A PT boat was a motor torpedo boat used by the United States Navy in World War II. It was small and inexpensive to build, valued for its maneuverability and speed but hampered at the beginning of the war by ineffective torpedoes, limited armament, comparatively fragile construction that limited some of the variants to coastal waters. In the USN they were organized in Motor Torpedo Boat Squadrons; the PT boat was different from the first generation of torpedo boat, developed at the end of the 19th century and featured a displacement hull form. These first generation torpedo boats rode low in the water, displaced up to 300 tons, had a top speed of 25 to 27 kn. During World War I Italy, the US and UK developed the first high-performance petrol-powered motor torpedo boats and corresponding torpedo tactics, but these projects were all disbanded with the Armistice. World War II PT boats continued to exploit some of the advances in planing hull design borrowed from offshore powerboat racing and by using multiple lightweight but more powerful marinized aircraft-derived V-12 engines were able to grow in both size and speed.
During World War II, PT boats engaged enemy warships, tankers and sampans. As gunboats they could be effective against enemy small craft armored barges used by the Japanese for inter-island transport. Several saw service with the Philippine Navy, where they were named "Q-boats". Primary anti-ship armament was four 2,600 pound Mark 8 torpedoes. Launched by 21-inch Mark 18 torpedo tubes, each bore a 466-pound TNT warhead and had a range of 16,000 yards at 36 knots. Two twin M2.50 cal machine guns were mounted for general fire support. Some boats shipped a 20 mm Oerlikon cannon. Propulsion was via a trio of 4M-2500 and 5M-2500 supercharged gasoline-fueled, liquid-cooled V-12 marine engines. Nicknamed "the mosquito fleet" – and "devil boats" by the Japanese – the PT boat squadrons were hailed for their daring and earned a durable place in the public imagination that remains strong into the 21st century, their role was replaced in the U. S. Navy by fast attack crafts. At the outbreak of war in August 1914, W. Albert Hickman devised the first procedures and tactics for employing fast maneuverable seaworthy torpedo motorboats against capital ships, presented his proposal to Rear Admiral David W. Taylor, the Chief of the US Navy's Bureau of Construction and Repair.
In September 1914, Hickman completed plans for a 50-foot Sea Sled torpedo boat and submitted these to the Navy in hopes of obtaining a contract. While favorably received, Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels rejected the proposal since the US was not at war, but Hickman was advised to submit his plans and proposal to the British Admiralty, done the following month, his plan was promptly rejected by the Admiralty, so Hickman built and launched his own financed 41-foot Sea Sled capable of carrying a single 18" Whitehead Mark 5 torpedo. In February 1915, this Hickman sea sled demonstrated 35 kn speeds in rough winter seas off Boston to both US and foreign representatives but again, he received no contracts; the Admiralty representative for this sea sled demonstration was Lieutenant G. C. E. Hampden. In the summer of 1915, Lieutenants Hampden and Anson approached John I. Thornycroft & Company about developing a small high speed torpedo boat, this effort led to the Coastal Motor Boat which first went into service in April 1916.
Meanwhile, in August 1915, the General Board of the United States Navy approved the purchase of a single experimental small torpedo boat that could be transportable. This contract for C-250 ended up going to Greenport Basin and Construction Company, of Greenport, NY; when it was delivered and tested in the summer of 1917, it was not deemed a success, so a second boat of the sea sled design was ordered from Hickman in either late 1917 or early 1918. Using his previous design from September 1914 and the previous unsuccessful bid for C-250, the new boat C-378 was completed and tested just in time to be cancelled by the Armistice. With a full loaded weight of 56,000 pounds, C-378 made a top speed of 37 kn with 1400 HP, maintained an average speed of 34.5 kn in a winter northeaster storm with 12 to 14 foot seas, which would still be considered exceptional 100 years later. The Sea Sled would not surface again as a torpedo boat topic until 1939, but would continue to be used by both the Army and Navy as rescue boats and seaplane tenders during the 20s and 30s.
In 1922, the US Navy reconsidered using small internal combustion engine powered torpedo boats. As a result, two types of British Royal Navy Coastal Motor Boats were obtained for testing; the larger boat was used for experiments until 1930. In 1938, the U. S. Navy renewed their investigation into the concept by requesting competitive bids for several different types of motor torpedo boats, but excluded Hickman's Sea Sled; this competition led to eight prototype boats built to compete in two different classes. The first class was for 54-foot boats, the second class was for 70-foot boats; the resulting PT boat designs were the product of a small cadre of respected naval architects and the Navy. On 11 July 1938, invitations to builders and designers were issued with prizes awarded for the winning PT boat designs given out on 30 March 1939. In an important note after winning the design competition for the smaller PT boat, George Crouch wrote that Hickman's Sea Sle
Vernon Albert Banbury was an Australian rules footballer. Banbury played three matches for St Kilda in the Victorian Football League during the 1909 and 1910 VFL seasons, he played for Footscray in the Victorian Football Association. Playing against Port Melbourne in 1912 he kicked the ball into the goalposts seven times, an Australian rules football record. In 1914 Banbury was sacked by Footscray in the aftermath of the club's loss in the 1914 VFA Grand Final. After the 1922 VFA Grand Final, Banbury was accused by a number of Port Melbourne players of paying money to throw the match in Footscray's favour. Banbury subsequently received a life ban from the VFA, he was made a life member of Footscray the following year. In 2010, Banbury was an inaugural inductee into the Western Bulldogs Hall of Fame. Vern Banbury's playing statistics from AFL Tables
2937 Gibbs, provisional designation 1980 LA, is a stony Phocaea asteroid and Mars-crosser from the inner regions of the asteroid belt 6 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 14 June 1980, by American astronomer Edward Bowell at Lowell's Anderson Mesa Station near Flagstaff, Arizona; the asteroid was named after American scientist Josiah Willard Gibbs. Gibbs is a Mars-crossing asteroid, as it crosses the orbit of Mars at 1.666 AU. It is an eccentric member of the Phocaea family, a large asteroid family of stony asteroids in the inner main-belt. Gibbs orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.6 -- 3.0 AU once 6 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 22 ° with respect to the ecliptic; the asteroid's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Anderson Mesa. No prior identifications were made and no precoveries taken. Gibbs is an assumed stony S-type asteroid, which agrees with the overall spectral type of the Phocaea family. In 2005, two rotational lightcurves of Gibbs were obtained from photometric observations by Italian amateur astronomers Federico Manzini and Roberto Crippa.
Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 3.06 and 3.06153 hours with a brightness variation of 0.31 and 0.39 magnitude, respectively. In December 2016, Robert Stephens obtained a well-defined lightcurve at his Trojan Station that gave a period of 3.189 hours and an amplitude of 0.26 magnitude. According to the survey carried out by the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Gibbs measures between 5.04 and 5.99 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.283 and 0.30, while the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes an albedo of 0.23 – derived from 25 Phocaea, the Phocaea family's largest member and namesake – and calculates a diameter of 6.35 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 13.2. This minor planet was named in memory of American mathematician and physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs, who contributed to the studies of asteroids through his work on orbits; the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 17 February 1984.
The lunar crater Gibbs was named in his honor. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 2937 Gibbs at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 2937 Gibbs at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters