Packet boats were medium-sized boats designed for domestic mail and freight transportation in European countries and in North American rivers and canals, some of them steam driven. They were used extensively during the 18th and 19th centuries and featured scheduled service; when such ships were put into use in the 18th century on the Atlantic Ocean between Great Britain and its colonies, the services were called the packet trade. Steam driven packets were used extensively in the United States in the 19th century on the Mississippi and Missouri rivers and bringing personnel to forts and trading posts. Packet craft were used extensively in European coastal mail services since the 17th century, added cramped passenger accommodation; as early as 1629, the Dutch East India Company was carrying some passengers on the ill-fated Batavia from Texel in Holland to Java. Passenger accommodations were minimal: transportation, "firing", drinking water, a place to sleep. Scheduled services were offered, but the time journeys took depended much on the weather.
They are found to be a subject of Daniel Defoe's 1724 novel Roxana: The Fortunate Mistress. In England the King maintained a weekly packet service with the continent and Ireland using 15 packet vessels, their importance is evident from the fact that the first craft built in the colony of New South Wales was the Rose Hill Packet. Over the two centuries of the sailing packet craft development, they came in various rig configurations which included: schooners, schooners-brigs, cutters, brigantines, feluccas, xebecs and their ultimate development in the clipper ships. Earlier they were known as dispatch boats, but the service was provided by privateers during time of war, on occasion chartered private yachts. News of "record passages" was eagerly awaited by the public, the craft's captain and crew were celebrated in the press. Behind this search for sailing faster than the wind however lay the foundations for a development in naval architecture and its science which would serve until the appearance of the steam vessels.
In 1863, during the Civil War, the packet boat Marshall carried the body of Confederate General Stonewall Jackson from Lynchburg to his home in Lexington, Virginia for burial. The American canal packet boats were narrow to accommodate canals, but might be 70–90 feet long; when the Erie Canal opened in New York state in 1825 along the Mohawk River, demand rose for travelers to be accommodated. Canal packet boats included cabin space for up to 60 passengers. Unlike European and American sailing vessels, that sought to attain greater speed under sail, the canal packet boats were drawn through the Erie Canal by teams of two or three horses or mules. Compared to overland travel, the boats cut journey time in half and were much more comfortable. Travelers could get from New York City to Buffalo in ten days, with a combination of sailing and packet boats; some passengers took the boats to see both the Erie Canal and the natural landscapes. Thousands of others used packet boats to emigrate to Ohio and other parts of the Midwest.
These boats were instrumental in the settling of and travel within Upstate New York through the branch canals such as the Chenango Canal. Packet boats were popular along the James River and Kanawha Canal in Virginia, allowing travel beyond the falls upriver. Mail steamers were steamships which carried the mail across waterways, such as across an ocean or between islands during the 19th century and early 20th century, when the cost of sending a letter was declining to the point an ordinary person could afford the cost of sending a letter across great distances. In addition to carrying mail, most mail steamers carried passengers or cargo since the revenue from the mail service, if any, was insufficient by itself to pay for the cost of its travel. However, the advantage for a steamship carrying mail was that its arrival would be advertised in advance in the newspapers, thus giving it "free advertising" as a travel option for passengers or cargo. In most cases, mail carried by mail steamers was delivered to the post office to which it was addressed.
In some cases, the incoming mail would be advertised in the local newspaper for pickup at the post office or at the steamship's office for a fee, if not fee-paid. Because of political instability when a post office could not provide normal services, incoming mail from a mail steamer would be delivered to a local delivery service, which would deliver the mail and charge the addressee an extra fee for the service; when this occurred, the local delivery service would place its own local service stamp or mark on the envelope when the extra fee was paid. Mail carried by these steamers – sometimes known as paquebot mail – was subject to various regulations by the governments involved as well as the Universal Postal Union's regulations stated at the UPU Vienna Conference of 1891; the C-82 Packet twin-engined, twin-boom cargo aircraft designed and built by Fairchild Aircraft was named as a tribute to the packet boat. It was used by the United States Army Air Forces and the successor United States Air Force following World War II.
Allan Line Royal Mail Steamers Black Ball Line Postal history Royal Mail Ship Pony Express Ocean liner TPO and Seapost Society for all collectors of Rail and Ship Mail worldwide Service Steamer Service Postal Matters Arrival of the Mail! Paquebot mail begins at sea, postmarked on land Glossary of Stamp Collecting Terms Alaska Mail Service: the Mail Steamer Elsie By the 1930s a method of signalli
Nephilim: Act of God 1 is the second studio album by hip hop musician Stu Dent, released November 14, 2003 through Illect Recordings. Stu Dent is an alternate moniker for real name Joseph Evans. Evans created the Stu Dent pseudonym in order to release the album Altered State in 2001 without breaking his contractual obligations with Tunnel Rats, a hip hop musical collective of which he is part. Nephilim follows up on Altered State and the 2002 Sev Statik release Speak Life; the album includes production from Beat Rabbi and Freddie Bruno, fellow members of Deepspace5, a group Evans co-founded, production and a guest appearance by JB!! known as Dirty Moses, a member of All Bully, another group that Evans helped found. Nephilim met with a positive reception from critics. Joseph Evans was active as a rapper in the Albany area since the early 1990s, under the name Sev Statik. After the dissolution of Master Plan, a group he was part of, in 1996, Evans released two solo EPs. In 1997, he co-founded the supergroup Deepspace5, joined the Los Angeles-based collective Tunnel Rats.
He began recording music for a Sev Statik studio album, Speak Life, in 1999, but this project was held up due to problems that he and Tunnel Rats had with their current label. As Evans had promised Tunnel Rats that he would not release any solol material as Sev Statik until that group's Tunnel Vision album was released, he instead adopted an alternate stage name, Stu Dent, released a different solo album, Altered State, in 2001 through Deepspace5 Recordings. Speak Life was re-recorded and was released in 2002 through Uprok Records. Nephilim follows up on that release, was intended to be the first installment in a three-part trilogy. Nephilim was received warmly by critics. Jon Corbin of cMusicWeb called the album an "above average project" for an underground release; the only drawback conceded by Corbin were that Stu Dent could have used better mixing, delivered his lines with more variety, not start "virtually every song with'Well I...'". RapReviews.com rated the album seven out of ten, stating that although the lyrical themes are somewhat unoriginal, on Nephilim Stu Dent "succeeds in delivery a thought-provoking and musically satisfying album, developed around an original and effective concept."
Rapzilla awarded the album four-and-a-half stars out of five, concluding that "Offering 13 solid tracks, well thought out lyrics over tight beats, Stu Dent's latest release is bent on turning classic." The style on Nephilim falls under the labels of underground hip hop. Cornerstone at RapReviews.com found Stu Dent's vocal style similar to Aesop Rock and Slug, but "without the self-effacing sarcasm of either." Cornerstone described producer Kut-O's piano-playing on the song "Invisibullet" as jazzy and "Pete Rock-esque". Jon Corbin at cMusicWeb highlighted the album's underground production style, citing in particular "Self Pharaoh", produced by JB!!, which Corbin felt was reminiscent of early De La Soul recordings. Regarding the album's title and artwork, which references the Nephilim mentioned in Genesis 6:1-4, how they pertain to the album's lyrical themes, critics took differing interpretations. Jon Corbin expressed his confusion at how the lyrics were related to the Nephilim, stating that "several listens to the record bring no context or explanation as to why that title was chosen."
RapReviews.com viewed the album concept as Stu Dent "playing the part of a Nephilim – a half human, half angelic being – and exploring notions of modern living through religious allegory and introspective thought." Rapzilla explained that "Nephilim translated means,'fallen ones'", thus believed that "the title couples fallen ones with an act of God. Deep, right? The tracks play off of this theme of fallen man and the self-destructive nature of our actions."
Agent Orange is the third studio album by German thrash metal band Sodom, released on 1 June 1989 by Steamhammer and SPV. It was their last album with guitarist Frank Blackfire until his return to the band in 2018; the lyrical content delves into Tom Angelripper's fascination with the Vietnam War, with a song dedicated to the ground assault aircraft AC-47 as well as the Agent orange defoliant-inspired title-track. It was their first album to enter the German album charts where it reached number 36. Agent Orange sold 100,000 copies in Germany alone and marked the commercial break through for the band; the song "Ausgebombt" was released on the EP Ausgebombt with German lyrics. The album's liner notes carry the message: "This album is dedicated to all people – soldiers and civilians – who died by senseless aggressions of wars all over the world." In March 2010, Agent Orange was re-released in a digipak with bonus tracks and liner notes containing lyrics and rare photos. In 2005, Agent Orange was ranked number 299 in Rock Hard magazine's book of The 500 Greatest Rock & Metal Albums of All Time.
In 2017, Rolling Stone ranked Agent Orange as 63rd on their list of'The 100 Greatest Metal Albums of All Time.' All music is composed except where noted. Track 9 is a bonus track for initial CD pressings. Sodom Tom Angelripper – vocals, bass guitar Frank Blackfire – guitars Chris Witchhunter – drumsProduction Harris Johns – producer, mixing Andreas Marschall – cover art Manfred Eisenblätter – photography The band released two songs from Agent Orange on its third EP, Ausgebombt
Manx Radio is the national commercial radio station for the Isle of Man. It began broadcasting on 29 June 1964 ten years before commercial radio was licensed in the United Kingdom; the Isle of Man, having its own government and laws, was not subject to the rules prohibiting commercial broadcasting in the UK. However, the Manx Government still had to apply to the UK's General Post Office for a frequency and for permission to broadcast. First requested in 1960, a licence was granted in May 1964, it was allocated a comparatively low power of 50 watts. In October 1964, an additional frequency of 1600 kHz AM was allocated to the station to provide greater coverage, although again at a limited power of 50 watts, it broadcasts in English with a few hours a week devoted to broadcasting in Manx. Manx Radio now broadcasts on 1368 kHz AM to the whole island. Additional low-power transmitters cover Peel on a frequency of 89.5 MHz. The station's FM and AM services are available online Manx Radio's commercial revenues in 2018 accounted for over 60% of its revenues.
To provide the public service element of its output it received a government subvention of £875,000 as well as government support for its transmission networks and its coverage of the TT. Manx Radio is the island's public service broadcaster, it was run by the Isle of Man Broadcasting Commission, a state-owned body, under the name Isle of Man Broadcasting Company. In 1980 the company was moved to an arms-length operation using the name Radio Manx Limited. Since 1994, the shares in Radio Manx Limited have been held by the Manx Radio Trust, further distancing the station from Tynwald; the company remains responsible to Tynwald and its operations are reviewed annually. During the Isle of Man TT races, the 1368 kHz frequency becomes Manx Radio TT, providing news and results on the races; the service is available on 87.9 FM in Douglas and 100.6 FM in Sulby. Regulars Chris Williams, Chris Kinley and Tim Glover can all be heard each day, John Moss presents the Radio TT news bulletins. In May 2012, Radio TT was re-branded as Manx Radio TT 365 to signify that the station was available to listen to throughout the year via the Internet.
The service incorporated archive commentary recordings with classic music tracks, as well as the TT fortnight broadcasts. However, after less than a year the service was subsequently closed. Manx Radio TT recommenced its usual service in May 2013. In 2015 and 2016, the service was broadcast as Vauxhall Radio TT, it is possible. David Callister Bob Carswell Manx Radio employs a team of broadcast & digital journalists, responsible for hourly news bulletins, the news orientated Breakfast Show, Mannin Line and Update, they produce a range of other shows focussing on news and local politics including'Perspective' at noon on Sunday and a range of sport updates and shows. A deal between United Christian Broadcasters and Manx Radio saw UCB broadcast via Manx Radio from 5 October 1987 for an hour on a Sunday from 9pm on the AM transmitter. Manx Radio UK Radio History
High Peak Junction, near Cromford, England, is the name now used to describe the site where the former Cromford and High Peak Railway, whose workshops were located here, meets the Cromford Canal. It lies within Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site, designated in 2001, today marks the southern end of the High Peak Trail, a 17 miles trail for walkers and horse riders; the Derwent Valley Heritage Way passes this point, popular walks lead from here along the towpath in both directions. As first built, the C&HPR - built to standard gauge proportions after initial plans for it to be constructed as a canal route - terminated at this location, named in the original Act as "beside the Cromford Canal, at or near to Cromford", where freight was transferred between canal barges and railway wagons; the large wharf-side transit shed, with awning over the canal, still stands on the west bank of the canal, a small distance from the workshop complex. From here the double-tracked line ran up the steep Sheep Pasture incline.
Prior to the construction of this larger transit shed, use was made of another shed the other side of the workshops, which opened onto the river. This became a locomotive shed, but has now been demolished, lies beyond the picnic area; this first section of the line, from here to Hurdlow, opened on 29 May 1830, opening throughout in 1831. At this point in time the railway was isolated from any other railway lines, being connected only to canals at either end, namely the Cromford Canal in the south, the Peak Forest Canal at Whaley Bridge in the north. Cromford Canal had been finished in 1794 and linked Sir Richard Arkwright’s mills to the national waterway system; the workshop complex here was built between 1826 and 1830 to serve the new line. There were limited sidings here; the endless chains for the inclines, for instance, were made here from ¾ inch chain supplied by Pritt & Co of Liverpool. At the time of the railway's opening, apart from on the inclines, horses were the main form of power, only minerals and goods were carried.
These goods, which included coal, were for local communities along the route. The carriage of limestone played a predominant part, for this mineral was required in the manufacture of steel, was found in abundance in this upland area. Static steam engines powered the inclines, but in 1833 the first locomotive was acquired for the line, as such was one of the country's earliest railways, coming only 7 years after George Stephenson's Stockton and Darlington railway had opened, it was to take 30 years before all horse motive-power was replaced by steam, but whilst there were engines on the line, water wagons had to be carried up the inclines from the wharf, for use by the stationary engines, by the locomotives, for supply at isolated properties. There were over 20 rail tanks in total, many converted LNWR tenders, despatched from the wharf at a rate of about 100 a month and left in sidings along the route. Water was sparse up the line, but here at the wharf a hillside spring fed a tank, located at Sheep Pasture bottom, across the line from the workshops.
Apart from repairing wagons and locomotives, the company stock list records that in 1859 two locomotives were built at the workshops, but in reality they were more assembled here, for from 1840 parts were being bought from the Union Foundry in Derby. However, the railway was only a link in the canal network, isolated from other railway lines, it terminated here at its southern end, it was not until two decades that physical connection was made with any main line, eliminating its dependence for trade on the canal. This connection was with the Manchester, Buxton and Midlands Junction Railway at a point between Cromford and Whatstandwell stations; this was the "High Peak Junction", this name not being used for this canal-side site until after closure of the line. The new main line Midland Railway junction was brought into use on 21 February 1853, increasing the length of the C&HPR by 58 chains, Bradshaw's Railway Manual of 1870 describes the whole undertaking as now running "from Peak Forest Canal to the Cromford Canal, to a junction with the Manchester, Buxton and Midlands Junction".
However, it took another decade before horse power on the High Peak Railway was replaced by steam. Following this connection, the development of the Midland Line through to Manchester and more traffic took this route. Tonnage rates on the canal were lowered to attract trade, but competition was fierce, not helped by the eventual selling of the Cromford Canal to the Railway Company in 1852. A second collapse of the Butterley tunnel in 1900 - due to mining subsidence - rang the final death knell for the canal as an effective mode of transport. However, coal was still carried on this isolated section from Hartshay to Lea and Cromford until 1944, when the whole canal was abandoned. Beside the Transit Shed a road crossed the Junction extension line at an ungated crossing. A red iron plate on a post was turned 90 degrees to indicate "stop" to either the road or the railway. From 1862 LNWR officials made regular inspections of the railway, an inspection in June of this year led to an attempt to find a larger workshop site than that here at Cromford.
A level site at Ladmanlow, some 25 miles along the line, was considered, but a report by Charles Mason the following month suggested only a small maintenance shop there. Given that 18 men were employed at Cromford, that many of their children work
Eve's Daughter is a 1918 American silent comedy drama film produced by Famous Players-Lasky and distributed by Paramount Pictures. The film was directed by starred popular theatre star Billie Burke; the film is based on the 1917 Broadway play Eve's Daughter by Alicia Ramsey which starred Grace George. It is now considered to be a lost film. Billie Burke as Irene Simpson-Bates Thomas Meighan as John Norton Lionel Atwill as Courtenay Urquhart Riley Hatch as Martin Simpson Florence Flinn as Victoria Vanning Harriet Ross as Mrs. Simpson-Bates Lucille Carney as Edith Simpson-Bates Mary Navarro as Kate Simpson-Bates Harry Lee as Reverend James Sunningdale Clarence Doyle Jimmie Gormon Ivy Shannon Like many American films of the time, Eve's Daughter was subject to cuts by city and state film censorship boards. For example, the Chicago Board of Censors cut, in Reel 3, two scenes of man rubbing woman's arm, Reel 4, the intertitle "My pal. Alice Duveen went to Paris with him", man rubbing woman's arm on couch, Reel 5, the three intertitles "It need make no difference to us", "You'll look after me like Alice Duveen", "I thought you understood.
I can't marry you." Eve's Daughter on IMDb Eve's Daughter at AllMovie Advertisement for film