The veena, comprises a family of chordophone instruments of the Indian subcontinent. Ancient musical instruments evolved into many variations, such as lutes and arched harps; the many regional designs have different names such as the Rudra veena, the Saraswati veena, the Vichitra veena and others. The North Indian design, used in classical Hindustani music, is a stick zither. About 3.5 to 4 feet long to fit the measurements of the musician, it has a hollow body and two large resonating gourds under each end. It has four main strings which are melody type, three auxiliary drone strings. To play, the musician plucks the melody strings downward with a plectrum worn on the first and second fingers, while the drone strings are strummed with the little finger of the playing hand; the musician stops the resonating strings, when so desired, with the fingers of the free hand. In modern times the veena has been replaced with the sitar in north Indian performances; the South Indian veena design, used in classical Carnatic music, is a lute.
It is a long-necked, pear-shaped lute, but instead of the lower gourd of the north Indian design it has a pear shaped wooden piece. It too, has 24 frets, four melody strings, three drone strings, played quite similar, it remains an popular string instrument in classical Carnatic music. As a fretted, plucked lute, the veena strings can produce pitches in full three octave range; the long hollow neck design of these Indian instruments allow portamento effects and legato ornaments found in Indian ragas. It has been a popular instrument in Indian classical music, one revered in the Indian culture by its inclusion in the iconography of Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of arts and learning; these continue to be used, albeit with different designs, in Carnatic classical music and Hindustani classical music. The Sanskrit word veena in ancient and medieval Indian literature is a generic term for plucked string musical instruments. Veena is mentioned in the Rigveda and other Vedic literature such as the Shatapatha Brahmana and Taittiriya Samhita.
In the ancient texts, Narada is credited with inventing the veena, is described as a seven string instrument with frets. According to Suneera Kasliwal, a professor of Music, in the ancient texts such as the Rigveda and Atharvaveda, as well as the Upanishads, a string musical instrument is called Vana, a term that evolved to become Veena; the early Sanskrit texts call any stringed instrument as Vana, these include bowed, one string, many strings, non-fretted, lute or harp lyre style string instrument. The Natya Shastra by Bharata Muni, the oldest surviving ancient Hindu text on classical music and performance arts, discusses Veena; this Sanskrit text complete between 200 BCE and 200 CE, begins its discussion by stating that "the human throat is a sareer veena, or a body's musical string instrument" when it is perfected, that the source of gandharva music is such a throat, a string instrument and flute. The same metaphor of human voice organ being a form of veena, is found in more ancient texts of Hinduism, such as in verse 3.2.5 of the Aitareya Aranyaka, verse 8.9 of the Shankhayana Aranyaka and others.
The ancient epic Mahabharata describes sage Narada as a Vedic sage famed as a "vina player". The Natya Shastra describes a seven string instrument and other string instruments in thirty five verses, explains how the instrument should be played; the technique of performance suggests that the veena in Bharata Muni's time was quite different than the zither or the lute that became popular after Natya Shastra was complete. The ancient veena, according to other scholars, was closer to a harp; the earliest lute and zither style veena playing musicians are evidenced in Hindu and Buddhist cave temple reliefs in the early centuries of the common era. Indian sculptures from the mid 1st millennium CE depict musicians playing string instruments. By about the 6th century CE, the goddess Saraswati sculptures are predominantly with veena of the zither-style, similar to modern styles; the Tamil word of veena is yaaḻ. It is in the list of Musical instruments used by Tamil people in Tirumurai dated 6th to 11th century.
A person who plays a veena is called a vainika. One of the early veenas used in India from early times, until the Gupta period was an instrument of the harp type and more of the arched harp, it was played with the strings being kept parallel to the body of the player, with both hands plucking the strings, as shown on Samudragupta's gold coins. At a first glance, the difference between the North and South Indian design is the presence of two resonant gourds in North, while in South instead of the lower gourd there is a pear shaped wooden body attached. However, there are other differences, many similarities. Modern designs other materials instead of hollowed jackwood and gourds; the construction is personalized to the musician's body proportions so that she can hold and play it comfortably. It ranges from about 3.5 to 4 feet. The body is hollow. Both designs have three drone strings and twenty four frets; the instrument's end is tastefully shaped such as a swan and the external surfaces colorfully decorated with traditional Indian designs.
The melody strings are tuned in c' g c G, from which sarani is used. The drone strings are tuned in c" g' c'; the drones are used to create rhythmic tanams of Indian classical music and to express harm
Yaadon Ki Baaraat
Yaadon Ki Baaraat is a 1973 Indian Bollywood film, directed by Nasir Hussain and written by Salim-Javed. It featured an ensemble cast, starring Dharmendra, Zeenat Aman, Tariq Khan, Neetu Singh, Vijay Arora, Ajit Khan and Aamir Khan; the film was influential in the history of Indian cinema. It was the first masala film, combining elements of the action, romance, musical and thriller genres; the masala went on to become the most popular genre of Indian cinema, Yaadon Ki Baaraat has thus been identified as "the first" quintessentially "Bollywood film." It launched the careers of several actors, as the commercial breakthrough Hindi film for Zeenat Aman and Neetu Singh, who became leading actresses of the 1970s, as the debut film for Nasir Hussain's nephews Tariq Khan and Aamir Khan, the latter a child actor who grew up to be one of the biggest movie stars as an adult. It is still remembered fondly for its Hindi soundtrack, composed by music director R. D. Burman; the track "Chura Liya Hai", sung by Mohammed Rafi and Asha Bhosle, is well-known.
The film was remade in Tamil as Naalai Namadhe, in Telugu as Annadammula Anubandham, in Malayalam as Himam. The film popularized the now familiar Bollywood theme of siblings separated by fate. Gangland killers assassinate an honest man; the couple's three sons lose contact with each other. They grow up in different circumstances and are re-united only when one of the sons, sings the song that their mother taught them at their father's birthday at the hotel. Shankar and Ratan are three brothers. On their father's birthday, their mother taught them a song titled Yaadon Ki Baaraat which they held dearly to their hearts; as fate may have it, one day, the boys' father witnessed a robbery by his henchmen. To protect their identity, Shakaal decided to kill the boys' father before he could go to the police. So one night, he and his men storm into the boys' father's room and kill both their mother and father. Shankar and Vijay flee, they make their way to a passing train. Several years pass by and the boys have grown up.
Shankar is haunted by the memory of his parents' murder and is now joined by his friend Usman on a crime spree around the city. Vijay was adopted by the groundskeeper to a wealthy man, he falls in love with the rich man's daughter Sunita, Ratan, was raised by the boys' maid, changed his name to Monto. With his new identity, Monto started a band and does gigs at hotels for a living and is in love with a co-singer; the brothers do not recognize each other. However, when they do, they cannot contact each other. Shankar gets caught by his boss, the real murderer of his parents; as the movie progresses, Shankar finds out the truth and leaves Shakal to die, while his foot gets caught in the changing lines of railway tracks. Shaakal is killed by the brothers unite. Nasir Hussain's nephew Aamir Khan who went on to become one of the successful actors in Bollywood made his acting debut as child artist at the age of eight with this film appearing in the title song; the music and soundtrack of the film was with lyrics by Majrooh Sultanpuri.
The opening lines of the hit song, Chura Liya Hai Tumne have slight resemblances to the English song, If It's Tuesday, This Must Be Belgium from the soundtrack of the 1969 film of the same name. Apart from the title song, the other best remembered numbers are "Lekar Hum Deewana Dil" and "Meri Soni Meri Tamanna". Track listing The film became, it was one of 1973's top five highest-grossing films in India, grossing ₹5.5 crore. This was equivalent to $7.1 million in 1973, is equivalent to US$40 million or ₹255 crore in 2016. 21st Filmfare AwardsBest Actor – Dharmendra – Nominated Best Music Director – R. D. Burman – Nominated Yaadon Ki Baaraat on IMDb
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Shakti Kapoor is an Indian actor who appears in Bollywood films. Known for his villainous and comic roles in Hindi films, he has featured in more than 700 films throughout his career. In the 1980s and 1990s, Kapoor teamed up with actor Kader Khan as the comical or evil duo in over 100 films, he was a contestant in the Indian reality show Bigg Boss in 2011. Shakti Kapoor was born in India to a Punjabi family, his father ran a tailor shop in New Delhi. After a long struggle, Shakti Kapoor was spotted by Sunil Dutt whilst he was making "Rocky" to launch his son Sanjay, he was cast as the antagonist in the movie. But Sunil Dutt felt that his name "Sunil Sikanderlal Kapoor" wouldn't do justice to his villainous stint and hence, "Shakti Kapoor" was born. Shakti Kapoor's portrayal of RD earned him made him a name to be sought out for. Shakti Kapoor is married to Shivangi Kolhapure and has two children, a son Siddhanth Kapoor and a daughter Shraddha Kapoor, he resides in Mumbai. As a struggler in Bollywood Shakti Kapoor did many inconsequential roles in movies, all the while looking out for a suitable role as a leading man.
The years 1980–81 established Shakti Kapoor as an actor in Bollywood with two of his movies Qurbani and Rocky. In 1983, Kapoor had roles in Himmatwala and the Subhash Ghai directed movie Hero. Kapoor had played villain roles in both these movies. In the nineties, he diversified to positive comic roles and performed them with equal finesse, he has been nominated for the Filmfare Award in the Best Comedian category and won once, for his performance as Nandu in David Dhawan's film, Raja Babu. Some of his comic roles have been as Inspector Bhinde in Insaaf, Prasad in Baap Numbri Beta Dus Numbri, Crime Master Gogo in Andaz Apna Apna, Tohfa, as Batuknath in ChaalBaaz and as Goonga in Bol Radha Bol. Kapoor has been a reference for mimicry artistes who emulate his style and dialogues such as "Aaaooo Lolita" from the movie Tohfa, "Main Nanha sa Chotta sa Bachcha Hoon" from the movie Chaalbaaz and "Nandu sabka bandhu, samajhta nahi hai yaar" from the movie Raja Babu. Since 2000, Kapoor is a regular fixture in Priyadarshan films like Hungama, Chup Chup Ke, Malamaal Weekly and the Malayalam remake Bhagam Bhag.
He acted in a few Bengali films of Kolkata, Odia film and in an Assamese feature film. In 2011, he was in the reality television show Bigg Boss 5 as one of the contestants, he has appeared in the musical comedy Aasman Se Gire Khajoor Pe Atke with his sister-in-law Padmini Kolhapure. He is the brand ambassador of Servokon, he appeared in the Punjabi movie Marriage Da Garriage Shakti Kapoor was seen as a contestant in the popular controversial Indian reality show Bigg Boss, season 5. He was the captain of the house for the first two weeks but got eliminated in the fourth week of the show. In March 2005, India TV released a video showing Shakti Kapoor asking for sexual favour from an undercover reporter posing as an aspiring actress, in return for entry into the film industry. Where he told the undercover reporter "I want to make love to you....kiss you" According to India TV, this was a sting operation to expose the phenomenon of casting couch prevalent in Bollywood. This incident sparked a controversy in Bollywood and Kapoor was banned by the Film & Television Producers Guild of India.
Association of Indian Motion Pictures and TV Programme Producers decided not to ban him as no allegations against him were proved. One week however, the Film & Television Producers Guild lifted the ban. Kapoor claimed that he has been framed, he said that the undercover reporter met him several times and threatened to commit suicide if he did not come to the hotel room she had booked. 1984: Nominated: Filmfare Best Comedian Award – Mawaali 1985: Nominated: Filmfare Best Comedian Award –Tohfa 1995: Filmfare Best Comedian Award – Raja Babu 1995: Nominated: Filmfare Best Comedian Award – Andaz Apna Apna 1997: Nominated: Filmfare Best Comedian Award – Loafer 1998: Nominated: Filmfare Best Comedian Award – Judwaa List of Bollywood villains Shakti Kapoor on IMDb
Anil Kapoor is an Indian actor and producer who has appeared in over hundred Hindi-language films, as well as international films and television series. His career has spanned 40 years as an actor, as a producer since 2005, he has won numerous awards in his career, including two National Film Awards and six Filmfare Awards in varied acting categories. Kapoor was born in Mumbai to film producer Surinder Kapoor and appeared in his first film with a small role in the Umesh Mehra's romance Hamare Tumhare, he made his first debut film and starred as a lead actor in the 1980 Telugu film, Vamsa Vruksham directed by Bapu. He made his Kannada film debut with Mani Ratnam's Pallavi Anu Pallavi, he received his first Filmfare Award, in the Best Supporting Actor category, for his role in Yash Chopra's Mashaal. Kapoor earned his first Filmfare Best Actor Award for his performance in N. Chandra's Tezaab and another for his performance in Indra Kumar's Beta. Kapoor subsequently starred in many other critically and commercially successful films, including Meri Jung, Janbaaz, Aap Ke Saath, Mr. India, Ghar Ho To Aisa, Benaam Badsha, Virasat, for which he won the Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor.
Kapoor has starred in more than a hundred films. Kapoor's first role in an international film was in Danny Boyle's Academy Award-winning film Slumdog Millionaire, for which he shared the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture, his performance in the eighth season of the action series 24 generated rave reviews from the American press. Globally, Kapoor is one of the most recognized Indian film actors. Kapoor was born into a Punjabi family on 24 December 1956 in Chembur, India to Nirmal Kapoor and film producer Surinder Kapoor, he is the second of four children. His elder brother Boney Kapoor is a film producer and younger brother Sanjay Kapoor is an actor; the late actress Sridevi and the producer Mona Shourie Kapoor were his sisters-in-law, Sandeep Marwah, founder of the Noida Film City and owner of Marwah Studios, is his brother-in-law. The film actors Arjun Kapoor and Mohit Marwah, educationalist Akshay Marwah, Jahaan Kapoor are his nephews, while Anshula Kapoor, Janhvi Kapoor, Khushi Kapoor, & Shanaya Kapoor are his nieces.
Kapoor did his studies in St. Xavier's College. In 1984, Kapoor married Sunita Bhavnani, a costume designer with whom he has two daughters and a son, their elder daughter Sonam Kapoor is an actress and their younger daughter Rhea Kapoor is a film producer and their son Harshvardhan Kapoor is an actor. Anil Kapoor is referred as ‘AK’ by his children. Kapoor made his debut in films as a 12-year-old in 1971, playing the role of a young Shashi Kapoor in Tu Payal Mein Geet; the film, did not release theatrically. Anil Kapoor made his Hindi films debut with Umesh Mehra's Hamasre Tumhare in a small role, he starred as a lead actor in the 1980 Telugu film, Vamsa Vruksham directed by veteran Bapu. In the same year, he appeared in 2 more Hindi movies - Ek Baar Kaho and Hum Paanch. In 1981, he appeared in M. S. Sathyu's Kahan Kahan Se Guzar Gaya. After playing a small role in Shakti, he made his Kannada film debut with Mani Ratnam's Pallavi Anu Pallavi, he played his first Hindi film leading role in Woh Saat Din, directed by Bapu and featured Padmini Kolhapure and Naseeruddin Shah..
He gained recognition in Bollywood with Yash Chopra's drama Mashaal as a Tapori, for which he won his first Filmfare Award in the Best Supporting Actor category. His Tapori persona and stubble look was considered unconventional at the time, but would become fashionable in India many years later. Kapoor's 1985 releases included Saaheb. Yudh featured him uttering his iconic line "Ek Dum Jhakaas", but it was Meri Jung, wherein he played the role of an angry young lawyer fighting for justice that gave him his first Filmfare best actor nomination. So all of Anil's films in 1985 were noticed and liked and he had arrived in the industry. Anil Kapoor played a comic Tapori again in Karma, the biggest hit of the year. In 1986, Kapoor played the role of a carefree playboy in the hit Janbaaz, co-starring Feroz Khan. Kapoor's other release of 1986 Insaaf Ki Awaaz with Rekha was a box office hit. In the same year Basu Chatterjee directed Chameli Ki Shaadi and he displayed his crackling flare in comedy. Anil Kapoor had the biggest hit of the year.
The film shot him to superstar status. Anil Kapoor was impressive in the Mahesh Bhatt directed film Thikana. In 1988 he was rewarded with his first Filmfare Best Actor Award for his performance in the film, the biggest blockbuster of 1988. Anil proved to be the only saving grace in flops like Ram-Avtar and " Vijay"; the following year he delivered Ram Lakhan with the song One Two Ka Four. In the film Parinda, Kapoor played his role with conviction and his biggest achievement was displaying the vulnerability of his character so perfectly. In Rakhwala, Kapoor again played the role of a Tapori, the film was declared a success. Kapoor excelled in his portrayal of an autistic person in the 1989 film and this film proved