Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western world that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew in the early 19th century, when serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops; the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 18th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with philosophical movements associated with Catholicism and a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism; the "Anglo-Catholicism" tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods.
In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread to the continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and to the Americas. The influence of the Revival had peaked by the 1870s. New architectural movements, sometimes related as in the Arts and Crafts movement, sometimes in outright opposition, such as Modernism, gained ground, by the 1930s the architecture of the Victorian era was condemned or ignored; the 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the United Kingdom by the establishment of the Victorian Society in 1958. The rise of Evangelicalism in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the High church movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre-Reformation Catholic church. Architecture, in the form of the Gothic Revival, became one of the main weapons in the High church's armoury; the Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by "medievalism", which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities.
As "industrialisation" progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values, supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation. Gothic Revival took on political connotations. In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic novel genre, beginning with The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian". Poems such as "Idylls of the King" by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions. Gothic architecture began at the Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris, the Cathedral of Sens in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster.
However, Gothic architecture did not die out in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults for the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, under construction since 1390. Guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active in Turin, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the 17th century, as shown in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary Baroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church, University of Oxford, Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic Revival. Throughout France in the 16th and 17th centuries, churches such as St-Eustache continued to be built following gothic forms cloaked in classical details, until the arrival of Baroque architecture.
In the mid-18th century, with the rise of Romanticism, an increased in
The Wisconsin Tower, or 606 Building, is a 22-story, 280-foot-tall art-deco high-rise building in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. It was completed in 1930, was the second tallest building in Milwaukee at the time of its completion, it would be surpassed by the Chase Tower in 1961. The building was an office tower, but it was purchased and redeveloped into 74 condominiums in 2005; the renovation was completed the following year. The tower is located at 606 West Wisconsin Avenue; the Wisconsin Tower is a prime example of Art Deco architecture, was built from 1929 to 1930, in the middle of the Art Deco era. It was designed by the Chicago architectural firm of Alford Company; the firm designed several Midwest office buildings and banks during this period which had similar features–skyscrapers with Bedford stone exterior and inset upper floors. The dramatic brown marble front entrance, surrounding a grillwork of birds and flowers, leads to an impressive lobby all of, original; the lobby walls are Levanto Italian marble.
The elevator doors, elevator signals, directory are all beautiful examples of Art Deco design. The metal grillwork continues along east sides of the outside of the building. All of the grillwork was designed by Edwin Weary, one of the architects, who designed the frieze on the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Building located on State Street; the Wisconsin Tower was known as the Mariner Tower until 1939. The original name came from John W. Mariner; the land upon which The Wisconsin Tower was built was purchased by John W. Mariner from brothers Thomas and John E. Saxe–famous Milwaukee theatre moguls. Mariner owned several businesses related to real estate, died several months before completion of the Tower; the name change came about because another Downtown building known as the Mariner was confused with the Mariner Tower. At a height of 280 feet, 22 floors; the Wisconsin Tower was the tallest skyscraper built in Milwaukee during the 1920s. The steel tower on the rooftop accounts for about 35 feet of the total building’s height.
It was enclosed in glass and used as an airplane beacon. Now the structure is illuminated at night by LED lights. There is a second steel tower on the rooftop now, not included in the building's height. Although there has been speculation that the steel tower’s original purpose was for blimp landings, there is no proof; the rumor may have come about in part because of the building’s resemblance to the Empire State Building, which has a similar structure, built as a landing platform. As a matter of fact, there are two other buildings built by the architectural firm Weary & Alford which resemble the Wisconsin Tower, see First National Center; when it was completed in late 1930, the Mariner Tower’s four elevators were state of the art, prominently mentioned in news stories. They had electronically controlled stopping and leveling mechanisms, which meant elevator operators no longer had to use finesse and guesswork to stop the car at the correct spot. Original tenants of the Tower included commercial and medical offices, a restaurant.
For much of the past and law offices occupied most of the space. In 1971, Mariner Realty sold the building to Towne Realty. By the early 1990s, with the downturn of the Westown neighborhood, only a third of The Wisconsin Tower’s space was leased. From 1994 until 2002, Milwaukee Business Training Institute relocated to this site and leased four floors of the building. For a time, the penthouse on the 21st floor was occupied by the popular Milwaukee rock and roll radio station FM 93 WQFM, which went off the air in 1996; the Tower housed a Milwaukee Police Station and the Public Service Ambassadors from their inception in 1999 until 2003. In 2004, developer Dave Leszczynski, owner of City Real Estate Development, bought the building and began the condominium renovation you see today. Building History is from: Wisconsin Tower Condominium Resident's Handbook List of tallest buildings in Milwaukee
Rockwell Automation Headquarters and Allen-Bradley Clock Tower
The Rockwell Automation Headquarters is an office building located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The Allen-Bradley Clock Tower, owned by Allen-Bradley, a product brand of Rockwell Automation, has long been a landmark in Milwaukee. According to the Guinness Book of World Records: "The largest four-faced clock is that on the research and office addition of the Allen-Bradley Company; each face has a diameter of 3-1/2 inches. Dedicated on October 31, 1962, it rises 280 feet from the streets of Milwaukee, requires 34.6 kilowatts of electricity for lighting and power." It has since been surpassed by the 141 foot clock faces of the Abraj Al Bait. The original plan for the clock tower date as far back as 1959, when it appears on early drawings for the proposed addition. Created by architect Fitzhugh Scott, the plans included several towers in its design, only one of which would house a clock; this was scaled back, however a smaller tower on an existing building was kept and modified to display the outdoor temperature using a large digital display.
The interest in creating the tower was younger of the firm's two founding brothers. An inventor, Bradley including in his tinkering several of the clocks which he owned; the current clock tower stands at 283 ft.. Because the octagonal faces are nearly twice the size of the faces of London’s Big Ben, chimes were never added in an attempt to allow Big Ben to remain the largest four-faced chiming clock in the world. In fact, that title has belonged to the Minneapolis City Hall clock since 1909; each hour hand of the Allen-Bradley Clock Tower weighs 490 pounds. Each minute hand weighs 530 pounds; the hour markings are 4 feet high. The clock has been called "The Polish Moon," referring to the Polish neighborhood in which it is based. In recent years it has been called the "Mexican Moon," reflecting the change in the area's ethnic composition, its lighted faces have been used as a navigation aid for Lake Michigan mariners over the years, except during the 1973 oil crisis when the clock was unlit from November 1973 to June 1974.
The tower made an appearance on the NASCAR Busch Series race car of Mike Bliss in 2004. To celebrate Rockwell Automation and Allen-Bradley's 100-year association, the #20 Rockwell Automation car was painted black with gold accents, along with the Rockwell/Allen-Bradley 100 Years symbol on the hood and quarter panels; the Clock Tower was depicted on the car in front of the wheel well. List of tallest buildings in Milwaukee NGS Survey of the Tower Allen-Bradley Tower Clock Description
University Club Tower (Milwaukee)
University Club Tower is a condominium tower in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. At 446 feet, it is the fourth tallest building in the tallest residential building, it is located in Milwaukee's East Town neighborhood adjacent to the Lake Michigan shoreline. The tower as planned was designed by Santiago Calatrava was to have only 25 stories; that plan was cancelled because of concerns about parking and its potential to obstruct views of the lake. However, the project was revived in June 2002 and ground was broken two years later; the tower is built on land owned by the University Club of Milwaukee. It is adjacent connected to the Club, the tower's health center serves as the health center for club members. List of tallest buildings in Milwaukee at the Emporis buildings database University Club Tower official website
Basilica of St. Josaphat
The Basilica of St. Josaphat, located in the Lincoln Village neighborhood of Milwaukee, United States, North America, in the Archdiocese of Milwaukee, is one of 82 minor basilicas found in the United States. In its grandeur and opulence it is an excellent example of the so-called Polish Cathedral style of church architecture found in the Great Lakes region of North America. Modeled after St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, it features one of the largest copper domes in the world, it is a designated Milwaukee Landmark. The Basilica of St. Josaphat was dedicated to Josaphat Kuncevyc, a Ruthenian martyr and saint of the Roman Catholic Church, as well as of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. St. Josaphat's congregation was founded in 1888 by immigrant Poles on Milwaukee's far south side. In 1896, when the parish church proved to be too small, Pastor Wilhelm Grutza commissioned a prominent church architect of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Erhard Brielmaier. Like a number of other Polish churches in the so-called Polish Cathedral style, such as St. Mary of the Angels in Chicago or Immaculate Heart of Mary in Pittsburgh, the architectural plans for the new edifice were intentionally modeled on St. Peter's Basilica.
As the design neared completion, Father Grutza learned that the U. S. Post Office and Customs House in Chicago was being razed, he purchased the 200,000 tons of salvage material for $20,000 and had it delivered to Milwaukee on 500 railroad flatcars, where parishioners were waiting to begin construction. The Basilica was formally dedicated in 1901 by Archbishop Francis Xavier Katzer with 4,000 people in attendance. Once completed, it met the requirements of Milwaukee's growing Polish Catholic population by seating 2,400 members and was the city's largest church. Artist Tadeusz Żukotyński painted the first painting in the church, The Martyrdom of St. Josaphat, in 1904. Decoration on the interior was completed in 1926 by artists Conrad Gonippo Raggi. Detailed oil paintings depicting biblical scenes adorned the walls and inner dome, while ornamental plasterwork finished in gold leaf set the columns, ornate stained glass covered the windows. In 1929, Pope Pius XI designated St. Josaphat Church as the third minor basilica in the United States, marking it as a place of pilgrimage, special devotion, historical significance.
An electrical fire in 1940 caused extensive smoke damage to the interior, a lightning storm in 1947 dislodged several large blocks of stone from the base of the dome. The need for repairs could no longer be ignored. Structural maintenance and renovation of the murals began in earnest from 1948 through 1951. Strong winds in 1986 tore a sheet of copper from the dome and severe water damage occurred. Financial assistance in repairs was the impetus for partnerships with the Franciscan Order, along with several prominent businessmen from the Polish community; this led to the establishment of the St. Josaphat Basilica Foundation in 1991 and allowed large scale restoration work, again by Conrad Schmitt Studios, to begin; the original plans drawn by architect Erhard Brielmaier called for brick construction. When it was decided that salvage material from the demolished Chicago Federal Building was to be used, Erhard had to use reverse planning in order to incorporate stone as the primary building material.
Each block was measured and numbered for a best fit in the new design and hardly any stone was re-cut or went to waste. A large field nearby was sorting as it came off the railroad flatcars. Six large granite columns from the Federal Building, along with their carved stone capitals, were added to the plans; the original ornamental bronze railings, lighting fixtures, doors were to be used. Before construction could begin, a broad hill standing 30 feet tall at its peak needed to be leveled down to the surrounding area; this monumental task was completed using nothing more than man and horse power, which hauled the earth to a new location along the western shore of the Kinnickinnic River. The cornerstone was placed on July 4, 1897. Unskilled parishioners did most of the work under direction. Hired help from among the poor contributed, when limited church funds allowed. Since domestic Portland cement was of unknown quality at the time, German Dyckerhoff cement was imported for use in the foundation, while old railroad ties served as reinforcement.
Heavy steel rails were used in the concrete footings for the eight piers that supported the 214-foot dome. On July 21, 1901, a high mass presided over by Archbishop Francis Xavier Katzer marked the formal completion and dedication of the basilica; the first mural, painted for this church was The Martyrdom of St. Josaphat in 1904 by the artist Zukotynski and is found directly behind and above the altar. Most of the other murals found in the church were painted by Gonippo Raggi. Conrad Schmitt Studios restored the interior of the Basilica to its 1926 decorative grandeur executed by Conrad Schmitt Studios and Roman artist Professor Gonippo Raggi, restored the Basilica's stained glass windows imported from Austria in 1902. Lincoln Village, City of Milwaukee, Wisconsin Polish Americans Polish Cathedral style Roman Catholicism in Poland Wacław Kruszka Tadeusz Żukotyński Polish diaspora List of tallest buildings in Milwaukee Basilica of St. Josaphat St. Josaphat Basilica Foundation Interactive panoramas of The Basilica of St. Josaphat
100 East Wisconsin
100 East Wisconsin, or The Faison Building is a skyscraper located in downtown Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Erected in 1989 on the site of the old Pabst Building, its design is reflective of the German-American architecture, preserved in downtown Milwaukee, much like Detroit's Ally Detroit Center; the building is bordered on the west by the Milwaukee River along the Milwaukee Riverwalk. It is the third tallest building in Wisconsin, behind the U. S. Bank Center, the Northwestern Mutual Tower and Commons located in downtown Milwaukee; the location of 100 East Wisconsin at the northwest corner of East Wisconsin avenue and North Water Street has been viewed as the oldest building site within the city. This was the location of Milwaukee's first European settlement by Henry Vieau, the site of city founder Solomon Juneau's original cabin and trading post constructed in 1820 and the site of the 235-foot, 14-story Pabst Building constructed in 1891 and demolished in 1981. After failing to develop a high-rise called River Place in the early 1980s, the owners of the property at 100 East Wisconsin sold the property to Charlotte developer Faison Associates in December 1987.
Following the purchase, in January 1987 Faison released renderings of the tower designed by the Charlotte architecture firm of Clark, Harris & Li. The tower was to rise as the second tallest building in the city, behind the U. S. Bank Center, contain 430,000 square feet of 410 parking spaces. With plans in place, in March 1987 workers began to deconstruct of the park in place at the location of the tower; the landscaping removed was relocated to Marquette University and the benches donated to the West End Community Center. Construction of the concrete framed structure began construction in mid-1987 with occupancy occurring in April 1989. Designed by Clark, Harris & Li, the tower features a rectangular footprint and is topped with a crown that similar to that of the former Pabst Building and the Milwaukee City Hall. Additionally, the arches at the base were designed to pay homage to those at the base of the Pabst Building of the Flemish Renaissance style. List of tallest buildings in Milwaukee
The Kilbourn Tower is a 33-story, 380-foot-tall building in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The building was completed in 2005, at the time of its completion, it was the tallest residential building in Wisconsin, it would be surpassed by the University Club Tower the following year. The Kilbourn Tower is built in a modernist style; the tower was designed by LA DALLMAN, the Milwaukee and Boston-based architecture practice founded by Grace La and James Dallman. Grace La is a tenured professor and James Dallman is visiting faculty at Harvard University Graduate School of Design; the Architect-of-Record was Solomon Cordwell Buenz. LA DALLMAN won the commission through a city-sponsored design competition in December 21, 2000. Kilbourn Tower is located at the key intersection of Prospect and Kilibourn, overlooking Solomon Juneau Park and the Milwaukee lakefront; the building is centrally located and offers pedestrian access to the Milwaukee central business district. List of tallest buildings in Milwaukee