Battle of Palo Alto
The Battle of Palo Alto was the first major battle of the Mexican–American War and was fought on May 8, 1846, on disputed ground five miles from the modern-day city of Brownsville, Texas. A force of some 3,700 Mexican troops – most of the Army of The North – led by General Mariano Arista engaged a force of 2,300 United States troops – the Army of Occupation led by General Zachary Taylor. On April 30, following the Thornton Affair, Mexican General Mariano Arista's troops began to cross the Rio Grande. On May 3, the troops began to besiege the American outpost at Fort Texas. Taylor marched his Army of Occupation south to relieve the siege. Arista, upon learning of his approach, diverted many of his units away from the siege to meet Taylor's force; the battle took place on May 8, three days before the formal declaration of war on Mexico by the United States. Arista ordered two cavalry charges, first against the American right flank and against the left. Both were unsuccessful; the American victory is attributed to superior artillery, while the U.
S. "light" artillery was accurate than that of the Mexican forces. That evening, Arista was forced to withdraw further south; the armies clashed again the next day at the Battle of Resaca de la Palma. On April 30, following the Thornton Affair, Arista started crossing the Rio Grande at Longoreno with his main army, first with General Pedro de Ampudia's 1st Brigade and four guns. Taylor prepared Fort Texas to withstand a siege while he moved most of his forces to protect his supply base at Fort Polk near Point Isabel, 23 miles northeast of present day Brownsville and having a Gulf of Mexico pass suitable for ships. Fort Texas was garrisoned by Taylor with 500 men under Major Jacob Brown, including the 7th Infantry, Capt. Allen Lowd's four 18-pounders, Lt. Braxton Bragg's field battery; the battle began as a result of Mexican efforts to besiege Fort Texas on May 3, General Zachary Taylor, in command of the Army of Occupation, receiving supplies from Fort Polk on Point Isabel, heard the distant report of cannon fire.
Taylor started his return to Fort Texas on May 7 with 2,228 men plus his 200-wagon supply train. General Arista left his camp at the Tanques del Ramireno with his army, with the intention of blocking Taylor. Ampudia's brigade left the Fort Texas siege to join him. Taylor's scouts sighted the Mexican force at noon on the 8th. Facing north and moving left to right, General Arista's army consisted of General Antonio Canales Rosillo's 400 irregular cavalry in chaparral, Anastasio Torrejon's cavalry brigade consisting of the 8th, 7th and Light Cavalry, astride the Point Isabel road came General Jose Maria Garcia's brigade of the 4th and 10th Infantry with two 8-pounders General Rómulo Díaz de la Vega's brigade of the 10th and 6th Infantry with five 4-pounders the Tampico Corps, the 2d Light Infantry and a sapper battalion with a 4-pounder. Behind this line was Col. Cayetano Montero's light cavalry. Facing south and moving right to left, with a force of 2,300 men and 400 wagons, placed Col. David E. Twiggs with Lt. Col. James S. McIntosh's 5th Infantry and Maj. Samuel Ringgold's artillery battery, followed by Capt. Lewis N. Morris' 3d Infantry with Lt. William H. Churchill's two 18-pounders astride the road, followed by Capt. George W. Allen's 4th Infantry, Lt. Thomas Childs' artillery battalion, Lt. Col. William G. Belknap's wing, James Duncan's battery Capt. William R. Montgomery's 8th Infantry on the American left.
Lt. Col. Charles A. May's dragoon squadron guarded Capt. Croghan Ker guarded the train. Montgomery was wounded during the battle, along with ten other officers, some of them severely. Taylor halted his columns and formed a line behind his batteries when the Mexican artillery started firing at 2 PM; the American artillery was effective while the Mexican artillery fell short. Arista ordered Torrejon's cavalry to attack the American right, but progress was slow, allowing Twiggs to form the 5th Infantry into a square to meet them with a couple of volleys. A fire started from a cannon burning wad which halted fighting for an hour as the smoke paralleled between the lines of the opposing forces. Arista pulled back 1,000 yards on his left and Taylor advanced accordingly, rotating the axis of the battle 40 degrees counterclockwise. May failed to turn the Mexican left. Child's artillery battalion formed a square to repel another Torrejon cavalry charge. Duncan's battery stopped Arista from turning the American left and advanced with the 8th Infantry and Ker's dragoons to drive the Mexican right from the field.
A charge ordered by Arista at this time resulted in the light cavalry fleeing along the Mexican line, taking the 6th Infantry with them. Fighting stopped with both armies camped for the night; the morning of the 9th revealed the Mexican army moving south. Taylor sent forward a 220-man battalion under McCall to reconnoiter the Mexican positions; the Battle of Resaca de la Palma would follow. Major Ringgold was struck by a cannon ball and mortally wounded during the battle but Ringgold's and Duncan's effective cannoneers with their "Flying Artillery"—the tactic of using light artillery to attack quickly move to another location and fire once more, carried the day and won the battle for the Americans. General Zachary Taylor emerged from the war a national hero; the battlefield is now Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park and is maintained by the National Park Service. Army of the North – Gen.div. Mariano Arista Deputy – Gen.br. Pedro AmpudiaInfantry 1st Brigade – Gen. Jose M. Garcia 10th Line – Col. Jose M. Garcia, Bn.
Comdte. Manuel Montero Artillery battery 2nd Brigade
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
U.S. Route 71
U. S. Route 71 is a major north–south United States highway that extends for over 1500 miles in the central United States; this original 1926 route has remained unchanged by encroaching Interstate highways. The highway's northern terminus is in International Falls, Minnesota at the Canada–US border, at the southern end of the Fort Frances-International Falls International Bridge to Fort Frances, Ontario. U. S. Route 53 ends here. On the other side of the bridge, Trans-Canada Highway 11 is an east–west route. US 71's southern terminus is between Port Barre and Krotz Springs, Louisiana at an intersection with U. S. Route 190; the southern terminus of US 71 is in Louisiana, beginning between Port Barre and Krotz Springs, Louisiana, at an intersection with U. S. 190. The highway follows a northwesterly course through Louisiana, passing through the communities of Alexandria, Montgomery and Shreveport. From its southern terminus to Shreveport, US 71 has been superseded by Interstate 49 -, planned to follow the US 71 alignment as far north as Kansas City, Missouri.
After Shreveport, US 71 follows a northerly course, crossing into Arkansas just north of Ida, Louisiana. US 71 travels 300 miles in Arkansas, entering the state 1 mile north of Ida, Louisiana; the route enters Arkansas near the Red River, runs north through the communities of Doddridge and Fouke. Most motorists can now bypass US 71 from Doddridge to Texarkana via Interstate 49. After 30 miles of paralleling I-49, the route turns west, passes the historic Averitt House and enters Texarkana. Inside the loop, Highway 71 becomes East Street, passing the Texarkana Country Club and Hobo Jungle Park before becoming Hickory Street in downtown Texarkana; the street is four-lane undivided, passing the Bottoms House and J. K. Wadley House before meeting US 67/US 82. US 71 forms a two-block concurrency with US 67/US 82 before turning north along Hazel Street; this minor city street runs northwest to intersect State Line Avenue. While on State Line Avenue, US 71 intersects Loop 14 before U. S. Route 59 joins US 71 at Interstate 30.
From Arkansas Highway 296 north of Texarkana to the Red River, US 71 runs concurrent with US 59 as an expressway. Except for the northbound lanes, this section of 3.39 miles is in Texas. The highways re-enter Arkansas at the Red River. US 59/US 71 serve as an eastern terminus for Highway 380 upon entering Ogden. Although US 59/US 71 bypass the community as a four-lane highway, the route served Ogden as Grand Street, which as of 2011 retains original 1926 US 71 paving for some of its length. Further north the routes pass under Highway 32. Serving Little River's county seat as Constitution Avenue, the routes become a five-lane road with center turn lane which passes within two blocks of the Little River County Courthouse; the routes intersect Highway 108 before exiting town due north to Wilton. Following the Kansas City Southern Railroad tracks, US 59/US 71 enters Wilton, where it passes the S. S. P. Mills and Son Building, Highway 234, the Texarkana and Fort Smith Railway Depot. Just north of town a former alignment comes into view before the Mills Cemetery and the Sevier County line.
Once across the Little River, US 59/US 71 passes another former alignment, crosses through Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge, runs east of Ben Lomond before entering Lockesburg. A junction in Lockesburg joins US 59/US 71 with US 371, with Highway 24 running west from the junction. 5 miles north of Lockesburg US 70 joins US 59/US 71/US 371, the concurrent routes turn west to De Queen. Upon entering De Queen, US 59/US 71 turns north, US 70 continues west, US 70 Business/Highway 41 runs south, US 371 terminates at the junction. US 59/US 71 continue through Gillham and Grannis to serve as the western terminus of US 278 in Wickes. Junctions with Highway 246 and Highway 4 precede the route entering Mena, the county seat of Polk County. In Mena, US 59/US 71 has a brief overlap with Highway 8, during which the routes pass two NRHP listings, the Kansas City-Southern Depot and the Mena Commercial Historic District. US 59/US 71/AR 8 has an overlap with Highway 88, although the western end of the overlap serves as the eastern terminus of the Talimena Scenic Drive National Scenic Byway designation.
After Highway 8 and Highway 88 have left the route US 59/US 71 run north to a junction with US 270 in Acorn. At a fork in the road, US 59 splits onto US 270 west, US 270 east begins a concurrency with US 71 northbound into Ouachita National Forest. US 71/US 270 continue into Scott County to Y City, where the concurrency ends and US 270 turns east. US 71 runs north through the forest to Waldron, a town the mainline route bypasses to the west while US 71B runs through downtown Waldron. While skirting Waldron, US 71 has a junction with Highway 272 near Waldron Municipal Airport as well as junctions with Highway 248, Highway 80, Highway 28; this section of US 71 from north of Mena through Fayetteville (following the original sections bypassing the new Interstate 540 has been designated a scenic byway and the Boston Mountains Scenic Loop. North of Waldron, US 71 passes through Mansfield and Greenwood before intersecting with Interstate 540 on the south end of Fort Smith. US 71 overlaps I-540 for 12 miles until it reaches Interstate 40 follows I-40 6 miles to Alma.
US 71 passes through Mountainburg, West Fork and Greenlan
Fremont County, Iowa
Fremont County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,441; the county seat is Sidney. The county was formed in 1847 and named for the military officer John C. Fremont. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 517 square miles, of which 511 square miles is land and 5.5 square miles is water. Interstate 29 U. S. Highway 59 U. S. Highway 275 Iowa Highway 2 Iowa Highway 333 Mills County Page County Atchison County, Missouri Otoe County, Nebraska Cass County, Nebraska The 2010 census recorded a population of 7,441 in the county, with a population density of 14.5599/sq mi. There were 3,431 housing units, of which 3,064 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 8,010 people, 3,199 households, 2,242 families residing in the county. The population density was 16 people per square mile. There were 3,514 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.01% White, 0.04% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.96% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races.
2.17% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,199 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 6.00% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 24.70% from 45 to 64, 19.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 95.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,345, the median income for a family was $46,547. Males had a median income of $30,822 versus $23,003 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,081.
About 6.50% of families and 9.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.40% of those under age 18 and 10.70% of those age 65 or over. Anderson Bartlett Percival McPaul Fremont County is divided into thirteen townships: The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Fremont County.† county seat Fremont County Courthouse National Register of Historic Places listings in Fremont County, Iowa Official website
Clarinda is a city in and the county seat of Page County, United States. It is located in Nodaway Township; the population was 5,572 in the 2010 census, a decline from the 5,690 population in the 2000 census. Clarinda was founded in 1851, incorporated on December 8, 1866. Many stories are told of such notables as Jesse James passing through; the town is named for Clarinda Buck, who according to legend carried water to the surveyors while Page County was first being surveyed. The best known national firm in Clarinda for many decades was Berry's Seed Company, a mail order farm seed distribution business founded in 1885 at Clarinda by A. A. Berry. Berry's Seed Company diversified into retail stores in the 1950s, but the stores were sold off over the following decade, today the company, known as Berry's Garden Center, operates from its one remaining retail outlet in Danville, Illinois. In 1943 during World War II, an internment camp designed for 3,000 prisoners of war with sixty barracks and a 150-bed hospital was built in Clarinda.
German prisoners were the first to arrive at Camp Clarinda, followed in 1945 by Italian and Japanese POWs. Camp Clarinda was located by what today is Schenck Field. Early in its history, Clarinda was served by railroads from 5 different directions - all were predecessors to the Chicago and Quincy Railroad. In 1946, service was lost on the east-west line and the line to Tarkio, MO, through Coin, IA. Service was maintained south of Clarinda until the 1950s and was trimmed back to a branch serving Clarinda from the main line at Villisca, IA; this line was abandoned in the 1980s. Clarinda now joins a growing list of county seats in Iowa without rail service; the southeast area of Clarinda remains known by that name today. A noted author wrote, "In the twenties and thirties, Clarinda seemed to be two separate towns: Guntown and Uptown. In the middle of the square was, still is, the courthouse; the four blocks surrounding it are filled with businesses. Guntown was a town all its own; the 700 block of East Garfield was a solid block of businesses--grocery stores, barber, a Chinese restaurant, another restaurant on a corner, a rug factory, a large grocery, the Swifts packing plant, railroad tracks with freight depot and roundhouse to turn trains around."
Clarinda is located at 40°44′15″N 95°2′9″W along the West Nodaway River just north of the confluence of the East Nodaway River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.22 square miles, of which, 5.19 square miles is land and 0.03 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,572 people, 1,928 households, 1,153 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,073.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,180 housing units at an average density of 420.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.2% White, 5.6% African American, 1.1% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.2% of the population. There were 1,928 households of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.2% were non-families.
35.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 18% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.80. The median age in the city was 40 years. 21.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 57.6% male and 42.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,690 people, 2,017 households, 1,246 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,096.1 people per square mile. There were 2,188 housing units at an average density of 421.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.02% White, 4.62% African American, 0.65% Native American, 1.09% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 1.07% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.41% of the population. There were 2,017 households out of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.2% were non-families.
34.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.83. Age spread: 22.1% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, 19.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 121.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 122.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,871, the median income for a family was $43,654. Males had a median income of $35,061 versus $23,635 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,136. About 9.9% of families and 16.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.2% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over. NSK-AKS operates a manufacturing plant in Clarinda that produces roller bearings. Lisle Corporation, which makes hand tools and garage creepers
Iowa Highway 48
Iowa Highway 48 is a 48-mile-long state highway which runs from north to south in southwest Iowa. It begins at the northern edge of Shenandoah at U. S. Route 59 and ends at U. S. Route 6 near Lewis; the highway has seen few changes since its creation. Iowa Highway 48 begins in Shenandoah at an intersection with U. S. Route 59, which serves as the line separating Page County, it heads east for one mile before turning to the northeast to become parallel to a line of the BNSF Railway. It turns east shortly after passing through Essex. Three miles east of Essex, Iowa 48 turns north at an intersection with Page County Road J20. From CR J20, Iowa 48 heads due north for 12 1⁄2 miles to the intersection with US 34 in Red Oak. From Red Oak, Iowa 48 continues due north for 8 miles until it turns east to cross the East Nishnabotna River and pass through Elliott before turning back to the north, it travels north for 6 miles to Griswold, where it intersects Iowa 92. Iowa 48 continues north for 5 1⁄2 miles, again crossing the East Nishnabotna, until its northern end at U.
S. Route 6 west of Lewis. Iowa Highway 48 was a short highway connecting Shenandoah and Red Oak along the path the route takes today. By 1952, the route ended at US 6 west of Lewis. Only the original section had been paved at this time. By 1976, the entire highway was paved. End of Iowa 48 at Iowa Highway Ends
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif