Council Bluffs, Iowa
Council Bluffs is a city in and the county seat of Pottawattamie County, United States. It is located on the east bank of the Missouri River, across from what is now the larger city of Omaha. Council Bluffs was known until 1852 as Kanesville — the historic starting point of the Mormon Trail, Council Bluffs population was 62,230 at the 2010 census. Council Bluffs is more than an older than Omaha. The latter, founded in 1854 by Council Bluffs businessmen and speculators following the Kansas-Nebraska Act, has grown to be a larger city. The first Council Bluff name was actually on the Nebraska side of the river at Fort Atkinson about 20 miles northwest of the current Council Bluffs and it was named by Lewis and Clark for a bluff where they met with the Otoe tribe on August 2,1804. Sauganashs English name was Billy Caldwell and the came to be called Caldwells Camp. The group was called the Bluff Indians. The U. S. Dragoons built a fort nearby. In 1838–39, the missionary Pierre-Jean De Smet founded St.
Josephs Mission to minister to the Potawatomi, De Smet was appalled by the violence and brutality caused by the whiskey trade, and tried to protect the tribe from unscrupulous traders. However, he had success in persuading tribal members to convert to Christianity. During this time, De Smet contributed to Joseph Nicollet’s work in mapping the upper midwest, De Smet produced the first European-recorded, detailed map of the Council Bluffs area, it detailed the Missouri River valley system, from below the Platte River to the Big Sioux River. As more native Americans were pushed into the Council Bluffs area by pressure of European-American settlement to the east, the US Army built Fort Croghan in 1842, to keep order and try to control liquor traffic on the Missouri River. However that fort was destroyed in a flood the same year, by 1846 the Pottawatomi were forced to move again to a new reservation at Osawatomie, Kansas. In 1844, the Stephens-Townsend-Murphy Party crossed the Missouri River here, beginning in 1846, there was a large influx of Latter-day Saints into the area, although in the winter of 1847–1848 most Latter-day Saints crossed to the Nebraska side of the Missouri River.
Initially, the area was called Millers Hollow, after Henry W. Miller, Miller was the foreman for the construction of the Kanesville Tabernacle. Built at or next to Caldwells Camp, Kanesville became the outfitting point for the Mormon Exodus to Utah. Edwin Carter, who would become a noted naturalist in Colorado and he helped supply Mormon wagon trains
The Rocky Mountains, commonly known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 3,000 miles from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the Southwestern United States. Within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, the Rocky Mountains were initially formed from 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began to slide underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a belt of mountains running down western North America. Since then, further tectonic activity and erosion by glaciers have sculpted the Rockies into dramatic peaks, at the end of the last ice age, humans started to inhabit the mountain range. The first mention of their present name by a European was in the journal of Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre in 1752, the Rocky Mountains are commonly defined as stretching from the Liard River in British Columbia south to the Rio Grande in New Mexico.
The United States definition of the Rockies includes the Cabinet and Salish Mountains of Idaho and their counterparts north of the Kootenai River, the Columbia Mountains, are considered a separate system in Canada, lying to the west of the huge Rocky Mountain Trench. This runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the bank of the Liard River. The Rockies vary in width from 70 to 300 miles, west of the Rocky Mountain Trench, farther north and facing the Muskwa Range across the trench, are the Stikine Ranges and Omineca Mountains of the Interior Mountains system of British Columbia. A small area east of Prince George, British Columbia on the side of the Trench. In Canada geographers define three main groups of ranges, the Continental Ranges, Hart Ranges and Muskwa Ranges, the Muskwa and Hart Ranges together comprise what is known as the Northern Rockies. The western edge of the Rockies includes ranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake City, the Great Basin and Columbia River Plateau separate these sub-ranges from distinct ranges further to the west, most prominent among which are the Sierra Nevada, Cascade Range and Coast Mountains.
The Rocky Mountain System within the United States is a United States physiographic region, the Rocky Mountains are notable for containing the highest peaks in central North America. The ranges highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado at 14,440 feet above sea level, Mount Robson in British Columbia, at 12,972 feet, is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies. The Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains, triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park is so named because water that falls on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific, but Hudson Bay as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie River, see Rivers of the Rocky Mountains for a list of rivers. Human population is not very dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer, the human population grew rapidly in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990. The 40-year statewide increases in range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in Utah
37th United States Congress
It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4,1861 to March 4,1863, during the first two years of Abraham Lincolns presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventh Census of the United States in 1850, both chambers had a Republican majority. March 4,1861, Republican pluralities are seated in Senate and House, Louisiana has 2 of 4 representatives remaining. Although represented in the Confederate Congress and Kentucky remained with full delegations in the 37th Congress, may 6,1861, Arkansas Secession Convention enacted an Ordinance of Secession. May 20,1861, North Carolina Secession Convention enacted an Ordinance of Secession, may 23,1861, Virginia popular referendum ratified Ordinance of Secession. Two senators from the Restored Government of Virginia replaced the two who withdrew, June 8,1861, Tennessee popular referendum ratified Ordinance of Secession. July 21,1861, First Battle of Bull Run Union approach to Richmond is repulsed, September 17,1862, Battle of Antietam rebel invasion into Maryland is repulsed.
The Senate, a body, was called into special session by President Buchanan. The border states and Texas were still represented, shortly after the Senate session adjourned, Fort Sumter was attacked. The immediate results were to draw four additional states into the confederacy with their more Southern sisters, the Senate confirmed calling forth troops and raising money to suppress rebellion as authorized in the Constitution. Both Houses duly met July 4,1861, seven states which would send representatives held their state elections for Representative over the months of May to June 1861. Members taking their seats had been elected before the crisis, during the formation of the Confederate government. Once assembled with a quorum in the House, Congress approved Lincolns war powers innovations as necessary to preserve the Union, following the July Federal defeat at First Manassas, the Crittenden Resolution asserted the reason for the present deplorable civil war. Following resignations and expulsions occasioned by the outbreak of the Civil War, five states had some degree of representation in the U. S.
Congress accredited Members elected running in five as Unionist, Constitutional Unionist. All ten Kentucky and all seven Missouri representatives were accepted, the other three states seated four of thirteen representatives from Virginia, three of ten Tennesseans, and two of four from Louisiana. Democrats seized on this document, especially its assurances of no conquest or overthrowing domestic institutions, Congressional policy and military strategy were intertwined. In the first regular March session, Republicans superseded the Crittenden Resolution, in South Carolina, Gen. David Hunter, issued a General Order in early May 1861 freeing all slaves in Florida and South Carolina
A government bond is a bond issued by a national government, generally with a promise to pay periodic interest payments and to repay the face value on the maturity date. Government bonds are denominated in the countrys own currency. Government bonds are referred to as sovereign bonds. If a government or sovereign is close to default on its debt the media often refer to this as a debt crisis. The terms on which a government can sell bonds depend on how creditworthy the market considers it to be, international credit rating agencies will provide ratings for the bonds, but market participants will make up their own minds about this. The first general government bonds were issued in the Netherlands in 1517, because the Netherlands did not exist at that time, the bonds issued by the city of Amsterdam are considered their predecessor which merged into Netherlands government bonds. The average interest rate at that time fluctuated around 20%, the first ever bond issued by a national government was issued by the Bank of England in 1694 to raise money to fund a war against France.
It was in the form of a tontine, governments in Europe started issuing perpetual bonds to fund wars and other government spending. The use of perpetual bonds ceased in the 20th century, a Government bond in a countrys own currency is strictly speaking a risk-free bond, because the government can if necessary create additional currency in order to redeem the bond at maturity. There have however been instances where a government has chosen to default on its domestic currency debt, currency risk is the risk that the value of the currency a bond pays out will decline compared to the holders reference currency. A bond paying in a currency that does not have a history of keeping its value may not be a deal even if a high interest rate is offered. Inflation risk is the risk that the value of the currency a bond pays out will decline over time, investors expect some amount of inflation, so the risk is that the inflation rate will be higher than expected. Many governments issue inflation-indexed bonds, which protect investors against inflation risk by linking both interest payments and maturity payments to a consumer prices index.
If a central bank purchases a government security, such as a bond or treasury bill, it increases the money supply, in the UK, government bonds are called gilts. Older issues have names such as Treasury Stock and newer issues are called Treasury Gilt, inflation-indexed gilts are called Index-linked gilts
General Land Office
The General Land Office was an independent agency of the United States government responsible for public domain lands in the United States. It was created in 1812 to take over functions previously conducted by the United States Department of the Treasury. Placed under the Department of the Interior when that department was formed in 1849, the GLO oversaw the surveying and sale of the public lands in the Western United States and administered the Homestead Act and the Preemption Act in disposal of public lands. The frantic pace of Public Land sales in the 19th century American west led to the idiomatic expression Land Office business, the GLO was placed under the Secretary of the Interior when the Department of the Interior was formed in 1849. Reacting to public concerns about forest conservation, Congress in 1891 authorized the president to withdraw lands from disposal. Grover Cleveland created 17 forest reserves of nearly 18,000,000 acres, in 1905, Congress transferred responsibility for these reserves to the newly created Forest Service, under the Department of Agriculture.
Thus, beginning in approximately 1900, the GLO gained a focus for conservation of public resources. An early commissioner was John McLean, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, the BLM makes images of General Land Office records issued between 1820 and 1908 publicly available on its website. The GCDB data is available for download by the public in GIS shapefile format from the GeoCommunicator Land Survey Information System website, the GCDB coordinates are available to the public in the GCDB flat file and GCDB coverage formats via the National Operations Center website. List of Commissioners of the General Land Office Public Land Survey System Beginning Point of the U. S, Public Land Survey Beginning Point of the Louisiana Purchase Survey National Irrigation Congress Malcolm J. Rohrbough. The Land Office Business, The Settlement and Administration of American Public Lands, General Land Office Records, The Official Federal Land Records Site, at Bureau of Land Management
A transcontinental railroad is a contiguous network of railroad trackage that crosses a continental land mass with terminals at different oceans or continental borders. Such networks can be via the tracks of either a single railroad, although Europe is crisscrossed by railways, the railroads within Europe are usually not considered transcontinental, with the possible exception of the historic Orient Express. Transcontinental railroads helped open up unpopulated interior regions of continents to exploration, in many cases they formed the backbones of cross-country passenger and freight transportation networks. In the United States of America, a series of railroads built over the last third of the 19th century created a nationwide transportation network that united the country by rail. Its construction was possible by the US Government under Pacific Railroad Acts of 1862,1864 and 1867. A transcontinental railroad in the United States is any continuous rail line connecting a location on the U.
S, Pacific coast with one or more of the railroads of the nations eastern trunk line rail systems operating between the Missouri or Mississippi Rivers and the U. S. The first concrete plan for a railroad in the United States was presented to Congress by Asa Whitney in 1845. The worlds First Transcontinental Railroad was built between 1863 and 1869 to join the eastern and western halves of the United States, begun just before the American Civil War, its construction was considered to be one of the greatest American technological feats of the 19th century. Known as the Pacific Railroad when it opened, this served as a link for trade, commerce. Shipping and commerce could thrive away from navigable watercourses for the first time since the beginning of the nation, much of this line is currently used by Amtraks California Zephyr, although some parts were rerouted or abandoned. The transcontinental railroad provided fast and cheap travel, the fare for a one-week trip from Omaha to San Francisco on an emigrant sleeping car was about $65 for an adult.
It replaced most of the far slower and more hazardous stagecoach lines, the number of emigrants taking the Oregon and California Trail declined dramatically. The sale of the land grant lands and the transport provided for timber. The Central Pacific Railroad faced a shortage in the more sparsely-settled West. It recruited Cantonese laborers in China, who did prodigious work building the line over and through the Sierra Nevada mountains, the Southern Pacific Railroad was completed in 1881. The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 authorized land grants for new lines that would aid in the construction of a railroad, although through train service was in operation as of that date, the road was not deemed to have been officially completed until November 6,1869. This distinction existed until March 25,1873, when the Union Pacific Missouri River Bridge at Omaha was opened,1881 or 1882, the SP meets the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway at Deming, New Mexico, connecting Atchison, Kansas to Los Angeles. January 12,1883, the SP completes its own section, meeting the subsidiary Galveston and San Antonio Railway at the Pecos River in Texas
First Transcontinental Railroad
The rail line was built by three private companies over public lands provided by extensive US land grants. Construction was financed by state and US government subsidy bonds as well as by company issued mortgage bonds. The Western Pacific Railroad Company built 132 mi of track from Oakland/Alameda to Sacramento, the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California constructed 690 mi eastward from Sacramento to Promontory Summit, Utah Territory. And the Union Pacific built 1,085 mi from the eastern terminus at Council Bluffs near Omaha. The railroad opened for traffic on May 10,1869 when CPRR President Leland Stanford ceremonially drove the gold Last Spike with a silver hammer at Promontory Summit. The coast-to-coast railroad connection revolutionized the settlement and economy of the American West and it brought the western states and territories into alignment with the northern Union states and made transporting passengers and goods coast-to-coast considerably quicker and less expensive. Paddle steamers linked Sacramento to the cities and their facilities in the San Francisco Bay until 1869.
The roads rail terminus was moved two months to the Oakland Long Wharf about a mile to the north, Service between San Francisco and Oakland Pier continued to be provided by ferry. The CPRR eventually purchased 53 miles of UPRR-built grade from Promontory Summit to Ogden, the transcontinental line was popularly known as the Overland Route after the principal passenger rail service that operated over the length of the line until 1962. In 1847 he submitted to the U. S. Congress a Proposal for a Charter to Build a Railroad from Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean, Congress agreed to support the idea. Under the direction of the Department of War, the Pacific Railroad Surveys were conducted from 1853 through 1855 and these included an extensive series of expeditions of the American West seeking possible routes. A report on the explorations described alternative routes and included an amount of information about the American West. It included the natural history and illustrations of reptiles, birds.
The report failed however to include detailed maps of potential routes needed to estimate the feasibility, cost. This in part motivated the United States to complete the Gadsden Purchase, the U. S. Congress was strongly divided on where the eastern terminus of the railroad should be—in a southern or northern city. Three routes were considered, A northern route roughly along the Missouri River through present-day northern Montana to Oregon Territory and this was considered impractical due to the rough terrain and extensive winter snows. A central route following the Platte River in Nebraska through to the South Pass in Wyoming, following most of the Oregon Trail, snow on this route remained a concern. A southern route across Texas, New Mexico Territory, the Sonora desert, connecting to Los Angeles, surveyors found during a 1848 survey that the best route lay south of the border between the United States and Mexico
Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union.
Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents father
Northeastern United States
The Northeast is one of the four regions defined by the Census Bureau for the collection and analysis of statistics. The Census Bureau-defined region has an area of 181,324 sq mi with 162,257 square miles of that being land mass. Though lacking a unified identity, the Northeastern region is the nations most economically developed, densely populated. Of the nations four census regions, the Northeast is the second most urban, with 85 percent of its residing in urban areas. The region is subdivided into New England and the Mid-Atlantic States and this definition has been essentially unchanged since 1880 and is widely used as a standard for data tabulation. C. Similarly, the Geological Society of America defines the Northeast as these same states but with the addition of Maryland, the narrowest definitions include only the states of New England. Other more restrictive definitions include New England and New York as part of the Northeast United States, States beyond the Census Bureau definition that other entities include in the Northeast United States are, Delaware and Washington, D. C.
Delaware, Washington, D. C. and West Virginia Delaware, Washington, most did not settle in North America until the 17th century. Among the many tribes that inhabited this area were those made up the Iroquois nations. In the United States of the 21st century,18 federally recognized tribes reside in the Northeast, the two cultural and geographic regions that form parts of the Northeastern region have distinct histories. The first Europeans to settle New England were Pilgrims from England, the Pilgrims arrived by the Mayflower ship and founded Plymouth Colony so they could practice religion freely. Ten years later, a group of Puritans settled north of Plymouth Colony in Boston to form Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1636, colonists established Connecticut Colony and Providence Plantations, Providence was founded by Roger Williams, who was banished by Massachusetts for his beliefs in freedom of religion, and it was the first colony to guarantee all citizens freedom of worship. Anne Hutchinson, who was banished by Massachusetts, formed the town of Portsmouth.
Providence and two towns consolidated to form the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Although the first settlers of New England were motivated by religion, in recent history. In a 2009 Gallup survey, less than half of residents in Vermont, New Hampshire and Massachusetts reported religion as an important part of their daily life. In a 2010 Gallup survey, less than 30% of residents in Vermont, New Hampshire, New England played a prominent role in early American education
Union Pacific Railroad
The Union Pacific Railroad is a freight hauling railroad that operates 8,500 locomotives over 32,100 route-miles in 23 states west of Chicago and New Orleans, Louisiana. The Union Pacific Railroad network is the largest in the United States and it is one of the worlds largest transportation companies. Union Pacific Railroad is the operating company of Union Pacific Corporation. Union Pacific Corporations main competitor is the BNSF Railway, the second largest freight railroad. Together, the two railroads have a duopoly on all freight rail lines in the U. S. The original company was incorporated on July 1,1862, under an act of Congress entitled Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. The act was approved by President Abraham Lincoln, and it provided for the construction of railroads from the Missouri River to the Pacific as a war measure for the preservation of the Union. It was constructed westward from Council Bluffs, Iowa to meet the Central Pacific Railroad line, the line was constructed primarily by Irish labor who had learned their craft during the recent Civil War.
The two lines were joined together at Promontory Summit, Utah,53 miles west of Ogden on May 10,1869, hence creating the first transcontinental railroad in North America. Under the guidance of its dominant stockholder Dr. Thomas Clark Durant, the namesake of the city of Durant, the first rails were laid in Omaha. It built or purchased local lines that gave it access to Denver, Colorado, to Portland, Oregon and it owned narrow gauge trackage into the heart of the Colorado Rockies and a standard gauge line south from Denver across New Mexico into Texas. UP was entangled in the Crédit Mobilier scandal, exposed in 1872 and its independent construction company the Crédit Mobilier had bribed congressmen. The UP itself was not guilty but it did get bad publicity, the financial crisis of 1873 led to financial troubles but not bankruptcy. The company was reorganized as the Union Pacific Railway on January 24,1880, the new company declared bankruptcy during the Panic of 1893. When it emerged in 1897 it reverted to the original name, the corporate headquarters of the Union Pacific Corporation were located in New York City from its initial founding in the 1860s until Drew Lewis became CEO in the mid-1980s.
He relocated it to Bethlehem, the headquarters was shifted to Dallas, before relocating to Omaha to join the operating headquarters. From the ICC annual reports, except 1979 is from Moodys, on December 31,1925 UP-OSL-OWRN-LA&SL-StJ&GI operated 9,834 route-miles and 15,265 track-miles. At the end of 1980, Union Pacific operated 9,266 route-miles and 15,647 miles of track, Moodys shows 220,697 million revenue ton-miles in 1993 on the expanded system
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Other major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U. S. Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the states struggle for independence from Mexico. The Lone Star can be found on the Texan state flag, the origin of Texass name is from the word Tejas, which means friends in the Caddo language. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10 percent of Texas land area is desert. Most of the centers are located in areas of former prairies, forests. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the term six flags over Texas refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas, Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic.
In 1845, Texas joined the United States as the 28th state, the states annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, after the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. One Texan industry that thrived after the Civil War was cattle, due to its long history as a center of the industry, Texas is associated with the image of the cowboy. The states economic fortunes changed in the early 20th century, when oil discoveries initiated a boom in the state. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy, as of 2010 it shares the top of the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with California at 57. With a growing base of industry, the leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, aerospace. Texas has led the nation in export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product.
The name Texas, based on the Caddo word tejas meaning friends or allies, was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, during Spanish colonial rule, the area was officially known as the Nuevo Reino de Filipinas, La Provincia de Texas. Texas is the second largest U. S. state, behind Alaska, though 10 percent larger than France and almost twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Chile, Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers, the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south