Emerald is a gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Beryl has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the Mohs scale. Most emeralds are included, so their toughness is classified as poor. Emerald is a cyclosilicate; the word "emerald" is derived, from Vulgar Latin: esmaralda/esmaraldus, a variant of Latin smaragdus, which originated in Ancient Greek: σμάραγδος. Emeralds, like all colored gemstones, are graded using four basic parameters–the four Cs of connoisseurship: color, clarity and carat weight. In the grading of colored gemstones, color is by far the most important criterion. However, in the grading of emeralds, clarity is considered a close second. A fine emerald must possess not only a pure verdant green hue as described below, but a high degree of transparency to be considered a top gem. In the 1960s, the American jewelry industry changed the definition of emerald to include the green vanadium-bearing beryl; as a result, vanadium emeralds purchased as emeralds in the United States are not recognized as such in the UK and Europe.
In America, the distinction between traditional emeralds and the new vanadium kind is reflected in the use of terms such as "Colombian emerald". In gemology, color is divided into three components: hue and tone. Emeralds occur in hues ranging from yellow-green to blue-green, with the primary hue being green. Yellow and blue are the normal secondary hues found in emeralds. Only gems that are medium to dark in tone are considered emeralds; the finest emeralds are 75% tone on a scale where 0% tone is colorless and 100% is opaque black. In addition, a fine emerald will be saturated and have a hue, bright. Gray is the normal saturation mask found in emeralds. Emeralds tend to surface breaking fissures. Unlike diamonds, where the loupe standard, i.e. 10× magnification, is used to grade clarity, emeralds are graded by eye. Thus, if an emerald has no visible inclusions to the eye it is considered flawless. Stones that lack surface breaking fissures are rare and therefore all emeralds are treated to enhance the apparent clarity.
The inclusions and fissures within an emerald are sometime described as jardin, because of their mossy appearance. Imperfections can be used to identify a particular stone. Eye-clean stones of a vivid primary green hue, with no more than 15% of any secondary hue or combination of a medium-dark tone, command the highest prices; the relative non-uniformity motivates the cutting of emeralds in cabochon form, rather than faceted shapes. Faceted emeralds are most given an oval cut, or the signature emerald cut, a rectangular cut with facets around the top edge. Most emeralds are oiled as part of the post-lapidary process, in order to fill in surface-reaching cracks so that clarity and stability are improved. Cedar oil, having a similar refractive index, is used in this adopted practice. Other liquids, including synthetic oils and polymers with refractive indexes close to that of emeralds, such as Opticon, are used; these treatments are applied in a vacuum chamber under mild heat, to open the pores of the stone and allow the fracture-filling agent to be absorbed more effectively.
The U. S. Federal Trade Commission requires the disclosure of this treatment when an oil treated emerald is sold; the use of oil is traditional and accepted by the gem trade, although oil treated emeralds are worth much less than un-treated emeralds of similar quality. Other treatments, for example the use of green-tinted oil, are not acceptable in the trade. Gems are graded on a four-step scale; these categories reflect levels of enhancement, not clarity. A gem graded. Laboratories apply these criteria differently; some gemologists consider the mere presence of oil or polymers to constitute enhancement. Others may ignore traces of oil if the presence of the material does not improve the look of the gemstone. Emeralds in antiquity were mined in Egypt at locations on Mount Smaragdus since 1500 BCE, India, Austria since at least the 14th century CE; the Egyptian mines were exploited on an industrial scale by the Roman and Byzantine Empires, by Islamic conquerors. Mining ceased with the discovery of the Colombian deposits.
Colombia is by far the world's largest producer of emeralds, constituting 50–95% of the world production, with the number depending on the year and grade. Emerald production in Colombia has increased drastically in the last decade, increasing by 78% from 2000 to 2010; the three main emerald mining areas in Colombia are Muzo and Chivor. Rare "trapiche" emeralds are found in Colombia, distinguished by ray-like spokes of dark impurities. Zambia is the world's second biggest producer, with its Kafubu River area deposits about 45 km southwest of Kitwe responsible for 20% of the world's production of gem-quality stones in 2004. In the first half of 2011, the Kagem Mines produced 3.74 tons of emeralds. Emeralds are found all over the world in countries such as Afghanistan, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, Egypt, France, India, Kazakhstan, Mozambique, Nigeria, Pakistan
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
Mission Bay (San Diego)
Mission Bay is a saltwater bay or lagoon located south of the Pacific Beach community of San Diego, California. The bay is part of the recreational Mission Bay Park, the largest man-made aquatic park in the country, consisting of 4,235 acres 46% land and 54% water; the combined area makes Mission Bay Park the ninth largest municipally-owned park in the United States. Wakeboarding, jet skiing and camping are popular on the bay. With miles of light color sandy beaches and an long pedestrian path, it is suitable for cycling, roller skating and skateboarding, or sunbathing. Mission Bay Yacht Club, on the west side of the bay, conducts sailing races year-round in the bay and the nearby Pacific Ocean and has produced national sailing champions in many classes. Fiesta Island, a large peninsular park located within Mission Bay, is a popular location for charity walks and runs, bicycle races, time trials and other special events, it is the home of the annual Over-the-line tournament. Mission Bay is host to the annual Bayfair Cup, a hydroplane boat race that takes place on the H1 Unlimited circuit.
Mission Bay Park was a tidal marsh, named "False Bay" by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo in 1542. It was developed into a recreational water park during the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s; the San Diego River had shifted its terminus back and forth between San Diego Bay to the south and "False Bay" to the north. During the 1820s the river began to empty into San Diego Bay, causing worries that the harbor might silt up. In 1852 the United States Army Corps of Engineers constructed a dike along the south side of the river to prevent water from flowing into San Diego Bay; this made "False Bay". The dike failed within two years. In 1877 the city erected a permanent dam and straightened the river channel to the sea, giving the river its present configuration. Today the San Diego River is constrained on both the north and the south by levees, it no longer drains to the ocean through Mission Bay, other than through a weir located at the entrance to Mission Bay. During the late 1800s some recreational development began in "False Bay" including the building of hunting and fishing facilities.
These facilities were destroyed by flooding. In 1944, a Chamber of Commerce committee recommended development of Mission Bay into a tourism and recreational center, in order to help diversify the city’s economy, military. In the late 1940s, dredging and filling operations began converting the marsh into what today is Mission Bay Park. Twenty-five million cubic yards of sand and silt were dredged to create the varied land forms of the park, which now is entirely man-made; the first modern swim/bike/run event to be called a "triathlon" was held at Mission Bay, San Diego, California on September 25, 1974. The race was conceived and directed by Jack Johnstone and Don Shanahan, members of the San Diego Track Club, was sponsored by the track club. 46 participants entered this event. It was not inspired by the French events, although a race held the following year at Fiesta Island, San Diego, is sometimes called "the first triathlon in America."Approximately half of the park was once state tidelands.
Mission Bay Park was transferred to the City of San Diego with several restrictions, some of which were adopted into San Diego City Charter by public vote, with others implemented as part of the California Coastal Commission's oversight of local planning and land use decisions. One of the restrictions sets a limit on commercial development of leaseholds, so that no more than 25% of the land area and 6.5% of the water area can be used for private purposes. This assures that most of the acres making up Mission Bay Park are available for public recreational use. From 1957 to 1962 large amounts of industrial waste, including millions of gallons of hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acids, dichromate and carbon tetrachloride, were deposited into an unlined landfill located in the south shores section of Mission Bay Park east of SeaWorld. No remediation efforts have occurred. Mission Bay has 27 miles of shoreline, 19 of which are sandy beaches with eight locations designated as official swimming areas.
Mission Bay is recognized for protection by the California Bays and Estuaries Policy. Swimmers and sunbathers take advantage of the warm water, calm surf conditions and the sands of Mission Bay’s beaches. Mission Bay offers boat docks and launching facilities and motor rentals, bike/walk paths and basketball courts. There are playgrounds for children. Public restrooms and showers are available, lifeguard stations are located in designated areas. On the east side of the bay is a network of channels and islands which are used by wind surfers and water skiers. Several water areas are dedicated or restricted to particular forms of water recreation, with specific separate areas for sailing, water skiing and personal watercraft use. Mission Bay is one of the premier locations in Southern California for the sport of rowing, or "crew." One of the largest rowing regattas in the country is held on Mission Bay each year: The San Diego Crew Classic is held in Mission Bay every spring, featuring two days of competition in eight-oared shells rowed by more than 100 college and senior crews.
Rose Creek flows into Mission Bay from the north, creating a rich wetland area called the Kendall Frost Marsh. Attractions at Mission Bay include SeaWorld San Diego, Aqua Adventures for kayaking and paddleboarding, the Mission Bay Cross Country Course, the Mission Bay Golf Course, Belmont Park, which features the Giant
Donna Frye is an American politician from San Diego. She is one of three children. Frye was a member of the San Diego City Council, representing District 6 and a two-time candidate for mayor of San Diego. In July 2013 Frye was among the first to call on then-San Diego Mayor Bob Filner to resign over accusations of sexual harassment and assault. Frye was born in 1952 in the second of three children, her family moved to San Diego. After a failed first marriage in late 1979, Frye had problems with alcohol abuse; that changed within months of meeting her current husband Skip Frye at a Mexican restaurant in December 1980, Frye stopped drinking in early 1981. In 1988, they opened a custom-made surfboard shop in Pacific Beach and they married in 1990. Frye first became concerned with coastal water pollution problems when her husband became sick after surfing, she soon became an community leader. In 2001 she was elected to the San Diego City Council in a special election, she was elected to full term on the council in the regular 2002 city council elections.
Frye ran for mayor of San Diego in the November 2004 run-off election between Dick Murphy and Ron Roberts as a write-in candidate, without having run in the primary. A plurality of voters wrote in her name, but a controversy arose when she lost the election because a number of voters did not fill in the bubble next to her written name or misspelled her name. If those votes had counted, Frye would have had more votes than either of the moderate Republican candidates in the runoff, but still far below a majority vote. Whether Frye would have been allowed to serve as mayor in any case is uncertain, as her write-in candidacy was at odds with the San Diego City Charter. Dick Murphy was re-elected as mayor after a series of legal challenges to the election results, but resigned on July 15, 2005, as the city's fiscal crisis and legal woes with regulatory and law enforcement agencies like the Securities and Exchange Commission and Federal Bureau of Investigation worsened and became a matter of increasing public awareness.
Frye ran for mayor in the special election that took place on July 26, 2005, with a platform advocating open and honest government and restoring order to the city's financial situation, points found in nearly all of the candidates' platforms. Frye was endorsed by Mike Aguirre, the city attorney who has confronted the city council over releasing documents. Frye placed ahead of ten opponents, including former police chief and runner-up Jerry Sanders, by receiving 43% of the vote. However, a majority was needed to win outright, so a run-off election was held between Frye and Sanders on November 8, 2005. Frye was defeated in this election, receiving 46.1% of the vote to Sanders' 53.9%. She did, win reelection to her council seat in the 2006 city council elections, retiring in 2010 due to term limits. In December 2012, Frye joined the administration of San Diego Mayor Bob Filner in a new position he created called Director of Open Government, she resigned in April 2013 to become president of Californians Aware, a nonprofit that advocates for open government statewide.
In July 2013 she and two other former supporters of Filner publicly called on Filner to resign as mayor, alleging that he had sexually harassed numerous unnamed women by forcibly kissing them, fondling them and making sexually suggestive remarks. Though refusing at first to step down, Filner resigned in August 2013. In October of that year, he pleaded guilty to state charges of false imprisonment and misdemeanor battery. Frye was nominated and inducted into the San Diego County's Women's Hall of Fame in 2011 for the'Spirit 2011' title; the Hall of Fame's aim is to "acknowledge and honor women who have contributed to the quality of life and who have made outstanding volunteer contributions in San Diego County." The annual Women's Hall of Fame induction is co-hosted by Women's Museum of California, Commission on the Status of Women, UC San Diego Women's Center, San Diego State Women's Studies. Biographical Sketch in San Diego Union-Tribune
Rotary International is an international service organization whose stated purpose is to bring together business and professional leaders in order to provide humanitarian service and to advance goodwill and peace around the world. It is a non-political and non-sectarian organization open to all people regardless of race, creed, gender, or political preference. There are 34,282 member clubs worldwide, 1.2 million individuals, known as Rotarians, have joined. Rotarians gather weekly for breakfast, lunch, or dinner to fulfill their first guiding principle to develop friendships as an opportunity for service. "It is the duty of all Rotarians," states their Manual of Procedure, "outside their clubs, to be active as individuals in as many constituted groups and organizations as possible to promote, not only in words but through exemplary dedication, awareness of the dignity of all people and the respect of the consequent human rights of the individual." The Rotarian's primary motto is "Service Above Self".
The object of Rotary is to encourage and foster the ideal of service as a basis of worthy enterprise and, in particular, to encourage and foster: The development of acquaintance as an opportunity for service. High ethical standards in business and professions, the recognition of the worthiness of all useful occupations, the dignifying of each Rotarian's occupation as an opportunity to serve society; the application of the ideal of service in each Rotarian's personal and community life. The advancement of international understanding and peace through a world fellowship of business and professional persons united in the ideal of service; this objective is set against the "Rotary 4-Way Test", used to see if a planned action is compatible with the Rotarian spirit. The test was developed by Rotarian and entrepreneur Herbert J. Taylor during the Great Depression as a set of guidelines for restoring faltering businesses and was adopted as the standard of ethics by Rotary in 1942, it is still seen as a standard for ethics in business management.
The 4-Way Test considers the following questions in respect to thinking, saying or doing: Is it the truth? Is it fair to all concerned? Will it build goodwill and better friendships? Will it be beneficial to all concerned? The first Rotary Club was formed when attorney Paul P. Harris called together a meeting of three business acquaintances in downtown Chicago, United States, at Harris's friend Gustave Loehr's office in the Unity Building on Dearborn Street on February 23, 1905. In addition to Harris and Loehr, Silvester Schiele, Hiram E. Shorey were the other two who attended this first meeting; the members chose the name Rotary because they rotated subsequent weekly club meetings to each other's offices, although within a year, the Chicago club became so large it became necessary to adopt the now-common practice of a regular meeting place. The next four Rotary Clubs were organized in cities in the western United States, beginning with San Francisco Oakland and Los Angeles; the National Association of Rotary Clubs in America was formed in 1910.
On November 3, 1910, a Rotary club began meeting in Winnipeg, Canada, the beginning of the organisation's internationality. On 22 February 1911, the first meeting of the Rotary Club Dublin was held in Ireland; this was the first club established outside of North America. In April 1912, Rotary chartered the Winnipeg club marking the first establishment of an American-style service club outside the United States. To reflect the addition of a club outside of the United States, the name was changed to the International Association of Rotary Clubs in 1912. In August 1912, the Rotary Club of London received its charter from the Association, marking the first acknowledged Rotary club outside North America, it became known that the Dublin club in Ireland was organized before the London club, but the Dublin club did not receive its charter until after the London club was chartered. During World War I, Rotary in Britain increased from 9 to 22 clubs, other early clubs in other nations included those in Cuba in 1916, Philippines in 1919 and India in 1920.
In 1922, the name was changed to Rotary International. From 1923 to 1928, Rotary's office and headquarters were located on E 20th Street in the Atwell Building. During this same time, the monthly magazine The Rotarian was published mere floors below by Atwell Printing and Binding Company. By 1925, Rotary had grown to 200 clubs with more than 20,000 members. Rotary Clubs in Spain ceased to operate shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Clubs were disbanded across Europe as follows: Netherlands Finland Austria Italy Czechoslovakia Estonia, Lithuania, Poland and Luxembourg Hungary Rotary International's has worked with the UN since the UN started in 1945. At that time Rotary was involved in 65 countries; the two organizations shared ideals around promoting peace. Rotary received consultative status at the UN in 1946–47. Rotary clubs in Eastern Europe and other communist-regime nations were disbanded by 1945–46, but new Rotary clubs were organized in many other countries, by the time of the national independence movements in Africa and Asia, the new nations had Rotary clubs.
After the relaxation of government control of community groups in Russia and former Soviet satellite nations, Rotarians were welcomed as club organizers, clubs were formed in those countries, beginning with the Moscow club in 1990. In 1985, Rotary launched its PolioPlus program to immunize
Interstate 5 is the main Interstate Highway on the West Coast of the United States, running parallel to the Pacific coast of the contiguous U. S. from Mexico to Canada. It travels through the states of California and Washington, serving several large cities on the U. S. West Coast, including San Diego, Los Angeles, Sacramento and Seattle, it is the only continuous Interstate highway to touch both the Mexican border and the Canadian border. Upon crossing the Mexican border at its southern terminus, Interstate 5 continues to Tijuana, Baja California as Mexico Federal Highway 1. Upon crossing the Canadian border at its northern terminus, it continues to Vancouver as British Columbia Highway 99. Interstate 5 was created in 1956 as part of the Interstate Highway System, but was predated by several auto trails and highways built in the early 20th century; the Pacific Highway auto trail was built in the 1910s and 1920s by the states of California and Washington, was incorporated into U. S. Route 99 in 1926.
Interstate 5 follows the route of US 99, with the exception of a portion in the Central Valley of California. The freeway was built in segments between 1956 and 1979, including expressway sections of US 99 that were built earlier to bypass various towns along the route; the southernmost point of I-5 is at the Mexican border at the San Ysidro border crossing, one of the busiest in the world. Beginning at the border in San Ysidro, part of the city of San Diego, as the John J. Montgomery Freeway, I-5 goes through the suburbs of Chula Vista and National City before reaching downtown San Diego, it parallels the Pacific coastline, going through the northern suburbs of San Diego, bisecting the University of California, San Diego campus, passing the I-805 merge, before passing through the 28 miles of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton in northern San Diego County. Here I-5 is known as the San Diego Freeway. At Dana Point, I-5 turns inland and heads due north through Mission Viejo to the El Toro Y interchange in southeastern Irvine.
I-5 becomes the Santa Ana Freeway as it runs southeast to northwest, passing through major cities and suburbs in Orange and Southern Los Angeles counties. Southern Californians refer as the Santa Ana Freeway in the Los Angeles area. From this point, the San Diego Freeway continues northward as I-405; when the freeway reaches the East Los Angeles Interchange one mile east of downtown Los Angeles, I-5 becomes the Golden State Freeway. The route continues through the San Fernando Valley and crosses the Newhall Pass through the Santa Susana Mountains into the Santa Clarita Valley; the interchange with State Route 14 is unusual in that truck traffic is separated into its own lanes for both the mainline of the freeway and the transition ramps to and from SR 14. For about a four-mile stretch between Santa Clarita Valley and the Pyramid Lake, the northbound and southbound lanes separate and cross sides, with the southbound lanes running to the east of the northbound ones. At that point, the Golden State Freeway rises to the north through the Grapevine to reach the second-highest point of its entire length, the Tejon Pass.
Through the Tehachapi Mountains. Path 26 power lines follow the freeway along this stretch; the freeway descends for 12 miles at Tejon Pass to around 1,600 feet at Grapevine near the southernmost point of the San Joaquin Valley 30 miles south of Bakersfield and 4 mi south from where SR 99 splits away from it in Wheeler Ridge. From SR 99 to south of Tracy, I-5 skirts along the far more remote western edge of the great Central Valley, thus here is removed from population centers such as Bakersfield and Fresno; this part of I-5 is known as the West Side Freeway, is a major connector between the San Francisco Bay Area and Southern California. I-580 splits from I-5 at a point south of Tracy as the West Side Freeway Scenic Byway, the last stretch of the West Side Freeway—providing a loop-route connection to the San Francisco Bay Area. East of Tracy, I-5 intersects with I-205, another freeway that links I-5 to the Bay Area and passes through Tracy. After passing Tracy, I-5 heads north through Stockton and Sacramento before turning west to Woodland.
At Woodland, the Interstate heads northwest again towards Dunnigan, where it converges with I-505. From Dunnigan, I-5 skirts north along the western edge of the Sacramento Valley to Red Bluff. I-5 enters the Shasta Cascade region, passing through Redding and Shasta Lake before climbing up to near the foot of Mount Shasta; the interstate travels to Weed and Yreka before reaching the Oregon border. About three miles north of the California border, the highway crosses 4,310 feet Siskiyou Summit, the highest point on I-5, drops down into the Rogue Valley through Oregon's southern mountains and towns such as Ashland and Grants Pass. Turning north across three passes to the Umpqua Valley and through Roseburg, the mountains tend to turn into hills, as it reaches Cottage Grove, the road enters the Willamette River Valley. At Eugene the highway intersects a short spur route into Downtown Eugene; some city highways intersect on I-5 in the Eugene Metro. The Interstate heads due north, skirting Albany and Corvallis, passing through Salem, crossing through Woodburn.
There were plans to build a spur, called I-305, into Salem. I-5 covers 308 miles in Oregon. Just north of Salem, between mile markers 259 and 260 just short of mile marker 26