Central Valley (California)
The Central Valley is a flat valley that dominates the geographical center of the U. S. state of California. It is 40 to 60 miles wide and stretches 450 miles from north-northwest to south-southeast, inland from and parallel to the Pacific Ocean coast, it covers 18,000 square miles, about 11% of California's total land area. The valley is bounded by the Sierra Nevada to the Coast Ranges to the west, it is California's single most productive agricultural region and one of the most productive in the world, providing more than half of the fruits and nuts grown in the United States. More than 7 million acres of the valley are irrigated via an extensive system of reservoirs and canals; the valley has many major cities, including the state capital Sacramento. The Central Valley watershed comprises over a third of California, it consists of three main drainage systems: the Sacramento Valley in the north, which receives well over 20 inches of rain annually. The Sacramento and San Joaquin river systems drain their respective valleys and meet to form the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, a large expanse of interconnected canals, stream beds, sloughs and peat islands.
The delta empties into the San Francisco Bay, ultimately flows into the Pacific. The waters of the Tulare Basin never flow to the ocean, though they are connected by man-made canals to the San Joaquin and could drain there again if they were to rise high enough; the valley encompasses all or parts of 18 Northern California counties: Butte, Glenn, Kings, Merced, San Joaquin, Shasta, Stanislaus, Tehama, Yuba and the Southern California county of Kern. The Central Valley is known to residents as "the Valley." Older names include "the Great Valley," a name still seen in scientific references, "Golden Empire," a booster name, still referred to by some organizations. The Central Valley is outlined by the Cascade, Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi mountain ranges on the east, the California Coast Ranges and San Francisco Bay on the west; the broad valley floor is carpeted by vast agricultural regions, dotted with numerous population centers. Subregions and their counties associated with the valley include: North Sacramento Valley Sacramento Metro North San Joaquin South San Joaquin There are four main population centers in the Central Valley, each equidistant from the next, from south to north: Bakersfield, Fresno and Redding.
While there are many communities large and small between these cities, these four cities act as hubs for regional commerce and transportation. About 6.5 million people live in the Central Valley today, it is the fastest growing region in California. There are 12 Metropolitan Statistical Areas and 1 Micropolitan Statistical Area in the Central Valley. Below, they are listed by μSA population; the largest city is the state capital Sacramento, followed by Fresno. The following metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas listed from largest to smallest: The flatness of the valley floor contrasts with the rugged hills or gentle mountains that are typical of most of California's terrain; the valley is thought to have originated below sea level as an offshore area depressed by subduction of the Farallon Plate into a trench further offshore. The San Joaquin Fault is a notable seismic feature of the Central Valley; the valley was enclosed by the uplift of the Coast Ranges, with its original outlet into Monterey Bay.
Faulting moved the Coast Ranges, a new outlet developed near what is now San Francisco Bay. Over the millennia, the valley was filled by the sediments of these same ranges, as well as the rising Sierra Nevada to the east; the one notable exception to the flat valley floor is Sutter Buttes, the remnants of an extinct volcano just to the northwest of Yuba City, 44 miles north of Sacramento. Another significant geologic feature of the Central Valley lies hidden beneath the delta; the Stockton Arch is an upwarping of the crust beneath the valley sediments that extends southwest to northeast across the valley. The Central Valley lies within the California Trough physiographic section, part of the larger Pacific Border province, which in turn is part of the Pacific Mountain System; the "Central Valley grassland" is the Nearctic temperate and subtropical grasslands and shrub lands ecoregion, once a diverse grassland containing areas of desert grassland, savanna, riverside woodland, several types of seasonal vernal pools, large lakes such as now-dry Tulare Lake, Buena Vista Lake and Kern Lake.
However, much of the Central Valley environment
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Los Banos, California
Los Banos, alternatively Los Baños with the tilde of the ñ, is a city in Merced County, central California. It is located in the San Joaquin Valley, near the junction of State Route 152 and Interstate 5; the population was 35,972 at the 2010 census, up from 25,869 at the 2000 census. The city is served by Los Banos Municipal Airport for air transport access; the town's Spanish name Los Baños means "the baths".. Its official spelling, reflected in the name of its post office, omits the tilde of the ñ, though some signs in town show its name as Los Baños. Los Banos is located on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, 26 miles southwest of Merced, at 118 ft elevation, its coordinates are 37°03′30″N 120°51′00″W. The city is at the intersection of California State Route 152 and California State Route 165. To the west is Interstate 5, which runs north-to-south between the Bay Area and Los Angeles, the San Luis Reservoir, the Diablo Range. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.1 square miles, of which 10.0 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water.
Los Banos sits on the southwestern edge of extensive national and state game refuges. The San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex includes San Luis National Wildlife Refuge which includes the Kesterson Unit, East Bear Creek, West Bear Creek and the Blue Goose Unit. Nearby are the Merced National Wildlife Refuge and the San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge. Fishers, hunters and other recreational users flock to Los Banos year round. Los Banos has a Mediterranean climate with hot summers. Most of the precipitation falls in the winter months. Gusty winds are common in the late afternoon in the vicinity of nearby Pacheco Pass. There is an average of 96.9 days with highs of 90 °F or higher, an average of 29.4 days with lows of 32 °F or lower. The record high temperature of 116 °F was on July 25, 1931. A record low temperature of 14 °F was on January 11, 1949, again on December 22, 1990; the average annual rainfall is 9.95 inches. There is an average of 46 days with measurable precipitation; the wettest year recorded was 1998 with 21.08 inches and the driest year was 1947 with 4.61 inches.
The most rainfall in one month was 8.08 inches in March 1998. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 2.40 inches on January 18, 1914. Although snow is rare, 3 in fell in January 1916 and 1.5 inches fell in January 1962. The 2010 United States Census reported that Los Banos had a population of 35,972; the population density was 3,555.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Los Banos was 20,846 White, 1,354 African American, 512 Native American, 1,162 Asian, 134 Pacific Islander, 10,123 from other races, 1,841 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23,346 persons; the Census reported that 35,791 people lived in households, 103 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 78 were institutionalized. There were 10,259 households, out of which 5,451 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 6,018 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,474 had a female householder with no husband present, 838 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 791 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 78 same-sex married couples or partnerships.
1,551 households were made up of individuals and 653 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.49. There were 8,330 families; the population was spread out with 12,102 people under the age of 18, 3,703 people aged 18 to 24, 9,596 people aged 25 to 44, 7,494 people aged 45 to 64, 3,077 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males. There were 11,375 housing units at an average density of 1,124.4 per square mile, of which 6,197 were owner-occupied, 4,062 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4.1%. 20,687 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 15,104 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 25,869 people, 7,721 households, 6,223 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,218.7 people per square mile. There were 8,049 housing units at an average density of 1,001.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 58.61% White, 4.25% African American, 1.35% Native American, 2.34% Asian, 0.33% Pacific Islander, 26.90% from other races, 6.21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 50.44% of the population. There were 7,721 households out of which 48.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.5% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.4% were non-families. 15.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.33 and the average family size
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Pacheco State Park
Pacheco State Park is a California State Park to the south of Pacheco Pass in the Diablo Range, located in western Merced County, California but extending into southeastern Santa Clara County and near Hollister in San Benito County. Located 24 miles west of Los Banos, California and 20 miles east of Gilroy, the park entrance is on Dinosaur Point Road, a short distance from California State Route 152 near Pacheco Pass; the park contains 6,890 acres, though only the western 2,600 acres to the west are open to the public. The eastern two-thirds of the park are closed due to an underdeveloped trail system and safety concerns over the numerous wind turbines that are located in the Gonzaga Wind Farm that occupies the area. In 2018, it was announced that the 1980s-era turbines would be replaced with more efficient models, which would increase power production capacity from the original 16.5 megawatts to as much as 80 MW. The park was created as the last piece of the Rancho San Luis Gonzaga in 1997, five years after it was bequeathed to the state by Paula M. Fatjo.
Fatjo was the great-great granddaughter of Mexican ranchero Francisco Pacheco, for whom both the park and the nearby Pacheco Pass are named. The rancho had been in the Pacheco family since 1843; the park now has about 28 miles of trails for horseback riding and mountain biking. Dogs are not allowed on the trails. There are no camping facilities inside the park, nor are there any sources of potable water for human consumption; the park is known for its vistas of the Central Valley to the East and the Santa Clara Valley to the West. In Spring, there are impressive displays of colorful wildflowers. Historic features in the park include an old line shack used by a cattle company in the 1800s, part of the old Butterfield Stage route and the ruins of the original Pacheco adobe. Wildlife in the park include tule elk, bobcat, fox, several varieties of hawks, golden eagles and many smaller animals. Park land is still used for cattle grazing during the spring. A large part of the park, closed to the public is devoted to wind turbines that were installed in the 1980s and designed to produce 16.5 megawatts of electric power.
Quinbrook Infrastructure Partners announced that its Quinbrook Low Carbon Power Fund had won a long-term lease to upgrade the Gonzaga Wind Farm in Pacheco State Park. Scout Clean Energy, an operating company owned by Quinbrook, will replace the existing turbines with more modern designs that are designed to produce up to 80 MW of power
Gilroy is a city in Northern California's Santa Clara County, south of Morgan Hill and north of San Benito County. The city's population was 48,821 at the 2010 United States Census. Gilroy is well known for its garlic crop and the annual Gilroy Garlic Festival, featuring various garlicky foods such as garlic ice cream, leading to the city's nickname, the Garlic Capital of the World. Gilroy produces mushrooms in considerable quantity, it is well known for boutique wine production, a large part of Gilroy's western portion consisting of family estates around the base of the Santa Cruz Mountains to the west. Spanish explorers led by Juan Bautista de Anza first passed through the Santa Clara Valley area in 1776, in 1797 Mission San Juan Bautista was established near the Pajaro River. In 1809, Ygnacio Ortega was granted the 13,066-acre Spanish land concession Rancho San Ysidro; the village of San Ysidro grew nearby, at the foot of Pacheco Pass which linked the El Camino Real and the Santa Clara Valley with the San Joaquin Valley.
California's main exports at this time were hides and tallow, of which thousands of barrels were produced and shipped to the rest of New Spain. Trade and diplomatic intercourse with foreigners was forbidden by the royal government but was carried on by Californians desperate for luxury goods. During the War of 1812, the armed merchantman Isaac Todd was sent by the North West Company to seize Fort Astoria, an American trading post at the mouth of the Columbia River; the ship, with a Royal Navy escort, departed from Portsmouth, made its way around Cape Horn and proceeded up the Pacific coast of the Americas, stopping at Spanish ports for supplies along the way. In January 1814, having fallen behind its escort, the Isaac Todd arrived at Monterey, the Spanish colonial government center for Alta California. During the visit, ordinary seaman John Gilroy either jumped ship or was left ashore to recover from scurvy. John Gilroy spent the next few years moving around among the missions and ranchos, plying his trade as a cooper.
At first, by his own account in an 1856 letter to Thomas O. Larkin, Gilroy was one of only two English-speakers resident in Alta California, he found his way to Rancho San Ysidro, converted to Roman Catholicism and became the first naturalized English-speaking settler in Alta California. In 1821, the same year Mexico won its independence from Spain, Gilroy married a daughter of his employer, ranchero Ygnacio Ortega. Upon Ygnacio's death in 1833, the rancho was divided among his three children—including Gilroy's wife Maria Clara. In 1867, under U. S. property law, the Rancho San Ysidro was patented to John Gilroy. The settlement now known as "Old Gilroy" grew up around Gilroy's rancho complex and, after the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848, Gilroy served as alcalde of the village; when gold was discovered in 1848 in the Sierra Nevada foothills, the trickle of immigrants from the eastern states and abroad became a flood. As many of the earlier Mexican and Californio landowners sold off their land, lost it to squatters, or were dispossessed through title hearings, the area around San Ysidro became known as Pleasant Valley.
On March 12, 1870, it was incorporated by the state legislature as the town of Gilroy. By the town center had been relocated west of the El Camino Real. Cattle ranching and timber from the nearby Santa Cruz Mountains were important to the economy for some time but, as in the rest of the valley, agriculture was the town's greatest source of income. Farming remains significant, but in the 1970s the city began evolving into a bedroom community for Silicon Valley to the north. There are a number of extant historical buildings dating from the mid-19th century. Built in 1857, the Christian Church at 160 Fifth Street is the oldest wood-framed church in continuous use in Santa Clara County. Blacksmith George Eustice's house at 213 Fifth Street was constructed in 1869. Samuel Moore was a long-time Gilroy postmaster, whose home was built in the 1870s at 7151 Church Street. Nearby in the foothills of the Diablo Range to the northeast is the historic resort site Gilroy Yamato Hot Springs, developed in the late 19th century.
Gilroy is located at 37°00′43″N 121°34′48″W. It is 26 km south of San Jose, California on U. S. Route 101 and 31 km inland from the Pacific Coast. Despite its apparent close proximity to San Jose, it is important to note that Gilroy City Hall lies at a distance of 33.3 miles from San Jose City Hall. Lying in a southern extension of the Santa Clara Valley at an elevation of about 61 m above MSL, it is bounded by the Santa Cruz Mountains to the west and the Diablo Range to the east. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.2 square miles. 16.1 square miles of it is 0.06 % is water. Primary contributors to environmental noise include U. S. Route 101, El Camino Real, Leavesley Road and other major arterials; the number of people exposed to sound levels above 60 CNEL is 4,000. Due to the moderating influence of the Pacific Ocean, Gilroy enjoys a Mediterranean climate. Temperatures range from an average midsummer maximum of 32.3 °C to an average midwinter low of 0.9 °C.
The Yokuts are an ethnic group of Native Americans native to central California. Before European contact, the Yokuts consisted of up to 60 tribes speaking several related languages; some of their descendants prefer to refer to themselves by their respective tribal names and reject the name Yokuts with the claim that it is an exonym invented by English speaking settlers and historians. Conventional sub-groupings include the Foothill Yokuts, Northern Valley Yokuts, Southern Valley Yokuts. Yokuts tribes populated the San Joaquin Valley, from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta south to Bakersfield and the adjacent foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, which lies to the east. In the northern half of the Yokuts region, there were some tribes inhabiting the foothills of the Coast Range, which lies to the west. There is evidence of Yokuts inhabiting the Carrizo Plain and creating rock art in the Painted Rock area. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially.
Alfred L. Kroeber in 1925 put the 1770 population of the Yokut at 18,000. Several subsequent investigators suggested that the total should be higher. Robert F. Heizer and Albert B. Elsasser 1980 suggested that the Yokut had numbered about 70,000, they had one of the highest regional population densities in pre-contact North America. The numbers of Foothill Yokut were reduced by around 93% between 1850 and 1900. A few Valley Yokut remain, the most prominent tribe among them being the Tachi. Kroeber estimated the population of the Yokut in 1910 as 600. Today there are about 2000 enrolled Yokut in the federally recognized tribe and 600 more Yokut belonging to unrecognized tribes. According to San Diego State University, the Yokutsan languages are members of the Penutian language family. Casson Choinumni Chukchansi Lakisamni Tachi tribe Wukchumni Chowchilla Santa Rosa Rancheria Picayune Rancheria of Chukchansi Indians Table Mountain Rancheria Tejon Indian Tribe of California Tule River Indian Tribe of the Tule River Reservation Tuolumne RancheriaThe contemporary Wukchumni and Choinumni communities do not yet have federal recognition.
Yokuts are known to have engaged in trading with other California tribes of Native Americans including coastal peoples such as the Chumash of the Central California coast, with whom they are thought to have traded plant and animal products. On 5 April 2015, it was reported that members of the Chukchansi tribe near Yosemite have been disenrolling other members from the tribe for decades, so that the tribe's casino profits go to fewer people. In the autumn of 2014, several disenrolled Chukchansi tribe members arrived at the Chukchansi Gold Resort & Casino armed with guns, violence ensued; as a result, a federal judge ordered. Estanislao Every tribe has a Head Chief, a Village Chief. -Researched by Mary Ann Brensel Yokuts traditional narratives Thomas Jefferson Mayfield Kroeber, A. L. 1910. On the Evidences of Occupation of Certain Regions by the Miwok Tribes, University of California Press, Vol. 6 No. 3 p. 370 Kroeber, A. L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78.
Washington, D. C. Pritzker, Barry M. 2000. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Heizer, R. F. and A. B. Elsasser 1980; the Natural World of the California Indians, University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0-520-03895-9. Tachi Yokut Tribal website Info About Yokuts, by the Minnesota State University Culture and History, by Native Languages of the Americas Baumhoff, Martin A. 1963."Ecological Determinants of Aboriginal California Populations". University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 49:155–236. Cook, Sherburne F. 1955. "The Aboriginal Population of the San Joaquin Valley, California". Anthropological Records 16:31–80. University of California, Berkeley. Cummins, Marjorie W.. The Tache-Yokuts, Indians of the San Joaquin Valley. Pioneer Publishing Company. ISBN 0-914330-24-1. Heizer, Robert F. and Albert B. Elsasser. 1980. The Natural World of the California Indians. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Powell, John Wesley 1891. Indian Linguistic Families Of America, North Of Mexico, Government Printing Office, pages 90–91. Wallace, William J. 1978. "Southern Valley Yokuts". In California, edited by Robert F. Heizer, pp. 448–469. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, vol. 8. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. Webb, Frederick 1910.'Tachi' and'Tammukan', in Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, Government Printing Office