows 9x/Me not only alter data in the partition table, but will overwrite many sectors of data in the partition itself. Users must be sure the correct disk/partition has been chosen before using a DOS/Windows fdisk for partitioning; the fdisk /mbr switch is undocumented but well known for repairing the master boot record.
The fdisk supplied with Windows 95 does not report the correct size of a hard disk, larger than 64 GB. An updated fdisk is available from Microsoft. Microsoft named the replacement "263044usa8" and is Version 4.72.2811.0. Signature May 23, 2000; the original Windows 98 fdisk program size is smaller than the updated one. The implementation of fdisk in FreeDOS is free software; the FreeDOS version was developed by Brian E. Reifsnyder. Paragon Technology Systems PTS-DOS 2000 Pro includes an fdisk implementation. OS/2 shipped with two partition table managers up until version 4.0. These were the GUI-based fdiskpm; the two have identical functionality, can manipulate both FAT partitions and the more advanced HPFS partitions. OS/2 versions 4.5 and higher can use the JFS filesystem as well as FAT and HPFS, replace fdisk with the Logical Volume Manager. Fdisk for Mach Operating System was written by Robert Baron, it was ported to 386BSD by Julian Elischer, the implementation is being used by FreeBSD, NetBSD and DragonFly BSD, all as of 2019, as well as the early versions of OpenBSD between 1995 and 1997 before OpenBSD 2.2.
Tobias Weingartner re-wrote fdisk in 1997 before OpenBSD 2.2, which has subsequently been forked by Apple Computer, Inc in 2002, is still used as the basis for fdisk on macOS as of 2019. For native partitions, BSD systems traditionally use BSD disklabel, fdisk partitioning is supported only on certain architectures and only in addition to the BSD disklabel. In Linux the maximum number of partitions you can have with fdisk is 60 and not more than that. IBM PC DOS 7.10 contained FORMAT32 utilities. List of disk partitioning software format cfdisk Linux Partition HOWTO. Partitioning with fdisk Linux Programmer's Manual, fdisk fdisk from utils-linux-ng blkid - command-line utility to locate/print block device attributes Using the blkid Command. FreeBSD System Manager's Manual, FDISK