Pacific War

The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia–Pacific War, was the theater of World War II, fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was geographically the largest theater of the war, including the vast Pacific Ocean theater, the South West Pacific theater, the South-East Asian theater, the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Soviet–Japanese War; the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when the Japanese invaded Thailand and attacked the British colonies of Malaya and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island and the Philippines; the Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter aided by Thailand and to a lesser extent by the Axis allies and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet Union's declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria and other territories on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945.

The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands and other minor islands as determined by the Allies. Japan's Shinto Emperor relinquished much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. In Allied countries during the war, the "Pacific War" was not distinguished from World War II in general, or was known as the War against Japan. In the United States, the term Pacific Theater was used, although this was a misnomer in relation to the Allied campaign in Burma, the war in China and other activities within the Southeast Asian Theater. However, the US Armed Forces considered the China-Burma-India Theater to be distinct from the Asiatic-Pacific Theater during the conflict. Japan used the name Greater East Asia War, as chosen by a cabinet decision on 10 December 1941, to refer to both the war with the Western Allies and the ongoing war in China.

This name was released to the public on 12 December, with an explanation that it involved Asian nations achieving their independence from the Western powers through armed forces of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Japanese officials integrated what they called the Japan–China Incident into the Greater East Asia War. During the Allied military occupation of Japan, these Japanese terms were prohibited in official documents, although their informal usage continued, the war became known as the Pacific War. In Japan, the Fifteen Years' War is used, referring to the period from the Mukden Incident of 1931 through 1945; the Axis aligned states which assisted Japan included the authoritarian government of Thailand, which formed a cautious alliance with the Japanese in 1941, when Japanese forces issued the government with an ultimatum following the Japanese invasion of Thailand. The leader of Thailand, Plaek Phibunsongkhram, became enthusiastic about the alliance after decisive Japanese victories in the Malayan campaign and in 1942 sent the Phayap Army to assist the invasion of Burma, where former Thai territory, annexed by Britain were reoccupied.

The Allies supported and organized an underground anti-Japanese resistance group, known as the Free Thai Movement, after the Thai ambassador to the United States had refused to hand over the declaration of war. Because of this, after the surrender in 1945, the stance of the United States was that Thailand should be treated as a puppet of Japan and be considered an occupied nation rather than as an ally; this was done in contrast to the British stance towards Thailand, who had faced them in combat as they invaded British territory, the United States had to block British efforts to impose a punitive peace. Involved were members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, which included the Manchukuo Imperial Army and Collaborationist Chinese Army of the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo, the collaborationist Wang Jingwei regime, respectively. In the Burma campaign, other members, such as the anti-British Indian National Army of Free India and the Burma National Army of the State of Burma were active and fighting alongside their Japanese allies.

Moreover, Japan conscripted many soldiers from its colonies of Taiwan. Collaborationist security units were formed in Hong Kong, the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies, British Malaya, British Borneo, former French Indochina (after the overthrow of the French regime in 1945 as well as Timorese militia; these units assisted the Japanese war effort in their respective territories. Germany and Italy both had limited involvement in the Pacific War; the German and the Italian navies operated submarines and raiding ships in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, notably the Monsun Gruppe. The Italians had access to concession territory naval bases in China which they ut


Xochistlahuaca is a town in Xochistlahuaca Municipality located in the southeast corner of the Mexican state of Guerrero. It is part of this state's Costa Chica region and while near the Pacific Ocean, most of the territory is mountainous; the population is dominated by the indigenous Amuzgo ethnicity, whose women are noted for their traditional hand woven garments the huipil, made both for home use and for sale outside the area. The name Xochistlahuaca comes from ixtlahuatlan; the center of population and of the Amuzgos in Guerrero is the town of Xochistlahuaca with a population of 4,152. It is located in rugged territory at an elevation of 390 meters above sea level; the town is home to a communal Amuzgo radio station called Radio Ñomndaa. It has become notable for its advocacy on Amuzgo issues nationally; the Museo Comunitario Amuzgo has two halls. One contains pre-Hispanic pieces, other historical items such as those from the Mexican Revolution and other antiques; the other is dedicated to the Amuzgo handcrafts textiles, photographs related to the Amuzgo people.

The population is young with just over fifty percent under the age of twenty. In 2005, 91.7% of the population was indigenous with 86% of these being Amuzgo. The rest are all Mixtec. Xochistlahuaca is the largest of the Amuzgo communities which are located in this mountain area on both sides of the Guerrero/Oaxaca border although eighty percent are in Guerrero. Most of the Amuzgos in the municipality still speak the language, of the Oto-Manguean family; some are monolingual. The origin of the Amuzgo people is not known but as their language is related to Mixtec, it is possible they migrated along with these people from the north and separated out to this region to escape inter-ethnic violence; the Amuzgo name for Xochistlahuaca is Suljaá. There are some mestizos, which live in the seat. Most of the municipality's cultural heritage is based on that of the Amuzgos, as the largest community of this ethnicity. Children from the municipality have been gathering indigenous oral stories for recording as part of the Concurso National de Narraciones Orales en Lenguas Indígenas.

Juana Iriabth Moctezuma Tapia won the contest in 2004. Most of the population is classified as Catholic although there is a small but growing percentage of Protestants. Protestantism was introduced to the region by the Instituto Lingüistico de Verano in the 1940s. Catholic beliefs are a syncretism with Amuzgo ones. On the feast day of Saint Mark, which comes at the beginning of the rainy season, chickens are sacrificed over a set of blue rocks which represent thunder and lightning; this is in petition for abundant rain and crops for the coming growing season. The end of the growing season and harvest are marked by the feast day of the Archangel Michael on September 29. Traditional medicine men and healing are still preferred by many as illness is conceived of as spiritual. Other important festivals include Carnival and the feast day of the Virgin of Guadalupe on December 12. In the community of Cozoyoapan, the feast day of Saint Sebastian on January 20 is important. Most women and men wear traditional clothing, made with either commercial or hand woven fabric.

Industrial weaving has made hand weaving obsolete except for specialty garments or for those made for sale. The Amugo women of Xochistlahuaca are known for their hand woven fabric using the most traditional techniques and designs. Most of this fabric is sewn into huipils, a traditional women's garment and other traditional items such as tablecloths and rebozos. All pieces are original with no two alike. Amuzgo women begin learning the weaving process when they are children with simple tasks such as cleaning and carding cotton; as they grow, they learn more difficult techniques and designs from the mothers and grandmothers using a traditional backstrap loom. Weaving was to make clothing from the family, but it has become an important source of income for many Amuzgo families. A number of Xochistlahuaca weavers have won awards for their work such as the Premio Nacional de Ciencias y Artes in 2004 and the weavers receive support from federal and other sources. Cooperation with government and university institutions has allowed the weavers to create new items and designs including pants, bathrobes and more.

However, the huipil remains the most common and most sought-after item though they tend to sell better to foreign buyers than Mexican ones as foreigners tend to appreciate the effort that goes into traditional weaving. The traditional diet of the municipality is based on other locally grown products. Chocolate is consumed as a beverage during special events such as weddings. Tamales are a fundamental part of the diet and come in a variety of forms and fillings such as sweet corn, chicken, freshwater shrimp and more. One local dish is called the cabeza de viejo or old man's head and there is a type of sweetened tortilla called a ticaso. There is evidence that Xochislahuaca was the capital of an Amuzgo dominion, subject in part to the Mixtec province of Ayacastla when the Aztecs arrived in the 15th century. While Ayacastla was subjugated, the Amuzgos were never or directly under the control of the Aztecs. However, because of Aztec domination of the area, the name Xochistlahuaca comes from Nahuatl and means "plain of flowers."

This is the case for "Amuzgo" which means "where there are books," referring to the Xochistlahuaca's role as an administrative center. Much of the Amuzgo concentration in

Nu (programming language)

Nu is an interpreted object-oriented programming language, with a Lisp-like syntax, created by Tim Burks as an alternative scripting language to program OS X through its Cocoa application programming interface. Implementations exist for iPhone and Linux; the language was first announced at C4, a conference for indie Mac developers held in August 2007. This Nu code defines a simple complex numbers class; the example is a basic definition of a complex number: it defines the instance variables, a method to initialize the object. It shows the similarity between the code in Nu and the equivalent in Objective-C; this sample, from the nuke tool bundled with Nu shows the influence of Objective-C, Ruby in the design of the language. F-Script MacRuby RubyCocoa Official website Nu - Git repository on GitHub