Padang

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Padang
City
Other transcription(s)
 • Jawi ڤادڠ
From top, left to right: Adityawarman Museum/West Sumatra's traditional house (with iconic Minangkabau architecture),  Padang Area Monument, Grand Mosque of West Sumatra, Aerial view of Padang city, Fadli Zon Cultural Center, and sunset at Padang Beach.
From top, left to right:
Adityawarman Museum/West Sumatra's traditional house (with iconic Minangkabau architecture), Padang Area Monument, Grand Mosque of West Sumatra, Aerial view of Padang city, Fadli Zon Cultural Center, and sunset at Padang Beach.
Official seal of Padang
Seal
Location within West Sumatra
Location within West Sumatra
Padang is located in Sumatra Topography
Padang
Padang
Padang is located in Indonesia
Padang
Padang
Location in Sumatra and Indonesia
Coordinates: 0°57′0″S 100°21′11″E / 0.95000°S 100.35306°E / -0.95000; 100.35306Coordinates: 0°57′0″S 100°21′11″E / 0.95000°S 100.35306°E / -0.95000; 100.35306
Country  Indonesia
Province Coat of arms of West Sumatra.svg West Sumatra
Founded 7 August 1669
Government
 • Mayor Mahyeldi Ansharullah
Area
 • Total 695 km2 (268 sq mi)
Elevation 0-1,853 m (0-6,079 ft)
Population (2014)
 • Total 1,000,096
 • Density 1,438.98/km2 (3,726.9/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Padangnese
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Area code(s) +62 751
Climate Af
Website www.padang.go.id

Padang (Indonesian pronunciation: [ˈpadaŋ] Jawi: ڤادڠ‎) is the capital of the province of West Sumatra in Indonesia. It is the largest city on the western coast of Sumatra, before Indonesia's independence, Padang was one of the major cities in the Dutch East Indies.[1] It has an area of 695 square kilometres (268 sq mi) and the population of 1,000,096 in 2014.[2]

As of 2017, Padang had received the "Adipura" (cleanest and greenest city) award in the category of large city 18 times[3] and the "Adipura Kencana" award three times.[4]

Padang is exactly at the antipodes of Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

History[edit]

Historical Affiliations
Flag of the Dutch East India Company.svg Dutch Empire 1663-1781

Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg British Empire 1781-1784
Flag of the Dutch East India Company.svg Dutch Empire 1784-1795
United KingdomBritish Empire 1795-1819
NetherlandsDutch Empire 1819-1942
Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg Empire of Japan 1942-1945

IndonesiaRepublic of Indonesia 1945-present
Padang circa 1795
Padang, 1859

Padang has been a trade centre since the 16th century, having been controlled by the Pagaruyung Kingdom and the Aceh Sultanate,[5] during the 16th and 17th centuries pepper was cultivated and traded with India, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. In 1663 the city came under the authority of the Dutch and a trading post was built in 1680, the city came under the British Empire twice, firstly from 1781 to 1784 during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, and again from 1795 to 1819 during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1819 the city was transferred back to the Netherlands. Up to circa 1780 the most important trade product was gold originating from gold mines in the region. When the mines were exhausted, the focus turned to other products such as coffee, salts and textiles.

In 1797 Padang was inundated by a tsunami with an estimated flow depth of 5–10 meters, following an earthquake, estimated to be 8.5–8.7 Mw, which occurred off the coast. The shaking caused considerable damage and the deaths of two people, while the tsunami resulted in several houses being washed away and several deaths at the village of Air Manis. Boats moored in the Arau river ended up on dry land, including a 200-ton sailing ship which was deposited about 1 kilometre upstream; in 1833 another tsunami inundated Padang with an estimated flow depth of 3–4 meters as a result of an earthquake, estimated to be 8.6–8.9 Mw, which occurred off Bengkulu. The shaking caused considerable damage in Padang, and due to the tsunami boats moored in the Arau river broke their anchors and were scattered.[6]

The population of Padang in 1920 was 28,754, the second largest city in Sumatra behind Palembang,[7] at the time of independence in the 1940s the city had around 50,000 inhabitants. Coffee was still important, but copra was also a major item produced by farmers in its hinterland, the population growth since then has been partly a result of growth in the area of the city, but largely is a result of the migration to major cities seen in so many developing nations. From 1950 the Ombilin coal field developed with Padang as its outlet port, this was seen by some observers as reflecting the economic and political colonisation of Indonesia.

On 30 September 2009, a 7.9 magnitude earthquake hit about 50 kilometres off the coast of Padang. There were more than 1,100 fatalities, 313 of which occurred within Padang.[8][9][10]

Administrative districts[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1819 8,500 —    
1874 25,000 +194.1%
1920 28,754 +15.0%
1930 40,744 +41.7%
1961 143,699 +252.7%
1971 350,277 +143.8%
1980 480,922 +37.3%
1990 631,263 +31.3%
2010 833,562 +32.0%
2013 876,678 +5.2%

The city of Padang is divided into 11 districts (kecamatan):

Public transport[edit]

The TransPadang bus rapid transit service was developed used Jakarta's TransJakarta system as a model, but without a dedicated lane and comfortable shelters. Today Trans Padang runs only from Lubuk Buaya to Pasar Raya, a distance of 18 km, with a fleet of 10 large buses (capacity 60) and 15 medium buses (capacity 40). Daily passengers number 7000 in corridor 1, an increase from the initial ridership of 4000, the load factor is 128% in the morning and evening rush hours.[citation needed]

Corridor # Origin-Destination Opened [11]
1 Lubuk Buaya - Pasar Raya February 2014
2 Bungus - Pasar Raya planned
3 Air Pacah - Pasar Raya planned
4 Teluk Bayur - Lubuk Buaya planned
5 Indarung - Pasar Raya planned
6 Limau Manis - Pasar Raya planned

Airport[edit]

The city is served by the newly opened Minangkabau International Airport in Ketaping, Padang Pariaman. It replaces the old Tabing Airport, which is currently used as a military base. There is one terminal building for both international and domestic flights, the airport has 4 aerobridges, 17 check-in counters, 5 baggage conveyors, and 9 ticket sales counters.[12] In late 2013, the runway was lengthened by 250 m so that it could accommodate Boeing 747 and Airbus A340 planes, and there is also a plan to connect the airport to the city of Padang with a train service.[13] A terminal expansion (Phase II) has been announced with the rendering already released on the Angkasa Pura 2 website.[14]

Seaport[edit]

Padang's Teluk Bayur harbour (the former Emmahaven Port) is the largest and busiest harbour on the west coast of Sumatra, it serves inter-island as well as international routes. It was built in 1888 by the colonial government of the Netherlands, on 29 April 2013 a new container terminal was officially opened by West Sumatra Governor which can hold more than 4,000 containers in 46,886 square-meter area.[15] The port is the main gateway to the Mentawai islands, including Siberut, Sipora, and South Pagai. There are also ferry connections between Padang to Jakarta and Sibolga next to Gunung Sitoli (Nias).

Toll road[edit]

West Sumatra administration has secured lands for the construction of a 27-kilometer toll road between Padang and Sicincin district with about Rp.1.3 trillion ($141.7 million) investment. 80 percent of the land with a width of 30 meters has been acquired, but they will acquire more land to meet an ideal width of 50 meters. The construction project will be initialised in 2012.[16]

Railroad[edit]

Railroad tracks connect Padang to Pariaman to the north, Padangpanjang to the northeast, Solok and Sawahlunto to the east. The largest train station is Padang Station, known as Simpang Haru station. Sibinuang and Dang Tuanku provides the trip services from Padang (Simpang Haru) to Pariaman vice versa.

Education[edit]

Andalas University, Limau Manis campus

Minangkabau people highly respect education. Many intellectual figures come from West Sumatra. There are two institutes of higher education in Padang, i.e. Andalas University and the State University of Padang. Andalas University is the oldest university in Indonesia outside of Java, the main campus is located at Limau Manis, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the centre of Padang. The Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Dentistry are located in the city centre, near the Central General Hospital M. Djamil. State University of Padang located in Air Tawar.

The other universities in Padang are Imam Bonjol State Institute of Islamic Literature, Institut Teknologi Padang in Lapai, Bung Hatta University in Ulak Karang, Baiturrahmah University in Air Pacah, Universitas Putra Indonesia YPTK, Ekasakti University, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Barat, and Tamansiswa University.

The local library of West Sumatra, located in Padang is considered as one of the best Libraries in Indonesia, with the number of collection of 30 k titles, including facilities and maximum conserve, and the highest number of Encyclopedic visitors.

Formal education state and private Elementary School neither Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI) state and private Junior High (JHS) or MTs state and private SHS state and private MA state and private Vocational High School (VHS) College
Quantity 477 129 49 10 42 58
Data sekolah di Kota Padang
Source:[17][18][19]

Climate[edit]

Padang features a tropical rainforest climate under Köppen’s climate classification. Padang is one of Indonesia’s wettest cities, with frequent rainfall throughout the course of the year, the city averages roughly 4300 mm of rain per year. Padang’s driest month is February, where 250 mm of precipitation on average is observed. The city temperatures are relatively constant throughout the year, with an average of 26 degrees Celsius.

Climate data for Padang
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.9
(93)
34.4
(93.9)
33.9
(93)
33.3
(91.9)
33.9
(93)
33.9
(93)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91)
32.8
(91)
34.4
(93.9)
Average high °C (°F) 30.6
(87.1)
31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
32.2
(90)
32.2
(90)
31.7
(89.1)
32.2
(90)
32.2
(90)
31.7
(89.1)
31.1
(88)
30.6
(87.1)
31.6
(88.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.0
(80.6)
27.0
(80.6)
27.0
(80.6)
27.2
(81)
27.5
(81.5)
27.0
(80.6)
25.0
(77)
25.0
(77)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.1)
26.6
(79.9)
Average low °C (°F) 23.3
(73.9)
24.4
(75.9)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.8
(74.8)
Record low °C (°F) 21.1
(70)
20.6
(69.1)
21.1
(70)
21.7
(71.1)
21.7
(71.1)
20.0
(68)
21.1
(70)
20.6
(69.1)
21.1
(70)
21.1
(70)
21.1
(70)
21.1
(70)
20.0
(68)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 351
(13.82)
259
(10.2)
307
(12.09)
363
(14.29)
315
(12.4)
307
(12.09)
277
(10.91)
348
(13.7)
352
(13.86)
495
(19.49)
518
(20.39)
480
(18.9)
4,172
(164.25)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 175 181 175 188 200 206 200 186 136 135 167 167 2,116
Source #1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[20]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990)[21][a]

Politics[edit]

By 2007 the city government began a number of religiously motivated policies. One requires females of all religious backgrounds who are municipal employees and students in government schools to wear jilbab (hijab), and high school students now take classes on reading the Qur'an. Municipal employees are required to pay zakat.[22]

Culture[edit]

Cuisine[edit]

The cuisine of the Minangkabau people is commonly called Padang cuisine. Padang restaurants are common throughout the country and are famous for their spicy food. Padang food is usually cooked once per day, and all customers choose from those dishes, which are left out on display until no food is left, it is served in small portions of various dishes, but constituting, with rice, a complete meal. Customers take – and pay for – only what they want from this array of dishes, the best known Padang dish is rendang, a spicy meat stew. Soto Padang (crispy beef in spicy soup) is local residents' breakfast favourite, meanwhile sate (beef satay in curry sauce served with ketupat) is a treat in the evening.

Sport[edit]

Padang is the home town of the soccer team Semen Padang, with Haji Agus Salim Stadium being the home stadium of the club. Padang is home to an annual international dragon boat competition.[23]

Tourism[edit]

Old Town Padang

Padang is a common transit point for surfers travelling to Batu Islands and Mentawai Islands, and for tourists visiting the West Sumatran highlands. Padang beach (known as Taplau or Tapi Lauik) which located from Samudra Street until Puruih, is well known for its beautiful sunset and hundreds of food stalls. Kuranji River flows in Padang and on top area of the river at Batu Busuk, Lambung Bukit sub-district is suitable for white water activities. Bungus bay, to the south of Padang, is suitable for swimming and boating. There are some pleasant offshore islands near Bungus, such as Sikuai island and Pagang island. Many beautiful spots which can be visited for snorkelling, fishing or just relaxing on the white sandy beaches.

Currently, Regional Development Planning Board (Bappeda) of Padang has established development plans "Padang Old City" in Kampung Pondok, South Padang district as a tourist area.[24] Mayor of Padang has been designate 73 historic buildings as cultural heritage of Padang.[25]

Landmarks[edit]

Masjid Muhammadan, a historic mosque in Padang
Facade of Ganting Grand Mosque, 2013

There are many old buildings in Padang that still retain their Dutch and Chinese architecture, the old city of Padang, located next to Muaro Harbor at Arau River, which formerly functioned as the city's main commercial avenue. The old city was the former business district of Padang, there are many important buildings such as Padang City Hall, De Javaschebank (present-day Bank Indonesia), Nederlandsch Spaarbank, Geo Wehry & Co, Escompto Maatschappij Office, warehouses, and merchant houses.

There are several historic places such as Adityawarman Museum which specialises in the history and culture of the local Minangkabau ethnic group, and the main exhibits are housed within a Rumah Gadang style building. Grand Mosque of West Sumatra, a new modern large mosque that is built with Minangkabau architecture, the Mosque is located on Jalan Khatib Sulaiman, city centre of Padang. Ganting Grand Mosque, the oldest mosque in Padang and one of the oldest in Indonesia, is a popular tourist attraction. Muhammadan Mosque, founded by Indian merchant, is also located in the city centre. St. Leo Monastery features a mixture of traditional Minang architecture on its bell tower roofing and Dutch architecture on the church building, is one of the oldest churches in Padang. Along the beachside road, just down from the Tourist Information office is a Buddhist Temple, Vihara Buddha Warman, opened in 2006 for the large Chinese Buddhist community.

Beaches and parks[edit]

Air Manis Beach, sweet water beach is located 10 km south of Padang, location of the legendary Malin Kundang Stone. The rock formations are found which resemble ship wrecks. Across from the Arau River is the Siti Nurbaya Park which can reached by bridge or boat. There are still remains of Japanese cannons and bunkers from World War II. There are great views of Padang city, Arau River and the Indian Ocean. Bung Hatta Nature Reserve (Taman Hutan Raya Bung Hatta) is situated 18 km east of the city, with diverse flora and fauna including a few Sumatran tigers, tapirs, wild goats, bears, as well as Raflesia Gaduansi, Balangphora, and Amorphopalus.

Shopping[edit]

Padang also has some modern malls, the most popular malls are Basko Grand Mall, SPR Plaza, Plaza Andalas, and Rocky Plaza, the upcoming malls in the city are Padang Landmark Mall and Padang Green City.

  • Basko Grand Mall – Situated at Jl. Prof Dr Hamka. Is a largest shopping malls in the city.
  • Plaza Andalas – Located at Jl. Pemuda, the anchor tenants are Ramayana Department Store, Solaria, KFC, Optik Melawai, Hammer and many more.
  • Rocky Plaza - Located at Jl. Permindo.

Tsunami shelter[edit]

Government and the people of Hill Pangilun has agreed to make Mount Pangilun as tsunami shelter. Better road access to the hill will be built, as well as temporary shelters, including their facilities.[26]

Sister cities and twin towns[edit]

City Country
Hildesheim Germany Germany
Vung Tau Vietnam Vietnam
Beit Lahiya State of Palestine Palestine
Chonburi Thailand Thailand
Bandung Indonesia Indonesia
Perth[27] Australia Australia
Dubai[27] United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.kicc.jp Indonesia: Surabaya And Padang
  2. ^ http://padangkota.bps.go.id Badan Pusat Statistik Kota Padang
  3. ^ "Setelah 8 Tahun, Kota Padang Kembali Raih Piala Adipura". Tempo.co. 2017. 
  4. ^ "9 (Sembilan) Kota Sumatera Barat Meraih Penghargaan Adipura Tahun 2017". West Sumatra Province website. 
  5. ^ Kathirithamby-Wells, J. (December 1969). "Achehnese Control over West Sumatra up to the Treaty of Painan, 1663". Journal of Southeast Asian History. 10 (3). Retrieved 5 October 2017. 
  6. ^ Natawidjaja, D. H.; K. Sieh; M. Chlieh; J. Galetzka; B. W. Suwargadi; H. Cheng; R. L. Edwards; J.-P. Avouac; S. N. Ward (June 2006). "Source parameters of the great Sumatran megathrust earthquakes of 1797 and 1833 inferred from coral microatolls" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 111 (B06403): B06403. Bibcode:2006JGRB..11106403N. doi:10.1029/2005JB004025. 
  7. ^ A.J. Gooszen; A Demographic History of the Indonesian Archipelago, 1880-1942; KITLV Press, 1999
  8. ^ Telly Nathalia (30 September 2009). "Indonesian quake toll at 100-200: disaster agency". Reuters. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  9. ^ "Indonesia quake deaths pass 700". BBC. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  10. ^ B Kunto Wibisono (14 October 2009). "Number of fatalities in W Sumatra quake now 1,115". ANTARA News. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  11. ^ "Rute Baru Trans Padang Sejauh Total 33 Km Akan Dioperasikan 2015". Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  12. ^ PT Angkasapura II – Minangkabau Airport Facilities
  13. ^ Minangkabau Airport
  14. ^ PT Angkasapura II
  15. ^ "Teluk Bayur container terminal inaugurated". 30 April 2013. 
  16. ^ "Jasa Marga sets sights on 27-kilometer Padang toll road". 17 April 2012. 
  17. ^ http://www.diknas-padang.org Profil Sekolah.
  18. ^ http://www.padang.go.id Dinas Pendidikan.
  19. ^ nisn.jardiknas.org Data Siswa.
  20. ^ "Indonesia–Padang". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved 18 June 2015. 
  21. ^ "Station 96163: Mia Padang". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 18 June 2015. 
  22. ^ Warburton, Eve (January–March 2007). "No longer a choice" (89 ed.). Inside Indonesia. Retrieved 2017-06-20. 
  23. ^ Dragon Boat Races International
  24. ^ http://sumbar.antaranews.com Padang Old City Defined as Tourism Object
  25. ^ http://kotatuapadang.tumblr.com
  26. ^ "Gunung Pangilun Ditetapkan Jadi Shelter". 30 April 2012. 
  27. ^ a b "Wako: Kerjasama Padang-Perth-Dubai Saling Menguntungkan". 2015-09-15. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Station ID for Mia Padang is 96163 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

External links[edit]