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Paektu Mountain

Paektu Mountain known as Baekdu Mountain, in China as Changbai Mountain, is an active stratovolcano on the Chinese–North Korean border. At 2,744 m, it is the highest mountain of the Baekdudaegan ranges. Koreans assign a mythical quality to the volcano and its caldera lake, considering it to be their country's spiritual home, it is the highest mountain in North Korea, the Korean Peninsula, Northeast China. A large crater lake, called Heaven Lake, is in the caldera atop the mountain; the caldera was formed by the VEI 7 "Millennium" or "Tianchi" eruption of 946, which erupted about 100–120 km3 of tephra. This was one of the most violent eruptions in the last 5,000 years; the mountain plays an important mythological and cultural role in the societies and civil religions of both contemporary Korean states, for instance, it is mentioned in both of their national anthems and is depicted on the national emblem of North Korea. The modern Korean name of the mountain, "Paektusan" or "Baekdusan", was first recorded in the 13th century historical record Goryeosa.

It means white-head mountain. In other records from the same period, the mountain was called "Taebaeksan", which means great-white mountain; the modern name of the mountain in Chinese, "Chángbáishān" comes from modern Manchu name of the mountain, "Golmin Šanggiyan Alin". It means white mountain, and another Chinese name "Báitóushān" is the transliteration of Paektu Mountain. The Mongolian name is "Ondor Tsagaan Aula". In English, various authors have used nonstandard transliterations. Mount Paektu is a stratovolcano whose cone is truncated by a large caldera, about 5 km wide and 850 meters deep filled by the waters of Heaven Lake; the lake has a circumference of 12 to 14 kilometers, with an average depth of 213 meters and maximum depth of 384 meters. From mid-October to mid-June, the lake is covered with ice. In 2011, experts in North and South Korea met to discuss the potential for a significant eruption in the near future, as the volcano explodes to life every 100 years or so, the last time in 1903.

The geological forces forming Mount Paektu remain a mystery. Two leading theories are first a hot spot formation and second an uncharted portion of the Pacific Plate sinking beneath Mount Paektu; the central section of the mountain rises about 3 mm per year due to rising levels of magma below the central part of the mountain. Sixteen peaks exceeding 2,500 m line the caldera rim surrounding Heaven Lake; the highest peak, called Janggun Peak, is covered in snow about eight months of the year. The slope is gentle until about 1,800 m. Water flows north out of the lake, near the outlet there is a 70-meter waterfall; the mountain is the source of the Songhua and Yalu rivers. The Tumen and the Yalu form the northern border between Russia and China; the weather on the mountain can be erratic, sometimes severe. The annual average temperature at the peak is −4.9 °C. During summer, temperatures of about 18 °C or higher can be reached, during winter temperatures can drop to −48 °C; the lowest record temperature was −51 °C on 2 January 1997.

The average temperature is about −24 °C in January, 10 °C in July, remaining below freezing for eight months of the year. The average wind speed is 42 km/h, peaking at 63 km/h; the relative humidity averages 74%. The mountain's caldera was created in 946 by the colossal "Millennium" or "Tianchi" eruption, one of the most violent eruptions in the last 5,000 years, comparable to the 180 AD eruption of Lake Taupo and the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora; the eruption, whose tephra has been found in the southern part of Hokkaidō, as far away as Greenland, destroyed much of the volcano's summit, leaving a caldera that today is filled by Heaven Lake. According to the Book of Koryo History, "thunders from the heaven drum" were heard in the city of Kaesong, again in the capital of ancient Korea about 450 km south of the volcano, which terrified the emperor so much that convicts were pardoned and set free. According to the book of Heungboksa Temple History, on 3 November of the same year, in the city of Nara, about 1,100 km southeast from the mountain, an event of "white ash rain" was recorded.

Three months on 7 February 947, "drum thunders" were heard in the city of Kyoto, about 1,000 km southeast of Paektu. The age of the Tianwenfeng eruption is not clear, but the carbonized wood in Heifengkou's lag breccia has been dated at around 4105 ± 90 BP; this eruption formed large areas covered in yellow pumice and ignimbrite and released about 23.14 million tonnes of SO2 into the stratosphere. The bulk volume of the ejecta is at least 100 km3, making the Tianwenfeng eruption of VEI 7; the Tianwenfeng eruption has been recorded in Manchurian myths. Manchus described the mountain as "Fire Dragon", "Fire Demon" or "Heavenly Fire". After these major eruptions, Mount Paektu had at least three smaller eruptions, which occurred in 1668, 1702, 1903 forming the Baguamiao ignimbrite, the Wuhaojie fine pumice, the Liuhaojie tuff ring. In 2011, the Government of North Korea invited volcanologists James Hammond of Imperial College and Clive Oppenheimer of

Sladun Peninsula

Sladun Peninsula is the predominantly ice-covered 4.58 km wide peninsula projecting from Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula 5.2 km into Gerlache Strait south of Cierva Cove and north of Duarte Cove. It ends in Sucia Point to the west; the feature is named after the settlement of Sladun in Southern Bulgaria. Sladun Peninsula is centred at 64°11′00″S 60°54′10″W. British mapping in 1978. British Antarctic Territory. Scale 1:200000 topographic map. DOS 610 Series, Sheet W 64 60. Directorate of Overseas Surveys, UK, 1978. Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 upgraded and updated. Sladun Peninsula. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer. Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission. Rozhen Peninsula. Copernix satellite imageThis article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, used with permission


PCon.planner is a space planning, graphical product configuration, quotation creation and communication solution for interior designers, furniture manufacturers and facility managers. The application is developed by EasternGraphics GmbH in Ilmenau. There is a free of charge version, without configuration capabilities as well as cost based versions. In 1998 the IBA the German association for office and work environment commissioned EasternGraphics to develop OFML data specification; the goal was to design a consistent description format for complex products that are characterized by a high number of properties. It was during that time. PCon.planner was the first application to be able to process OFML data. In the following years pCon.planner 4 and 5 were developed. In 2008, parallel to the work for pCon.planner 5, the company started with the total re-implementation of the planning system using new technology and incorporating the feedback of customers gathered during years. In October 2008, the first beta version of pCon.planner 6 was introduced to the customers at the Orgatec fair in Cologne, Germany.

A few weeks EasternGraphics offered pCon.planner 6.0 as freeware on the Internet. In October 2014 pCon.planner 7 was introduced, again to the visitors of the Orgatec fair in Cologne. With this release major changes were made to the user interface, implementing a user-focused way of designing. Additionally, the free version of the 3d room planner was strengthened by enriching it with features from the paid versions. Orgatec in October 2018 was used to introduce pCon.planner 8. This is the first version of the interior design software to use physically based rendering and with it a new material model, which, as of fall 2018, is "used in all new pCon applications." The new material model and render method make for more relastic looking objects. A long-awaited batch rendering feature was introduced to the PRO version. Since 2008 more than 2.7 Million copies of pCon.planner have been downloaded. PCon.planner is a process-oriented application for interior design. Users can draw rooms and fill them with 3D objects and materials which they can directly download from online catalogs.

In addition, the application offers various possibilities for showcasing designs and scenes, such as the creation of images, panoramas or films in a photo-realistic quality. PCon.planner is a characteristic-based product configurator, presents the user with several discrete variables that are used to define the final design or plan. The following specifications apply to the free version of pCon.planner as well as the one to be paid for, unless stated otherwise: DWG as native file format High performance for complex projects Drawing of spaces and single walls Room elements Layer manipulation Direct access to a 3D online catalog Integration of Trimble 3D Warehouse and conversion to DWG Support for different light types Creation of animations, Multi Content Pictures and 360° Panoramic Images Integration of YafaRay for rendering pictures and videos Integration of OSPRay for rendering pictures Creation of individual Render Styles Creation of HDR images Upload of plannings to the Web and showcasing them Import/export of various geometry and image file formats Processing of OFML data and creation of article list Creation and processing of OFML commercial articles Advanced print layout tool Dimension styles Batch Rendering IFC Export and Import and more pCon.planner supports the import and export of several file formats:3D model export: DWG, DXF, DWT, 3DS, DAE, SKP, OBJ, FBX2D/3D model import: DWG, DXF, DWT, SAT, SAB, 3DS, SKP, FML, ENV, OGRP2D raster files import/export: JPEG, TIFF, PNG, GIF, JPG In addition to the free version of pCon.planner there are two others with further functionality.

The pCon.planner ME and PRO both contain extra features needed in field of space and interior planning like the processing of commercial and geometric data. Additionally, the PRO version contains other advanced functions for layouting. "The 3D Interior Design Software for Experts". PCon.planner. 2016-07-13. Retrieved 2016-07-17.> "3d design software - interior ideas - DWG - 3d interior - 3d models". Retrieved 2016-07-17. "3D product configuration – interior design software – 3D models". 2016-07-13. Retrieved 2016-07-17. "3d design software - interior ideas - DWG - 3d interior - 3d models". Retrieved 2016-07-17. "Orgatec". Retrieved 2016-07-17. "Home". Retrieved 2016-07-17

Hjalte Froholdt

Hjalte Froholdt is a Danish professional American football guard for the New England Patriots of the National Football League. He was drafted by the Patriots in the fourth round of the 2019 NFL Draft, he began playing football in his native Denmark for the Svendborg Admirals. After spending his sophomore year as an exchange student at a high school in Warren, Ohio, he returned to Denmark and played for the Søllerød Gold Diggers during his junior year, he attended IMG Academy in Bradenton, his senior year before signing to play with the University of Arkansas. Froholdt was recruited to Arkansas by then–head coach Bret Bielema, who in 2019 was a defensive consultant for the New England Patriots. In 2015, Froholdt played as a defensive lineman for the Razorbacks before switching to the offensive line in 2016, he played 13 games at left guard in 2016 and another 12 in 2017, not allowing a sack in 2017. He played three games at center in 2018 before moving back to left guard. In 2019, Froholdt worked Super Bowl LIII as a broadcaster for the Danish media.

Froholdt was drafted by the New England Patriots in the fourth round of the 2019 NFL Draft. He is only the second native of Denmark to be drafted by an NFL team. On August 31, 2019, he was placed on injured reserve as a result of a shoulder injury he sustained in Week 4 of preseason against the New York Giants

Cooks River Sewage Aqueduct

The Cooks River Sewage Aqueduct is a heritage-listed sewage aqueduct located at Pine Street, New South Wales, Australia. It crosses the Cooks River to Marrickville, it was designed by Sewerage Construction Branch and NSW Department of Public Works and built during 1895 by J. F. Carson, contractor; the property is owned by an agency of the Government of New South Wales. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 18 November 1999; the Cooks River sewage aqueduct was completed in 1895. The aqueduct was constructed as the Main Western Carrier part of the Southern and Western Suburbs Ocean Outfall Sewer System; the aqueduct was designed and built by the Sewerage Branch of the NSW Public Works Department, the design work being completed by 1893. The engineer-in-chief of this department at the time was Robert Hickson, a Water Board member; the Main Western Carrier was designed to serve the western suburbs of Sydney. The line extended from the Rockdale end of the Arncliffe sewerage farm to the sewer penstock at Premier Street, Marrickville.

The contract necessitated the construction of aqueducts over the Cooks River, Wolli Creek and at Arncliffe between Rocky Point Road and Illawarra Road and extensive tunnelling. The work was undertaken in two contracts relating to the different construction types; the contract for the aqueducts was let to J. F. Carson; the original design of the aqueduct provided for a triplicate 1.8-metre diameter wrought iron sewer carrier supported on 170 metres of segmental 17 brick arches of 9.8-metre span, two 24-metre by 7.6-metre steel lattice girder bridge spans, 24 metres of a series of mass concrete arches within embankment. The total length of the aqueduct is 220 metres; the bridge spans are of mild steel riveted construction, the sewer carrier pipes being carried on cross beams on two simple lattice girders, with a series of small cross lattice girders for wind bracing. The bridge spans are supported on two metal circular piers; the piers of the brick arches are constructed from mass concrete, faced in decorative brick and seated on mass concrete foundations founded on a raft of timber piles.

The arches are a combination of mass concrete construction. The two original sewer carrier pipes were riveted. Expansion joints of 1.8-metre sections were installed at the junction of the brick arches and the steel lattice bridge and above the ninth arch south of the bridge. The third sewer pipe of welded mild steel was laid in 1929; the original pipes have been maintained over the years to the present, with selective replacement of defective sections. The Cooks River is one of six sewage aqueducts in Sydney completed in the period 1895-1901. Others include the reinforced concrete Monier arches at Whites Creek and Johnstons Creek, the mass concrete/brick arches and iron pipe at Wolli Creek, the Mosman Bay steel arch, the stone/concrete and steel pipe at Lewisham; the aqueduct comprises the sewer carrier of three 1.8-metre diameter wrought iron and steel pipes supported on a series of brick arches, steel bridges. The brick arches are decorative, being white glazed face bricks laid in English bond with decorative motifs picked out in red coloured brick.

The springing points of the arch and cornice are constructed of dressed sandstone. The sewer carrier emerges from the brick faced northern abutment below Thornley Street, Marrickville crossing the river by the steel trusses and continuing further across the river and Wanstead Reserve by brick arches to embankment at the end of Wanstead Avenue, Undercliffe; the northern most terrestrial arch is used as a public path. The original contract drawings indicate that the original river crossing entailed only the two 24-metre steel bridges, today it requires 2 1/2 spans of the brick arches; the aqueduct is a major built item in the Cooks River valley basin. The barrels were overhauled between 1981 and 1984, the surface of the cast iron pipes was coated with a modern fibre-glass lining; the steelwork on the two bridge spans has been replaced. Fencing at either end of the carrier to prevent trespass; as at 21 April 2005, the Cooks River Valley sewage aqueduct, completed in 1895, was an integral and visible component of the original Main Western Carrier, one the Board's major early sewerage schemes.

The aqueduct being a combination of brick arches and steel bridges is an excellent and rare example of a late-nineteenth steel truss bridge, decorative face brick work in NSW. The two original sewer carriers are to be rare examples of large diameter, long run wrought iron pipes used for such a purpose. Elements of significance are past and ongoing use, construction technologies and setting with the Cooks River valley. Cooks River Sewage Aqueduct was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 18 November 1999 having satisfied the following criteria; the place is important in demonstrating the course, or pattern, of cultural or natural history in New South Wales. The Cooks River sewage aqueduct, completed in 1895, is an integral and visible component of the Main Western Carrier which subsequently evolved into the Southern and Western Suburbs Ocean Outfall Sewer System; this sewer was one of the Board's earliest major sewer schemes, was designed under engineer-in-chief Robert Hickson, a foundation boar


Neurohacking is the colloquial term for neuroengineering. It is a form of biohacking focusing on the brain and CNS. Speaking it is any method of manipulating or interfering with the structure and/or function of neurons for improvement or repair; the main goal of neurohacking is optimal mental health. Other goals include damage repair, simulated reality, prevention of disease and augmentation of abilities or of intelligence overall, it utilises information and technology from the fields of epigenetics, bio/neurofeedback, psychopharmacology, biological psychology and functional analysis, but many practitioners employ physical exercise, nutritional guidelines, vitamins & supplements, meditation and/or self-hypnosis. Some avoid all neuroactive substances including caffeine, food additives and fast-release sugars. Current research focus on the nature and development of intelligence and how to increase or improve it; the works of Dr. Herman Epstein, Joseph LeDoux, Alex Ramonsky, Frederick Starr/Sean and David Barker are influential.

The ethical basis of Neurohacking for health is that it should be practiced with informed consent. There are numerous examples of the use of neural implants for therapy, however the only experiments involving hacking into the nervous system for enhancement appear to be those conducted by Kevin Warwick. In a series of experiments at the University of Reading, Warwick became the first human recipient of a BrainGate electrode array implant on 14 March 2002, into the median nerve of his left arm. With this in place he was able to control a robot arm to copy his own hand movements. Warwick's nervous system was connected with the internet in Columbia University, New York to enable him to control the robot arm in the University of Reading receiving feedback from sensors in the finger tips. A simpler array was implanted into the arm of Warwick's wife. With this in place they were able to achieve the first direct electronic communication between the nervous systems of two humans; the term neurohacking is used for a method of attempting to retrieve information from the brain without consent.

The concept has been used much in science fiction. In data retrieval, some sort of brain–computer interface is used, where the brains neuron synapses are somehow captured or recorded to be processed for information. Promoters of this concept refer to the MRI or MEG to support the plausibility of this concept. Although some sort of neuroimaging could someday be used, the accuracy of any present day method is not nearly close enough. For instance, it is assumed that neurohacking requires detection of the state of individual neurons while the resolution of the MEG is several thousand neurons and other imaging systems may be larger, it is estimated. Caffeine, modafinil, over the counter medicine, other drugs are all forms of neurohacking; every one of these substances "tricks" the brain into desirable conditions. When ingesting caffeine, the brain is fooled into thinking the body has energy and keeps the consumer awake; the brain's neurons produce adenosine as a byproduct, monitored by the nervous system.

Once the level of adenosine is at a certain point, the body will feel tired. Caffeine acts as fake adenosine and binds to the body's receptors. However, instead of disappearing, it blocks the adenosine receptors so the brain's stimulants and glutamate, can work more freely. Since neurohacking is the interference with the structure and function of neurons, caffeine consumption is in fact a neurohack. Other substances that affect the brain and functions of neurons are neurohacks. Alcohol is an example for a form of neurohacking which affects multiple neurotransmitters instead of just one; this is. Since lipids are a major component of cell membranes, alcohol is able to enter the membranes of neurons and change their properties. Alcohol inhibits the glutamate receptor function, enhances GABA receptor function, as well as raises dopamine and endorphin levels; this causes all sorts including liveliness and excitement. Alcohol causes one to lose their anxieties, because of the effect of alcohol on GABA receptors.

After alcohol affects the system, it causes the body to go through what is called neurotransmitter rebound. This is because when alcohol takes effect, it overuses the GABA system, so when it wears off, the GABA system makes the body feel restless, resulting in withdrawal symptoms that can be severe. Biohacking Psychonautics Wetware Neuroenhancement The Neurohackers Association I've Changed My Mind by Alex Ramonsky Cyberware Technology by Taryn East Wetware Technology Life Hacker