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Paddy field

A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing semiaquatic crops, most notably rice and taro. It originates from the Neolithic rice-farming cultures of the Yangtze River basin in southern China, associated with pre-Austronesian and Hmong-Mien cultures, it was spread in prehistoric times by the Austronesian expansion to Island Southeast Asia, Melanesia and Polynesia. The technology was acquired by other cultures in mainland Asia for rice farming, spreading to East Asia, Mainland Southeast Asia, South Asia. Fields can be built into steep hillsides as terraces and adjacent to depressed or steeply sloped features such as rivers or marshes, they can require a great deal of labor and materials to create, need large quantities of water for irrigation. Oxen and water buffalo, adapted for life in wetlands, are important working animals used extensively in paddy field farming. Paddy-field farming remains the dominant form of growing rice in modern times, it is practiced extensively in Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, North Korea, the Philippines, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

It has been introduced elsewhere since the colonial era, notably in Northern Italy, the Camargue in France, in Spain in the Albufera de València wetlands in the Valencian Community, the Ebro Delta in Catalonia and the Guadalquivir wetlands in Andalusia, as well as along the eastern coast of Brazil, the Artibonite Valley in Haiti, Sacramento Valley in California, among other places. Paddy fields are a major source of atmospheric methane and have been estimated to contribute in the range of 50 to 100 million tonnes of the gas per annum. Studies have shown that this can be reduced while boosting crop yield by draining the paddies to allow the soil to aerate to interrupt methane production. Studies have shown the variability in assessment of methane emission using local and global factors and calling for better inventorisation based on micro level data. Paddy cultivation should not be confused with cultivation of deepwater rice, grown in flooded conditions with water more than 50 cm deep for at least a month.

The word "paddy" is derived from the Malay word padi, meaning "rice plant". It is derived with cognates including Amis panay. Genetic evidence shows that all forms of paddy rice, both indica and japonica, spring from a domestication of the wild rice Oryza rufipogon by cultures associated with pre-Austronesian and Hmong-Mien-speakers; this occurred around 13,500 to 8,200 years ago south of the Yangtze River in present-day China. There are two most centers of domestication for rice as well as the development of the wet-field technology; the first, most is in the lower Yangtze River, believed to be the homelands of the pre-Austronesians and also the Kra-Dai, associated with the Kauhuqiao, Majiabang, Songze and Maquiao cultures. The second is in the middle Yangtze River, believed to be the homelands of the early Hmong-Mien-speakers and associated with the Pengtoushan, Liulinxi, Daxi and Shijiahe cultures. Both of these regions were populated and had regular trade contacts with each other, as well as with early Austroasiatic speakers to the west, early Kra-Dai speakers to the south, facilitating the spread of rice cultivation throughout southern China.

The earliest paddy field found dates to 4330 BC, based on carbon dating of grains of rice and soil organic matter found at the Chaodun site in Kunshan County. At Caoxieshan, a site of the Neolithic Majiabang culture, archaeologists excavated paddy fields; some archaeologists claim that Caoxieshan may date to 4000–3000 BC. There is archaeological evidence that unhusked rice was stored for the military and for burial with the deceased from the Neolithic period to the Han Dynasty in China. By the late Neolithic, population in the rice cultivating centers had increased centered around the Qujialing-Shijiahe culture and the Liangzhu culture. There was evidence of intensive rice cultivation in paddy fields as well as sophisticated material cultures in these two regions; the number of settlements among the Yangtze cultures and their sizes increased, leading some archeologists to characterize them as true states, with advanced socio-political structures. However, it is unknown. Liangzhu and Shijiahe declined abruptly in the terminal Neolithic.

With Shijiahe shrinking in size, Liangzhu disappearing altogether. This is believed to be the result of the southward expansion of the early Sino-Tibetan Longshan culture. Fortifications like walls are common features in settlements during this period, indicating widespread conflict; this period coincides with the southward movement of rice-farming cultures to the Lingnan and Fujian regions, as well as the southward migrations of the Austronesian, Kra-Dai, Austroasiatic-speaking peoples to Mainland Southeast Asia and Island Southeast Asia. The spread of japonica rice cultivation and paddy field agriculture to Southeast Asia started with the migrations of the Austronesian Dapenkeng culture into Taiwan between 3500 to 2000 BC; the Nanguanli site in Taiwan, dated to ca. 2800 BC, has yielded numerous carbonized remains of both rice and millet in waterlogged conditions, indicating intensive wetland rice cultivation and dryland millet cultivation. From about 2000 to 1500 BC, the Austronesian expansion began, w

Karma (The Black Eyed Peas song)

"Karma" is the third and final single to be taken from the Black Eyed Peas' debut studio album, Behind the Front. The lyrics in the bridge are taken from Blondie's "One Way or Another"; the song features vocals from Einstein Brown. Kim Hill is featured in the music video; the video was filmed in 1998, but wasn't released until March 1999. In the music video, is in hospital. A doctor tells him all the doctors are unavailable, so he looks for another doctor. Will sees a man get off his wheelchair and strangle another patient, all the doctors and nurses try to get him off while is trying to get past, he knocks over a tray of pills. Kim Hill pushes out of the way to get to a patient. While is rapping his verse, is seen pushing a bed with a blue blanket over the body and Taboo is seen in a safety mask and a white scarf on his head. When the chorus starts again, is back to where he came from, the same thing happens again. When is back to where was started for the third time, he gets fed up, leaves.

We see everything happen for the third time, walks through another door and notices that he's stuck in the hospital. Taboo says to, "You can't run away". Einstein Brown is shown with a knife is seen singing "One Way or Another" with Taboo. Will falls on the floor and starts to crawl and the pills fall on him; the video ends. "Karma" - 4:27 "One Way" - 4:28 "Karma" - 3:16 "Karma" - 4:27 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Simons Center for Geometry and Physics

The Simons Center for Geometry and Physics is a center for theoretical physics and mathematics at Stony Brook University in New York. The focus of the center is the interface of geometry and physics, it was founded in 2007 by a gift from the Marilyn Simons Foundation. The Center's current director is physicist Luis Álvarez-Gaumé; the Center's permanent faculty consists of mathematicians Simon Donaldson and Kenji Fukaya, of physicists Nikita Nekrasov and Zohar Komargodski. The Center's academic staff includes 10 research assistant professors and 20 visiting researchers at any given time. Mathematician and former director John Morgan remains in residence, is expected to maintain a close long-term association with the Center. Other former faculty members include physicists Anton Kapustin; the Simons Center's building was completed in September, 2010. The building is adjacent to the physics and mathematics departments to allow for close collaboration with the mathematics department and the C. N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics.

The building offers 40,000 square feet of floor space, spread over six stories, includes a 236–seat auditorium, a 90–seat lecture hall, seminar rooms, a cafe. The building is LEED Gold certified, is connected to the Math Tower via an elevated walkway. James H. Simons was the chair of the mathematics department at Stony Brook from 1968 to 1976. After deciding to leave academia, he went on to make billions with his investment firm Renaissance Technologies. On February 27, 2008 he announced a donation totaling $60 million to the mathematics and physics departments; this was the largest single gift given to any of the SUNY schools. The gift came during Stony Brook's 50th anniversary and shortly after Gov. Spitzer announced his commitment to make Stony Brook a “flagship” of the SUNY system that would rival the nation’s most prestigious state research universities. During his announcement speech, Jim Simons said “From Archimedes to Newton to Einstein, much of the most profound work in physics has been intertwined with the geometric side of mathematics.

Since in particular with the advent of such areas as quantum field theory and string theory, developments in geometry and physics have become if anything more interrelated. The new Center will give many of the world's best mathematicians and physicists the opportunity to work and interact in an environment and an architecture designed to enhance progress. We believe there is a chance that work accomplished at the Center will change and deepen our understanding of the physical universe and of its basic mathematical structure.” The Center results from extensive thought and planning between faculty, department chairs, others, including Cumrun Vafa of Harvard, who directs the Simons Foundation-supported summer institutes on string theory at Stony Brook, Isadore Singer of MIT

Jean Juventin

Jean Juventin was a French politician. He was mayor of Papeete from 1977 to 1995, he was president of the Assembly of French Polynesia from 1988 to 1991 and again from 1992 to 1995 and a deputy of the National Assembly for French Polynesia's 1st constituency from 1978 to 1986 and 1993 to 1997. He was a member of the Rally for the Republic political party. A school teacher school director, Jean Juventin was a member of the autonomist party Here Ai'a created in 1965 by John Teariki to replace the dissolved Democratic Rally of the Tahitian People in 1963. In 1967 he was elected to the Council of Government by the Territorial Assembly, he was elected mayor of Papeete in the municipal elections of 13 March 1977, was re-elected on 6 March 1983 and 13 March 1989. In March 1978, he was elected to the French National Assembly, was re-elected in 1981, serving until 1986, he was elected to the National Assembly again in 1993, serving until 1997. He became president of Here Ai'a after the accidental death of John Teariki in 1983


Manambaro is a town and commune in Madagascar. It belongs to the district of Taolanaro, a part of Anosy Region, it is situated at 21 kilometers on Ihosy to Tolagnaro. The word "Manambaro" means "has a lot of varo". "Varo" is a large and tall tree, peculiar of the Anosy region and has been extincted or has disappeared now from charcoal makers. Few are noted in Analapatsy; the population of the commune was estimated to be 26,000 in 2001 commune census. The census of 2018 from the 12 "fokontany" or smallest divisions of communes gave the number of 42,047 inhabitants.. In addition to primary schooling, the town offers secondary education at both junior and senior levels; the town provides access to hospital services to its citizens. Fifty percent of the commune's population are farmers; the most important crop is rice. An additional 15% of Manambaro's population receives their livelihood from raising livestock and another 20% from fishing. Industry and services provide employment for 5% and 10% of the population, respectively.

A new slutter house for cows is under construction at 5 km from the village centre. It is called BOVIMA or "Bonne Vianne Malgache", it will make Manambaro famous again. Manambaro was famous before because of the Lutheran Hospital run by the American missionaries from the 1940s

1st Brahmans

The 1st Brahmans was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was raised at Oudh by Captain T Naylor in 1776 for service in the army of Nawab Wazir of Oudh, was known as the Nawab Wazir's Regiment, it was transferred to the East India Company in 1777. In 1922, it was designated as the 4th Battalion 1st Punjab Regiment; the regiment was disbanded in 1931. Over the years the regiment was known by a number of different designations: 1776 Nawab Wazir's Regiment 1777 30th Battalion of Bengal Sepoys 1781 23rd Regiment of Bengal Sepoys 1784 29th Regiment of Bengal Sepoys 1786 29th Bengal Sepoy Battalion 1796 2nd Battalion 9th Regiment of Bengal Native Infantry 1824 21st Regiment of Bengal Native Infantry 1861 1st Regiment of Bengal Native Infantry 1885 1st Regiment of Bengal Infantry 1901 1st Brahman Infantry 1903 1st Brahmans 1922 4th Battalion 1st Punjab Regiment While in the service of the East India Company the regiment was awarded battle honours for service in the Second Maratha War 1803-05, the Anglo-Nepalese War 1814-16, the Second Anglo-Burmese War 1824-26 and the Bhurtpore Campaign 1826.

The regiment was the senior-most among the twelve Bengal Native Infantry regiments that survived the Great Indian Rebellion of 1857-58. It was accordingly one of the small number of Bengal regular infantry regiments to retain the traditions of East India Company service in the new post-Mutiny army. Renumbered as the 1st of the Bengal line, it subsequently saw active service in the Third Anglo-Burmese War of 1885-87. Following the Kitchener reforms of the Indian Army, when the names of the presidencies were dropped, the regiment became the 1st Brahman Infantry in 1901. In 1914, the regimental centre of the 1st Brahmans was located at Allahabad and it was linked with the 3rd Brahmans; the regiment was recruited from United Provinces Brahmins, Garhwali Brahmins and some Punjabi Mussalmans. Full dress uniform of the sepoys included a high khaki turban with red fringe, a scarlet kurta with white facings, white waist-sash, dark blue trousers and white leggings; the regiment spent part of World War I in India before being posted to Aden under threat from Ottoman forces.

A second battalion raised in 1917 saw service in the Persian Gulf. After the war, a major reorganization was undertaken in the Indian Army and the various single-battalion infantry regiments were grouped together to form larger regiments of four to six battalions each; the 1st Brahmans became the 4th Battalion of the 1st Punjab Regiment in 1922. It was disbanded in 1931 due to retrenchment in the Indian Army. 1st Punjab Regiment Barthorp, Michael. Indian Infantry Regiments 1860–1914. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0-85045-307-0. Sumner, Ian; the Indian Army 1914–1947. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-196-6. Qureshi, Maj MI.. The First Punjabis: History of the First Punjab Regiment, 1759-1956. Aldershot: Gale & Polden