Paddle steamer

A paddle steamer is a steamship or steamboat powered by a steam engine that drives paddle wheels to propel the craft through the water. In antiquity, paddle wheelers followed the development of poles and sails, where the first uses were wheelers driven by animals or humans. In the early 19th century, paddle wheels were the predominant way of propulsion for steam-powered boats. In the late 19th century, paddle propulsion was superseded by the screw propeller and other marine propulsion systems that have a higher efficiency in rough or open water. Paddle wheels continue to be used by small pedal-powered paddle boats and by some ships that operate tourist voyages; the latter are powered by diesel engines. The paddle wheel is a large steel framework wheel; the outer edge of the wheel is fitted with numerous, regularly-spaced paddle blades. The bottom quarter or so of the wheel travels underwater. An engine rotates the paddle wheel in the water to produce thrust, forward or backward as required. More advanced paddle wheel designs feature feathering methods that keep each paddle blade closer to vertical while in the water to increase efficiency.

The upper part of a paddle wheel is enclosed in a paddlebox to minimise splashing. There are two types of paddle wheel steamer, a sternwheeler with a single wheel on the rear, a sidewheeler with one on each side. Both were used as riverboats in the United States; some still operate for tourists, for example on the Mississippi River. Although the first sternwheelers were invented in Europe, they saw the most service in North America on the Mississippi River. Enterprise was built at Brownsville, Pennsylvania, in 1814 as an improvement over the less efficient side wheelers; the second sternwheeler built, Washington of 1816, had two decks and served as the prototype for all subsequent steamboats of the Mississippi, including those made famous in Mark Twain's book Life on the Mississippi. Sidewheelers are used as riverboats and as coastal craft. Though the side wheels and enclosing sponsons make them wider than sternwheelers, they may be more maneuverable, since they can sometimes move the paddles at different speeds, in opposite directions.

This extra maneuverability makes sidewheelers popular on the narrower, winding rivers of the Murray-Darling system in Australia, where a number still operate. European sidewheelers, such as PS Waverley, connect the wheels with solid drive shafts that limit maneuverability and give the craft a wide turning radius; some were built with paddle clutches that disengage one or both paddles so they can turn independently. However, wisdom gained from early experience with sidewheelers deemed that they be operated with clutches out, or as solid shaft vessels. Crews noticed that as ships approached the dock, passengers moved to the side of the ship ready to disembark; the shift in weight, added to independent movements of the paddles, could lead to imbalance and potential capsizing. Paddle tugs were operated with clutches in, as the lack of passengers aboard meant that independent paddle movement could be used safely and the added maneuverability exploited to the full. In a simple paddle wheel, where the paddles are fixed around the periphery, power is lost due to churning of the water as the paddles enter and leave the water surface.

Ideally, the paddles should remain vertical while under water. This ideal can be approximated by use of levers and linkages connected to a fixed eccentric; the eccentric is fixed forward of the main wheel centre. It is coupled to each paddle via a rod and lever; the geometry is designed such that the paddles are kept vertical for the short duration that they are in the water. The use of a paddle wheel in navigation appears for the first time in the mechanical treatise of the Roman engineer Vitruvius, where he describes multi-geared paddle wheels working as a ship odometer; the first mention of paddle wheels as a means of propulsion comes from the 4th–5th century military treatise De Rebus Bellicis, where the anonymous Roman author describes an ox-driven paddle-wheel warship: The Italian physician Guido da Vigevano, planning for a new crusade, made illustrations for a paddle boat, propelled by manually turned compound cranks. One of the drawings of the Anonymous Author of the Hussite Wars shows a boat with a pair of paddle-wheels at each end turned by men operating compound cranks.

The concept was improved by the Italian Roberto Valturio in 1463, who devised a boat with five sets, where the parallel cranks are all joined to a single power source by one connecting-rod, an idea adopted by his compatriot Francesco di Giorgio. In 1704, the French physicist Denis Papin constructed the first ship powered by his steam engine, mechanically linked to paddles; this made him the first to construct a steam-powered boat. He has poured the first steam cylinder of the world in the iron foundry Veckerhagen. In 1787 Patrick Miller of Dalswinton invented a double-hulled boat, propelled on the Firth of Forth by men working a capstan that drove paddles on each side. One of the firsts functioning steamships, Palmipède, the first paddle steamer, was built in France in 1774 by Marquis Claude de Jouffroy and his colleagues; the 13-metre steamer with rotating paddles sailed on the Doubs River in June and July 1776. In 1783 a new paddle steamer by de Jouffroy, Pyroscaphe steamed up the river Saône for fifteen minutes before the engine failed.

Bureaucracy and the French Revolution thwarted further progress by de Jouffroy. The next successful attempt at a paddle-driven steam ship was by the Scottish engineer William Symington, who suggested steam power to Patrick Mil

Chuchot Gongma

Chuchot Gongma is a village-group and the headquarter of Chusot block in the Leh district of Ladakh, India. It is located in the Leh tehsil; this village Chuchot is divided into three villages Yokma and Gongma. Chuchot village is the longest village of ladakh, it starts from Choglamsar and stretches up to Stakna by the bank of Indus river and this river is the source of water for irrigating fields. People here rear cattle and harvest fields; this village, located in ladakh, is 13 km South of Leh main town. This village is surrounded by chains of mountain range with the village itself being located on the bank of the famous Indus River. Farther away from the bank, the other side of the village has vast barren lands. Polo and archery are the most common sports; the village grows a large amount of wild seabuck thorn known for its therapeutic, anti-carsenic, anti-aging antibacterial, anti-inflammatory properties. According to the 2011 census of India, Chuchot Gongma has 368 households; the effective literacy rate is 79.75%

Imran Hasnee

Imran Hasnee is an actor who has worked in the Hollywood films A Mighty Heart and Slumdog Millionaire, played lead as well as character roles. In Bollywood he worked in Paan Singh Tomar as the elder brother of Irrfan Khan, named Matadeen Singh Tomar, directed by Tigmanshu Dhulia and produced by UTV Motion Pictures, he acted in D-Day, a Hindi feature film Directed by Nikhil Advani, Imran Hasnee played the character Saleem Pathan. He worked in the movie Jai Jawaan Jai Kisaan, a historical, based on Lal Bahadur Shastri. In this movie, he played the character of his teacher and mentor Shri Nishkameshwar Prasad Mishra, a freedom fighter, who taught Lal Bahadur the practical aspects of life, showing him the correct direction in life. Lal's life was influenced by his teacher, he has acted in the Hindi feature films: The Dirty Picture and Once Upon a Time in Mumbaai. Both films were produced by Balaji Telefilms, he has done Indian Television shows, the first show he did was directed by Ravi Rai, for Zee Tv, titled Kasshish.

His next serial was Risshton Ki Dor, directed by Gautam Adhikari. He played the main negative character called Sridhar in the Star TV serial Sapnon Se Bhare Naina, airing from 20 December 2010 – 3 February 2012. Official website Imran Hasnee on IMDb Dainik Bhaskar Media coverage on