International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Carpenter Canyon is a canyon on the western side of the Spring Mountains within the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, in Clark County, southern Nevada west of the Las Vegas Valley. Carpenter Canyon is accessible via State Route Carpenter Canyon Road near Pahrump. Carpenter Canyon Road is a minimally maintained dirt road reaching 10 miles into the mountains and Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest. A clearwater stream, the Carpenter Canyon Creek, runs through Carpenter Canyon the entire year, supporting a small population of trout, uncommon in the Spring Mountains and Mojave Desert; the Spring Mountains divide the Pahrump Valley, Mesquite Valley, upper Amargosa River basin to the west from the Las Vegas Valley, to the east and which drains into the Colorado River, thus the mountains define part of the boundary of the Great Basin and Mojave Desert ecoregions. A number of springs can be found in the recesses of the Red Rock Canyon area which lies on the mid-eastern side of the range. One of the more notable springs feeds Carpenter Canyon Creek.
In Lower Carpenter Canyon, Creosote bush - Larrea tridentata and golden native bunchgrasses dominate the landscape. Moving further up in elevation, Banana yucca - Yucca baccata, Mojave yucca - Yucca schidigera, the Joshua Tree - Yucca brevifolia appear more frequently. Small flowering plants become common. At around 5,000 feet, Utah Juniper -Juniperus osteosperma trees and Single-leaf Pinyon - Pinus monophylla are introduced, above this elevation they dominate the terrain. Towards the source of the creek, the head of the canyon Ponderosa Pine - Pinus ponderosa and a wide variety of flowering plants are prevalent; this includes the indigenous Desert Columbine - Aquilegia shockleyi. Riparian plants, such as Fremont Cottonwood - Populus fremontii, flank the creek banks. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area Pinyon-juniper woodland Friends of Nevada Wilderness website
Pahrump is an unincorporated town in Nye County, United States. As of 2010 the population was 36,441. Pahrump was inhabited by the Southern Paiute, it was inhabited by settlers in the late 19th century. They chose the name for Pahrump after the original indigenous name Pah-Rimpi, or "Water Rock," so named because of the abundant artesian wells in the valley; because of the artesian wells, the new inhabitants of Pahrump Valley began a number of large ranch-style holdings over 1000 acres in size. On the ranches and cotton were grown, livestock were raised; until the 1960s, Pahrump had no telephone service except a radio transmitter phone in a phone booth next to the small market, there were no paved roads in or out of the Pahrump Valley. However, as Las Vegas grew, real estate speculation became more popular in the area, which led to increased interest in Pahrump; this led to the introduction of telephone service and the construction of a paved highway, from Las Vegas to Pahrump, during the late 1960s.
This road was extended from Pahrump northward to US 95, near Amargosa Valley. A second paved road was introduced that went from Pahrump to neighboring Shoshone, which provided a link to the Death Valley area, as well as a shorter route to those wishing to travel to Los Angeles or other areas in California. In the fifties and sixties, there was a two-room elementary school and the high school students went to Shoshone. In 1974, Pahrump's first high school, Pahrump Valley High School, was constructed. Since the late 1970s, Pahrump has grown increasing from about 2,000 residents in 1980 to 22,000 in 2017. Pahrump is an archetypal example of an exurb. All significant agriculture has ended in the valley, the surface aquifers have been drained over the years. A wealthy Las Vegas casino owner, Ted Binion, buried a large treasure of silver in a secret underground vault in Pahrump. In 1998, Binion died under suspicious circumstances, one of the parties accused of murdering Binion was apprehended while digging up the vault in Pahrump.
A book about the Binion murder trial is Positively Fifth Street by James McManus. On November 15, 2006, the Pahrump town board voted for an ordinance declaring English the official language of business, forbidding the display of foreign flags, denying any benefits to illegal aliens. A measure in the ordinance requires an American flag to be displayed above any other flag, regardless of what organization, nation, or government it represents; this law was never repealed. On November 4, 2017, Koenigsegg Automotive AB achieved the highest top speed of a production car surpassing the Bugatti Veyron; the Koenigsegg Agera RS reached a top speed of 277.9 mph on Nevada State Route 160. According to the United States Census Bureau, the census-designated place of Pahrump has a total area of 297.9 sq mi, all of, land. By area, it is the largest CDP in the contiguous United States, although it ranks only eleventh nationally, since the largest ten are all in Alaska; the area lies in the Mojave Desert. Summers in Pahrump are hot and dry, with occasional pushes of monsoonal moisture beginning in early July.
Being at a similar elevation to Las Vegas, daytime highs in summer average within a few degrees of Las Vegas. Record highs are similar between the two cities as well. A typical day during June through August brings temperatures around 100, 110. Nighttime temperatures, are noticeably cooler; this is due to the lack of an urban heat island in Pahrump, allowing for intense radiative cooling after sundown. As a result, summer nights are pleasantly warm, bottoming out in the 70s. Pahrump's location in a valley leads to large diurnal temperature ranges 30 degrees but 40 degrees Fahrenheit. By late August and early September, the sweltering summer heat noticeably tempers down. September is the gateway to fall, which brings pleasant weather. October highs are 80 degrees and nighttime temperatures in the 50s. Like other locations in the Mojave desert, winters are mild, with occasional pushes of cold air from the north. Daytime highs average from the mid-50s and 60s, but low temperatures hover around freezing for most nights between December to February.
Spring brings cool evenings. Like other locations in the Mojave desert, this is the windiest time of year; as of the census of 2000, there were 24,631 people, 10,153 households, 7,127 families residing in the census-designated place of Pahrump. The population density was 82.7 people per square mile. There were 11,651 housing units at an average density of 39.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.1% White, 0.1% African American, 1.1% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 0.37% Pacific Islander, 2.27% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.9% of the population. There were 10,153 households out of which 14.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.2% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.8% were non-families. 23.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.83.
In the CDP, the population was spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 4.9% from 18 to 24, 10.6% from 25 to 44, 28.9% from 45 to 64, 55.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.4 males. The med
The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America. It is in the southwestern United States within southeastern California and southern Nevada, it occupies 47,877 sq mi. Small areas extend into Utah and Arizona, its boundaries are noted by the presence of Joshua trees, which are native only to the Mojave Desert and are considered an indicator species, it is believed to support an additional 1,750 to 2,000 species of plants. The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, Lancaster, Victorville, St. George; the Mojave Desert is bordered by the Great Basin Desert to its north and the Sonoran Desert to its south and east. Topographical boundaries include the Tehachapi Mountains to the west, the San Gabriel Mountains and San Bernardino Mountains to the south; the mountain boundaries are distinct because they are outlined by the two largest faults in California – the San Andreas and Garlock faults.
The Mojave Desert displays typical range topography. Higher elevations above 2,000 ft in the Mojave are referred to as the High Desert; the Mojave Desert occupies less than 50,000 sq mi, making it the smallest of the North American deserts. The Mojave Desert is referred to as the "high desert", in contrast to the "low desert", the Sonoran Desert to the south; the Mojave Desert, however, is lower than the Great Basin Desert to the north. The spelling Mojave originates from the Spanish language while the spelling Mohave comes from modern English. Both are used today, although the Mojave Tribal Nation uses the spelling Mojave; the Mojave Desert receives less than 2 inches of rain a year and is between 2,000 and 5,000 feet in elevation. The Mojave Desert contains the Mojave National Preserve, as well as the lowest and hottest place in North America: Death Valley at 282 ft below sea level, where the temperature surpasses 120 °F from late June to early August. Zion National Park in Utah lies at the junction of the Mojave, the Great Basin Desert, the Colorado Plateau.
Despite its aridity, the Mojave has long been a center of alfalfa production, fed by irrigation coming from groundwater and from the California Aqueduct. The Mojave is a desert of two distinct seasons. Winter months bring comfortable daytime temperatures, which drop to around 25 °F on valley floors, below 0 °F at the highest elevations. Storms moving from the Pacific Northwest can bring rain and in some places snow. More the rain shadow created by the Sierra Nevada as well as mountain ranges within the desert such as the Spring Mountains, bring only clouds and wind. In longer periods between storm systems, winter temperatures in valleys can approach 80 °F. Spring weather continues to be influenced by Pacific storms, but rainfall is more widespread and occurs less after April. By early June, it is rare for another Pacific storm to have a significant impact on the region's weather. Summer weather is dominated by heat. Temperatures on valley floors can soar above 130 °F at the lowest elevations. Low humidity, high temperatures, low pressure, draw in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico creating thunderstorms across the desert southwest known as the North American monsoon.
While the Mojave does not get nearly the amount of rainfall the Sonoran desert to the south receives, monsoonal moisture will create thunderstorms as far west as California's Central Valley from mid-June through early September. Autumn is pleasant, with one to two Pacific storm systems creating regional rain events. October is one of the sunniest months in the Mojave. After temperature, wind is the most significant weather phenomenon in the Mojave. Across the region windy days are common. During the June Gloom, cooler air can be pushed into the desert from Southern California. In Santa Ana wind events, hot air from the desert blows into the Los Angeles basin and other coastal areas. Wind farms in these areas generate power from these winds; the other major weather factor in the region is elevation. The highest peak within the Mojave is Charleston Peak at 11,918 feet, while the Badwater Basin in Death Valley is 279 feet below sea level. Accordingly and precipitation ranges wildly in all seasons across the region.
The Mojave Desert has not supported a fire regime because of low fuel loads and connectivity. However, in the last few decades, invasive annual plants such as some within the genera Bromus and Brassica have facilitated fire; this has altered many areas of the desert. At higher elevations, fire regimes are infrequent; the Mojave Desert is defined by numerous mountain ranges creating its xeric conditions. These ranges create valleys, endorheic basins, salt pans, seasonal saline lakes when precipitation is high enough. These
Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U. S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital, however, is Carson City. Nevada is known as the "Silver State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy, it is known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War. Nevada is desert and semi-arid, much of it within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86% of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute and Washoe tribes inhabited the land, now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish, they called the region Nevada because of the snow. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821; the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws. In 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century.
Nevada is the only U. S. state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevada's largest employer, with mining continuing as a substantial sector of the economy: Nevada is the fourth-largest producer of gold in the world; the name "Nevada" comes from meaning "snow-covered", after the Sierra Nevada. Most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the TRAP vowel. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the PALM vowel. Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators and never received a vote; the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. At one time, the state's official tourism organization, TravelNevada, stylized the name of the state as "Nevăda", with a breve mark over the a indicating the locally preferred pronunciation, available as a license plate design.
Nevada is entirely within the Basin and Range Province, is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin. Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; the state's highest recorded temperature was 125 °F in Laughlin on June 29, 1994. The coldest recorded temperature was −52 °F set in San Jacinto in 1972, in the northeastern portion of the state; the Humboldt River crosses the state from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker and Carson rivers. All of these rivers are endorheic basins, ending in Walker Lake, Pyramid Lake, the Carson Sink, respectively. However, not all of Nevada is within the Great Basin.
Tributaries of the Snake River drain the far north, while the Colorado River, which forms much of the boundary with Arizona, drains much of southern Nevada. The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet, harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species; the valleys are no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet, while some in central Nevada are above 6,000 feet. The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert; the area is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in the summer. The terrain is lower below 4,000 feet, creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights. Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line as a state boundary at just over 400 miles; this line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly
Resting Spring Range
The Resting Spring Range is found in the eastern Mojave Desert of California near the Nevada state line in the United States. The range lies in a north-south direction to the west of the Nopah Range and southeast of the Amargosa Range and Greenwater Range; the mountains, in Inyo County on the California side, lie between Highway 178 and Highway 127. Allan, Stuart. California Road and Recreation Atlas. Benchmark Maps. p. 89. ISBN 0-929591-80-1
The Spring Mountains are a mountain range of Southern Nevada in the United States, running northwest-southeast along the west side of Las Vegas and south to the border with California. Most land in the mountains is owned by the United States Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management and managed as the Spring Mountains National Recreation Area within the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest and the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area; the Spring Mountains range is named for the number of springs to be found, many of them in the recesses of Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, on the eastern side of the mountains. The Spring Mountains divide the Pahrump Valley and Amargosa River basins from the Las Vegas Valley watershed, which drains into the Colorado River watershed, by way of Las Vegas Wash into Lake Mead, thus the mountains define part of the boundary of the Great Basin; the Great Basin Divide, continues north through the Indian Springs Pass region turns due east at the perimeter mountain ranges north of Las Vegas.
The highest point is Mount Charleston, at 11,918 ft. The area around Mount Charleston is protected in the Mount Charleston Wilderness; the main town in the area is name Mount Charleston, which lies in Kyle Canyon. The area is 20-30°F cooler than the valleys below, it is a popular getaway for Las Vegas residents and visitors; the Lee Canyon lies in Lee Canyon on State Highway 156. In addition to Mount Charleston, other major summits in the Spring Mountains range include Bonanza Peak, McFarland Peak, Mummy Mountain, Griffith Peak, Bridge Mountain, Mount Wilson and Mount Potosi; the Spring Mountains are a sky island ecosystem. With an area around 860 square miles, a vertical range of nearly 2 miles, the mountains encompass a wide variety of habitats, the biological diversity is greater than anywhere else in Nevada; the bases of the mountains are part of the Mojave zone dominated by creosote bush and white bursage rising to a blackbush scrub zone, followed by a pygmy conifer zone with juniper, pinyon pine, mountain mahogany, topped by a montane zone with many species of conifers around Mt. Charleston and its connecting ridges.
Palmer's chipmunk is endemic to the Spring Mountains. Carpenter Canyon USDA Spring Mountain Page Overview of the Spring Mountains Spring Mountains Peaks: photos, mileage, GPS coordinates