Glen Canyon National Recreation Area
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area is a recreation and conservation unit of the National Park Service that encompasses the area around Lake Powell and lower Cataract Canyon in Utah and Arizona, covering 1,254,429 acres of desert. The recreation area borders Capitol Reef National Park and Canyonlands National Park on the north, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument on the west, Vermilion Cliffs National Monument and the northeasternmost reaches of Grand Canyon National Park on the southwest, the Navajo Nation on the southeast; the Glen Canyon NRA was established in 1972 "to provide for public use and enjoyment and to preserve the area's scientific and scenic features." The stated purpose of Glen Canyon NRA is for recreation as well as preservation. As such, the area has been developed for access to Lake Powell via 5 marinas, 4 camping grounds, two small airports, houseboat rental concessions; the southwestern end of Glen Canyon NRA in Arizona can be accessed via U. S. Route 89 and State Route 98.
State Route 95 and State Route 276 lead to the northeastern end of the recreation area in Utah. The current Lake Powell lies above Glen Canyon, flooded by the Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1966. Lake Powell has nearly 2,000 miles of fish-holding shoreline and provides opportunity to fish for largemouth bass, smallmouth bass and striped bass that swim in the midst of the recreation area. Several local marinas provide houseboats, jet skis, fishing gear, related equipment to visitors; the geology of the area is dominated by the Glen Canyon Group, consisting of the Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, Wingate Sandstone. The entire stratigraphic section included rocks dating from the Cretaceous to Pennsylvanian. With over one million visitors per year, it is inevitable that some will deface the rock faces of the canyon; the Glen Canyon NRA has implemented a voluntourism program wherein volunteers sign up for a five-day houseboat trip to remove graffiti from the canyon walls. Glen Canyon Glen Canyon Dam Glen Canyon Institute Rainbow Bridge National Monument Official National Park Service site Official National Park Service Concessionaire Site Lake Powell Resorts & Marinas, managed by ARAMARK, is an authorized concessioner of the National Park Service, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.
Glen Canyon Natural History Association Page Lake Powell Chamber of Commerce Lake Powell National Golf Course scenic 18-hole golf course Lake Powell Yacht Club to serve the interest of boat owners and water recreational enthusiasts
The Colorado Plateau known as the Colorado Plateau Province, is a physiographic and desert region of the Intermontane Plateaus centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. This province covers an area of 336, 700 km2 within western Colorado, northwestern New Mexico and eastern Utah, northern Arizona. About 90% of the area is drained by the Colorado River and its main tributaries: the Green, San Juan, Little Colorado. Most of the remainder of the plateau is drained by its tributaries; the Colorado Plateau is made up of high desert, with scattered areas of forests. In the southwest corner of the Colorado Plateau lies the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. Much of the Plateau's landscape is related, in both appearance and geologic history, to the Grand Canyon; the nickname "Red Rock Country" suggests the brightly colored rock left bare to the view by dryness and erosion. Domes, fins, river narrows, natural bridges, slot canyons are only some of the additional features typical of the Plateau.
The Colorado Plateau has the greatest concentration of U. S. National Park Service units in the country outside the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Among its nine National Parks are Grand Canyon, Bryce Canyon, Capitol Reef, Arches, Mesa Verde, Petrified Forest. Among its 18 National Monuments are Bears Ears, Rainbow Bridge, Hovenweep, Sunset Crater Volcano, Grand Staircase-Escalante, Natural Bridges, Canyons of the Ancients, Chaco Culture National Historical Park and the Colorado National Monument; this province is bounded by the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, by the Uinta Mountains and Wasatch Mountains branches of the Rockies in northern and central Utah. It is bounded by the Rio Grande Rift, Mogollon Rim and the Basin and Range Province. Isolated ranges of the Southern Rocky Mountains such as the San Juan Mountains in Colorado and the La Sal Mountains in Utah intermix into the central and southern parts of the Colorado Plateau, it is composed of six sections: Uinta Basin Section High Plateaus Section Grand Canyon Section Canyon Lands Section Navajo Section Datil SectionAs the name implies, the High Plateaus Section is, on average, the highest section.
North-south trending normal faults that include the Hurricane, Grand Wash, Paunsaugunt separate the section's component plateaus. This fault pattern is caused by the tensional forces pulling apart the adjacent Basin and Range province to the west, making this section transitional. Occupying the southeast corner of the Colorado Plateau is the Datil Section. Thick sequences of mid-Tertiary to late-Cenozoic-aged lava covers this section. Development of the province has in large part been influenced by structural features in its oldest rocks. Part of the Wasatch Line and its various faults form the western edge of the province. Faults that run parallel to the Wasatch Fault that lies along the Wasatch Range form the boundaries between the plateaus in the High Plateaus Section; the Uinta Basin, Uncompahgre Uplift, the Paradox Basin were created by movement along structural weaknesses in the region's oldest rock. In Utah, the province includes several higher fault-separated plateaus: Awapa Plateau Aquarius Plateau Kaiparowits Plateau Markagunt Plateau Paunsaugunt Plateau Sevier Plateau Fishlake Plateau Pavant Plateau Gunnison Plateau and the Tavaputs Plateau.
Some sources include the Tushar Mountain Plateau as part of the Colorado Plateau, but others do not. The flat-lying sedimentary rock units that make up these plateaus are found in component plateaus that are between 4,900 to 11,000 feet above sea level. A supersequence of these rocks is exposed in the various cliffs and canyons that make up the Grand Staircase. Younger east-west trending escarpments of the Grand Staircase extend north of the Grand Canyon and are named for their color: Chocolate Cliffs, Vermillion Cliffs, White Cliffs, Gray Cliffs, the Pink Cliffs. Within these rocks are abundant mineral resources that include uranium, coal and natural gas. Study of the area's unusually clear geologic history has advanced that science. A rain shadow from the Sierra Nevada far to the west and the many ranges of the Basin and Range means that the Colorado Plateau receives six to sixteen inches of annual precipitation. Higher areas receive more precipitation and are covered in forests of pine and spruce.
Though it can be said that the Plateau centers on the Four Corners, Black Mesa in northern Arizona is much closer to the east-west, north-south midpoint of the Plateau Province. Lying southeast of Glen Canyon and southwest of Monument Valley at the north end of the Hopi Reservation, this remote coal-laden highland has about half of the Colorado Plateau's acreage north of it, half south of it, half west of it, half east of it; the Ancestral Puebloan People lived in the region from 2000 to 700 years ago. A party from Santa Fe led by Fathers Dominguez and Escalante, unsuccessfully seeking an overland route to California, made a five-month out-and-back trip through much of the Plateau in 1776-1777. Despite having lost one arm in the American Civil War, U. S. Army Major and geologist John Wesley Powell explored the area in 1869 and 1872. Using wooden oak boats and small groups of men the Powell Geographic Expedition charted this unknown region of the United States for the federal government. Construction of the Hoover Dam in the 1930s and the Glen Canyon Dam in the 1960s changed the character of the Colorado River.
Reduced sediment load changed its color from reddish brown t
North American Monsoon
The North American monsoon, variously known as the Southwest monsoon, the Mexican monsoon, the New Mexican monsoon, or the Arizona monsoon, is a pattern of pronounced increase in thunderstorms and rainfall over large areas of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico occurring between July and mid September. During the monsoon, thunderstorms are fueled by daytime heating and build up during the late afternoon-early evening; these storms dissipate by late night, the next day starts out fair, with the cycle repeating daily. The monsoon loses its energy by mid-September when drier and cooler conditions are reestablished over the region. Geographically, the North American monsoon precipitation region is centered over the Sierra Madre Occidental in the Mexican states of Sinaloa, Durango and Chihuahua; the North American Monsoon is not as strong or persistent as its Indian counterpart because the Mexican Plateau is not as high or as large as the Tibetan Plateau in Asia. However, the North American Monsoon shares most of the basic characteristics of its Indian counterpart.
There is a shift in wind patterns in summer which occurs as Mexico and the southwest U. S. warm under intense solar heating. As this happens, the flow reverses; the prevailing winds start to flow from moist ocean areas into dry land areas. The North American monsoon is associated with an area of high pressure called the subtropical ridge that moves northward during the summer months and a thermal low over the Mexican Plateau and the Desert Southwest of the United States; the monsoon begins in late May to early June in southern Mexico and spreads along the western slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental, reaching Arizona and New Mexico in early July. The monsoon extends into the southwest United States as it matures in mid-July, when an area of high pressure, called the monsoon or subtropical ridge, develops in the upper atmosphere over the Four Corners region, creating wind flow aloft from the east or southeast. Pulses of low level moisture are transported from the Gulf of California and eastern Pacific.
The Gulf of California, a narrow body of water surrounded by mountains, is important for low-level moisture transport into Arizona and Sonora. Upper level moisture is transported into the region from the Gulf of Mexico by easterly winds aloft. Once the forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental green up from the initial monsoon rains and plant transpiration can add additional moisture to the atmosphere which will flow into Arizona. If the southern Plains of the U. S. are unusually wet and green during the early summer months, that area can serve as a moisture source. As precipitable water values rise in early summer, brief but torrential thunderstorms can occur over mountainous terrain; this activity is enhanced by the passage of tropical waves and the entrainment of the remnants of tropical cyclones. Monsoons play a vital role in managing wildfire threat by providing moisture at higher elevations and feeding desert streams. Heavy monsoon rain can lead in turn a summer wildfire risk. A lack of monsoon rain can hamper summer seeding, reducing excess winter plant growth but worsening drought.
Flash flooding is a serious danger during the monsoon. Dry washes can become raging rivers in an instant when no storms are visible as a storm can cause a flash flood tens of miles away. Lightning strikes are a significant danger; because it is dangerous to be caught in the open when these storms appear, many golf courses in Arizona have thunderstorm warning systems. Rainfall during the monsoon is not continuous, it varies depending on a variety of factors. There are distinct "burst" periods of heavy rain during the monsoon, "break" periods with little or no rain. Monsoon precipitation, accounts for a substantial portion of annual precipitation in northwest Mexico and the Southwest U. S. Most of these areas receive over half their annual precipitation from the monsoon; the North American Monsoon circulation pattern develops in late May or early June over southwest Mexico. By mid to late summer, thunderstorms increase over the "core" region of the southwest U. S. and northwest Mexico, including the U.
S. and Mexican states of Arizona, New Mexico, Chihuahua and Durango. The monsoon arrives in mid to late June over northwest Mexico, early July over the southwest U. S. Once the monsoon is underway, mountain ranges, including the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Mogollon Rim provide a focusing mechanism for the daily development of thunderstorms, thus much of the monsoon rainfall occurs in mountainous terrain. For example, monsoon rainfall in the Sierra Madre Occidental ranges from 10 to 15 inches. Since the southwest U. S. is at the northern fringe of the monsoon, precipitation tends to be more variable. Areas farther west of the core monsoon region, namely California and Baja California receive only spotty monsoon-related rainfall. In those areas, the intense solar heating is not strong enough to overcome a continual supply of cold water from the North Pacific Ocean moving down the west coast of North America. Winds do turn toward the land in these areas, but the cool moist air stabilizes the atmosphere.
The monsoon pushes as far west as the Peninsular Ranges and Transverse Ranges of southern California, but reaches the coastal strip. As shown in the panorama below, a wall of thunderstorms, only a half-hour's drive away, is a common sight from the sunny skies along the coas
Coconino County, Arizona
Coconino County is a county located in the north central part of the U. S. state of Arizona. The population was 134,421 at the 2010 census; the county seat is Flagstaff. The county takes its name from Cohonino, a name applied to the Havasupai, it is the second-largest county by area in the contiguous United States, behind San Bernardino County, with its 18,661 square miles, or 16.4% of Arizona's total area, making it larger than each of the nine smallest states. Coconino County comprises Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area. Coconino County contains Grand Canyon National Park, the Havasupai Nation, parts of the Navajo Nation, Hualapai Nation, Hopi Nation, it has a large Native American population at nearly 30% of the county's total population, being Navajo with smaller numbers of Havasupai and others. The county was the setting for George Herriman's early-20th-century Krazy Kat comic strip. After the building of the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad in 1883 the region of northern Yavapai County began experiencing rapid growth.
The people of the northern reaches had tired of the rigors of travelling all the way to Prescott for county business. They believed that they were a significant enough entity that they should have their own county jurisdiction. Therefore, they decided in 1887 to petition for secession from Yavapai and the creation of a new Frisco County, they remained part of Yavapai, until 1891 when Coconino County was formed and its seat declared to be Flagstaff. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 18,661 square miles, of which 18,619 square miles is land and 43 square miles is water, it is the largest county by area in Arizona and the second-largest county in the United States after San Bernardino County in California. It has more land area than each of the following U. S. states: Connecticut, Hawaii, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Vermont. The highest natural point in the county, as well as the entire state, is Humphreys Peak at 12,637 feet or 3,852 metres.
The Barringer Meteor Crater is located in Coconino County. Mohave County – west Yavapai County – south Gila County – south Navajo County – east San Juan County, Utah – northeast Kane County, Utah – north Coconino County has 7,142.42 square miles of federally designated Indian reservation, second only to Apache County. In descending order of area within the county, the reservations are the Navajo Nation, Hualapai Indian Reservation, Hopi Indian Reservation, Havasupai Indian Reservation, the Kaibab Indian Reservation; the Havasupai Reservation is the only one that lies within the county's borders. As of the 2000 census, there were 116,320 people, 40,448 households, 26,938 families residing in the county; the population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 53,443 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.09% White, 28.51% Native American, 1.04% Black or African American, 0.78% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 4.13% from other races, 2.36% from two or more races.
10.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.59 % reported speaking Navajo at home. There were 40,448 households out of which 34.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.70% were married couples living together, 12.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families. 22.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.36. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.70% under the age of 18, 14.40% from 18 to 24, 29.20% from 25 to 44, 20.70% from 45 to 64, 7.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 99.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,256, the median income for a family was $45,873. Males had a median income of $32,226 versus $25,055 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $17,139. About 13.10% of families and 18.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.30% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 134,421 people, 46,711 households, 29,656 families residing in the county; the population density was 7.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 63,321 housing units at an average density of 3.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 61.7% white, 27.3% American Indian, 1.4% Asian, 1.2% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 5.2% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 13.5% of the population. The largest ancestry groups were: Of the 46,711 households, 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.0% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.5% were non-families, 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.26. The median age was 31.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $49,510 and the median income for a family was $58,841. Males had a median income of $42,331 versus $31,869 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,632. About 11.6% of families and 18.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.5% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those age 65 or over. Flagstaff Page Sedona Williams Fredonia Tu
A power station referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Most power stations contain one or more generators, a rotating machine that converts mechanical power into electrical power; the relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor creates an electrical current. The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. Most power stations in the world burn fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas to generate electricity. Others use nuclear power, but there is an increasing use of cleaner renewable sources such as solar, wind and hydroelectric. In 1878 a hydroelectric power station was built by Lord Armstrong at Cragside, England, it used water from lakes on his estate to power Siemens dynamos. The electricity supplied power to lights, produced hot water, ran an elevator as well as labor-saving devices and farm buildings. In the early 1870s Belgian inventor Zénobe Gramme invented a generator powerful enough to produce power on a commercial scale for industry.
In the autumn of 1882, a central station providing public power was built in England. It was proposed after the town failed to reach an agreement on the rate charged by the gas company, so the town council decided to use electricity, it used hydroelectric power for household lighting. The system was not the town reverted to gas. In 1882 the world's first coal-fired public power station, the Edison Electric Light Station, was built in London, a project of Thomas Edison organized by Edward Johnson. A Babcock & Wilcox boiler powered a 125-horsepower steam engine; this supplied electricity to premises in the area that could be reached through the culverts of the viaduct without digging up the road, the monopoly of the gas companies. The customers included the Old Bailey. Another important customer was the Telegraph Office of the General Post Office, but this could not be reached though the culverts. Johnson arranged for the supply cable to be run overhead, via Holborn Newgate. In September 1882 in New York, the Pearl Street Station was established by Edison to provide electric lighting in the lower Manhattan Island area.
The station ran until destroyed by fire in 1890. The station used reciprocating steam engines to turn direct-current generators; because of the DC distribution, the service area was small. In 1886 George Westinghouse began building an alternating current system that used a transformer to step up voltage for long-distance transmission and stepped it back down for indoor lighting, a more efficient and less expensive system, similar to modern system; the War of Currents resolved in favor of AC distribution and utilization, although some DC systems persisted to the end of the 20th century. DC systems with a service radius of a mile or so were smaller, less efficient of fuel consumption, more labor-intensive to operate than much larger central AC generating stations. AC systems used a wide range of frequencies depending on the type of load; the economics of central station generation improved when unified light and power systems, operating at a common frequency, were developed. The same generating plant that fed large industrial loads during the day, could feed commuter railway systems during rush hour and serve lighting load in the evening, thus improving the system load factor and reducing the cost of electrical energy overall.
Many exceptions existed, generating stations were dedicated to power or light by the choice of frequency, rotating frequency changers and rotating converters were common to feed electric railway systems from the general lighting and power network. Throughout the first few decades of the 20th century central stations became larger, using higher steam pressures to provide greater efficiency, relying on interconnections of multiple generating stations to improve reliability and cost. High-voltage AC transmission allowed hydroelectric power to be conveniently moved from distant waterfalls to city markets; the advent of the steam turbine in central station service, around 1906, allowed great expansion of generating capacity. Generators were no longer limited by the power transmission of belts or the slow speed of reciprocating engines, could grow to enormous sizes. For example, Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti planned what would have been the largest reciprocating steam engine built for a proposed new central station, but scrapped the plans when turbines became available in the necessary size.
Building power systems out of central stations required combinations of engineering skill and financial acumen in equal measure. Pioneers of central station generation include George Westinghouse and Samuel Insull in the United States and Charles Hesterman Merz in UK, many others. In thermal power stations, mechanical power is produced by a heat engine that transforms thermal energy from combustion of a fuel, into rotational energy. Most thermal power stations produce steam, so they are sometimes called steam power stations. Not all thermal energy can be transformed into mechanical power, according to the second law of thermodynamics. If this loss is employed as useful heat, for industrial processes or district heating, the power plant is referred to as a cogeneration power plant or CHP plant. In countries where district heating is common, there are dedicated he
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti