The Nopah Range is located in Inyo County, United States, near the eastern border with Nevada. The mountain range lies east of the adjacent Resting Spring Range, the Owlshead Mountains and lower Death Valley, the Amargosa River is to the west. They are located directly east of Shoshone and the Chicago Valley, northeast of Tecopa, southwest of Pahrump and west of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Nopah Range mountains reach an elevation of 6,395 feet above sea level at Nopah Peak, the Nopah Range is approximately 26 miles long. Category, Mountain ranges of the Mojave Desert Allan, benchmark Maps. pp.89 &97
The city anchors the Las Vegas Valley metropolitan area and is the largest city within the greater Mojave Desert. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city known primarily for its gambling, fine dining, entertainment and it is the leading financial and cultural center for Nevada. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World and it is a top three destination in the United States for business conventions and a global leader in the hospitality industry, claiming more AAA Five Diamond hotels than any city in the world. Today, Las Vegas annually ranks as one of the worlds most visited tourist destinations. The citys tolerance for numerous forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of Sin City, and has made Las Vegas a popular setting for literature, television programs, Las Vegas was settled in 1905 and officially incorporated in 1911. At the close of the 20th century, it was the most populated American city founded within that century, population growth has accelerated since the 1960s, and between 1990 and 2000 the population nearly doubled, increasing by 85. 2%.
Rapid growth has continued into the 21st century, and according to a 2013 estimate, perhaps the earliest visitors to the Las Vegas area were nomadic Paleo-Indians, who traveled there 10,000 years ago, leaving behind petroglyphs. Anasazi and Paiute tribes followed at least 2,000 years ago, a young Mexican scout named Rafael Rivera is credited as the first non-Native American to encounter the valley, in 1829. Trader Antonio Armijo led a 60-man party along the Spanish Trail to Los Angeles, the area was named Las Vegas, which is Spanish for the meadows, as it featured abundant wild grasses, as well as desert spring waters for westward travelers. The year 1844 marked the arrival of John C, frémont, whose writings helped lure pioneers to the area. Downtown Las Vegas Fremont Street is named after him, eleven years members of the LDS Church chose Las Vegas as the site to build a fort halfway between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, where they would travel to gather supplies. The fort was abandoned several years afterward, the remainder of this Old Mormon Fort can still be seen at the intersection of Las Vegas Boulevard and Washington Avenue.
Las Vegas was founded as a city in 1905, when 110 acres of adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks were auctioned in what would become the downtown area. In 1911, Las Vegas was incorporated as a city,1931 was a pivotal year for Las Vegas. At that time, Nevada legalized casino gambling and reduced residency requirements for divorce to six weeks and this year witnessed the beginning of construction on nearby Hoover Dam. The influx of workers and their families helped Las Vegas avoid economic calamity during the Great Depression. The construction work was completed in 1935, in 1941, the Las Vegas Army Air Corps Gunnery School was established. Currently known as Nellis Air Force Base, it is home to the team called the Thunderbirds
Southwestern United States
The population of the area is around 11 million people, with over half that in Arizona, the most populous cities are Phoenix, El Paso, Las Vegas and Tucson. Most of the area was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in the Spanish Empire before becoming part of Mexico and it became part of the United States through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Gadsden Purchase. The deserts dominate the southern and western reaches of the area, the two major rivers of the region are the Colorado River, running in the northern and western areas, and the Rio Grande, running in the south. Formed approximately 8000 years ago, the Chihuahuan Desert is a dry desert. The Chihuahuan Desert spreads across the portion of the region, covering from southeastern Arizona, across southern New Mexico. While it is the second largest desert in the United States, only a third of the desert is within the United States, El Paso is the major city in this desert, with other smaller cities being Las Cruces and Roswell in New Mexico.
The Chihuahuan is a rain shadow desert, formed two mountain ranges which block oceanic precipitation from reaching the area. The most prolific plants in this region are agave and creosote bushes, when people think of the desert southwest, the landscape of the Sonoran Desert is what mostly comes to mind. Rainfall averages between 4–12 inches per year, and the deserts most widely known inhabitant is the saguaro cactus and it is bounded on the northwest by the Mojave Desert, to the north by the Colorado Plateau and to the east by the Arizona Mountains forests and the Chihuahuan Desert. The portion of the Sonora Desert which lies in the Southwestern United States is the most populated area within the region. Six of the top ten major population centers of the region are found within its borders, Tucson, Chandler, within its borders are Yuma and Prescott Arizona. The most northwest portion of the American Southwest is covered by the Mojave Desert, bordered on the south by the Sonoran Desert and the east by the Colorado Plateau, its range within the region makes up the southeast tip of Nevada, and the northwestern corner of Arizona.
In terms of topography, the Mojave is very similar to the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave is the smallest and hottest desert within the United States. The Mojave gets less than six inches of rain annually, the most prolific vegetation is the tall Joshua tree, which grow as tall as 40 feet, and are thought to live almost 1000 years. Other major vegetation includes the Parry saltbush and the Mojave sage, the Colorado Plateau varies from the large stands of forests in the west, including the largest stand of ponderosa pine trees in the world, to the Mesas to the east. Although not called a desert, the Colorado Plateau is mostly made up of high desert, the Plateau is characterized by a series of plateaus and mesas, interspersed with canyons. The most dramatic example is the Grand Canyon, but that is one of many dramatic vistas included within the Plateau, which includes spectacular lava formations, painted deserts, sand dunes, and badlands. One of the most distinctive features of the Plateau is its longevity, the Plateau can be divided into six sections, three of which fall into the Southwest region
Nye County, Nevada
Nye County is a county located in the U. S. state of Nevada. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,946, at 18,159 square miles, Nye is the largest county by area in the state and the third-largest county in the contiguous United States. Nye County comprises the Pahrump, NV Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Las Vegas-Henderson, in 2010, the center of population of Nevada was located in southern Nye County, very near Yucca Mountain. The federal government manages 92 percent of the land in the county, a 1987 attempt to deposit the nuclear waste resulted in the creation of Bullfrog County, which was dissolved two years later. Visitors to Death Valley often stay at Beatty or Amargosa Valley, Nye County is one of 11 Nevada counties where prostitution is legal. The county has no incorporated cities, the seat of government in Tonopah is 160 miles from Pahrump, where about 86 percent of the countys population resides. Nye County is nicknamed The Kingdom of Nye from the radio program Coast to Coast AM, Nye County was established during the American Civil War in 1864 and named after James W.
Nye. He served as the first governor of the Nevada Territory and as a U. S, senator after it was admitted as a state. The first county seat was Ione in 1864, followed by Belmont in 1867, the countys first boom came in the early 20th century, when Rhyolite and Tonopah, as well as Goldfield in nearby Esmeralda County, all had gold and silver mining booms. In 1906, Goldfield had 30,000 residents, Tonopah had nearly 10,000 people and these cities were linked by the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad. After the boom died, Nye County withered, by 1910, the population had plummeted to about 7,500 before sinking to near 3,000 in the middle of the century. It was not until development at the military test site, increasing employment, after the 1990s, when Pahrump became a bedroom community for Las Vegas, it had high rates of population growth. From 1987 to 1989, Bullfrog County, was split off from Nye County territory to form a political region. The population of Bullfrog County was 0, the creation was strictly a political maneuver to support plans for a nuclear waste storage facility in the region.
The Western Shoshone challenged this plan, saying they had never ceded land in this territory, no license was granted for the planned Yucca Mountain Repository. The Yomba Indian Reservation is located in county, as one designated for some of the Western Shoshone people. The Yomba Band of the reservation is a recognized tribe. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 18,199 square miles
Nevada is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 34th most populous, nearly three-quarters of Nevadas people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the states four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada is officially known as the Silver State because of the importance of silver to its history and economy. It is known as the Battle Born State, because it achieved statehood during the Civil War, as the Sage-brush State, for the plant of the same name. Nevada borders Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast, Nevada is largely desert and semi-arid, much of it located within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are located within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe, about 86% of the states land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute, the first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish. They called the region Nevada because of the snow covered the mountains in winter. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, and it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31,1864, as the second of two added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws, in 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century, Nevada is the only U. S.
state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevadas largest employer, with mining continuing as a sector of the economy. The name Nevada comes from the Spanish nevada, meaning snow-covered, most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the vowel of trap. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the vowel of father, although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators, the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. Nevada is almost entirely within the Basin and Range Province, and is broken up by many mountain ranges
Nevada State Route 160
State Route 160 is a state highway in southern Nevada, United States. It connects the southern Las Vegas Valley to U. S. Route 95 northwest of the city via the Pahrump Valley, the southern part of the route sees heavy traffic, mostly due to Pahrumps continued growth as a Las Vegas bedroom community. The route is known as Blue Diamond Road within the Las Vegas area, a portion of the route was originally part of State Route 16 prior to 1978. State Route 160 begins in the southern Las Vegas metro area at the intersection of Las Vegas Boulevard and it runs west-southwest towards the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and over Mountain Springs Summit before turning northwest towards Pahrump. Outside of Pahrump, SR160 heads more north-northwest to reach its terminus at US95. State Route 160 was originally part of State Route 16 from Pahrump north to US95, State Route 16 was one of Nevada’s original state highways dating from the 1920s. It began at the Nevada/California border south of Pahrump and ran north to the city over Hidden Hills Ranch Road, from there, it continued north over present-day State Route 160.
In 1976, the section from Pahrump to US95 became part of the newly created State Route 160, the section from the California border to Pahrump remained as State Route 16 until it was removed by 1982. In 2007, State Route 160 was realigned slightly over I-15 in southern Las Vegas, the project reconstructed the ramps of the aging interchange, allowing for better traffic flow to and from I-15. Note, Mileposts in Nevada reset at county lines, the start, roads portal Media related to Nevada State Route 160 at Wikimedia Commons AARoads, Nevada 160 Nevada DOT Historical Highway Maps
San Bernardino County, California
San Bernardino County, officially the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,035,210, making it the fifth-most populous county in California, the county seat is San Bernardino. With an area of 20,105 square miles, San Bernardino County is the largest county in the United States by area, although some of Alaskas boroughs and census areas are larger. It is larger than each of the nine smallest states, larger than the four smallest states combined, Spanish Missionaries from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel established a church at the village of Politania in 1810. Father Francisco Dumetz named the church San Bernardino on May 20,1810, the Franciscans gave the name San Bernardino to the snowcapped peak in Southern California, in honor of the saint and it is from him that the county derives its name. In 1819, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia, following Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican citizens were granted land grants to establish ranchos in the area of the county.
Rancho Jurupa in 1838, Rancho Cucamonga and El Rincon in 1839, Rancho Santa Ana del Chino in 1841, Rancho San Bernardino in 1842 and Rancho Muscupiabe in 1844. Agua Mansa was the first town in what became San Bernardino County, some of the southern parts of the countys territory were given to Riverside County in 1893. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 20,105 square miles. It is the largest county by area in California and the largest in the United States and it is slightly larger than the states of New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island combined. It borders both Nevada and Arizona, the bulk of the population, roughly two million, live in the roughly 480 square miles south of the San Bernardino Mountains adjacent to Riverside and in the San Bernardino Valley. Over 300,000 others live just north of the San Bernardino Mountains, agglomerating around Victorville covering roughly 280 square miles in Victor Valley, roughly another 100,000 people live scattered across the rest of the sprawling county.
The Mojave National Preserve covers some of the desert, especially between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The desert portion includes the cities of Needles next to the Colorado River and Barstow at the junction in Interstate 15, trona is at the northwestern part of the county west of Death Valley. This national park, mostly within Inyo County, has a portion of land within the San Bernardino County. The largest metropolitan area in the Mojave Desert part of the county is Victor Valley, with the localities of Adelanto, Apple Valley, Hesperia. Further south, a portion of Joshua Tree National Park overlaps the county near Twentynine Palms, additional places near and west of Twentynine palms include Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree, and Morongo Valley. The mountains are home to the San Bernardino National Forest, and include the communities of Crestline, Lake Arrowhead, Running Springs, Big Bear City, Forest Falls, the San Bernardino Valley is at the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley
Old Spanish Trail (trade route)
The Old Spanish Trail is an historical trade route that connected the northern New Mexico settlements of Santa Fe, New Mexico with those of Los Angeles and southern California. Approximately 700 mi long, the trail ran through areas of mountains, arid deserts. It is considered one of the most arduous of all trade routes established in the United States. Explored, in part, by Spanish explorers as early as the late 16th century, the name of the trail comes from the publication of John C. Frémont’s Report of his 1844 journey for the U. S. Topographical Corps, guided by Kit Carson, from California to New Mexico. The name acknowledges the fact that parts of the trail had been known to the Spanish since the 16th century, frémonts report named a trail that had already been in use for about 15 years. The trail is important to New Mexico history because it established an arduous, the trail is a combination of known trails that were established by Spanish explorers and traders with the Ute and other Indian tribes.
The eastern parts of what called the Old Spanish Trail, including southwest Colorado. The same trail was used by the first Americans to reach California by land, the Mojave desert section of the Mohave Trail is now a jeep trail called the Mojave Road. Upon the return of Antonio Armijo, the governor of New Mexico immediately announced the success to his superiors in Mexico City, as a reward, the governor officially named Armijo Commander for the Discovery of the Route to California. Armijos route was documented by him in a report to the governor, after this date, the route began to be used by traders for usually a single annual round trip. Word spread about the successful trade expedition and some commerce began between Santa Fe and Los Angeles. This route ran northwest to the Colorado and Green Rivers, crossed over to the Sevier River and it passed southward to the Santa Clara River, linking up with Armijos route to California. California had many horses and mules, many growing wild, with no local market, usually two blankets were traded for one horse, more blankets were usually required for a mule.
California had almost no wool processing industry and few weavers, so woven products were a welcome commodity, the trading party usually left New Mexico in early November to take advantage of winter rains to cross the deserts on the trail and would arrive in California in early February. The return party would usually leave California for New Mexico in early April to get over the trail before the water dried up. The return party often included several hundred to a few horses and mules. Low-scale emigration from New Mexico to California used parts of the trail in the late 1830s when the trade began to die
The Spring Mountains are a mountain range of southern Nevada in the United States, running generally northwest-southeast along the west side of Las Vegas and south to the border with California. The Spring Mountains range is named for the number of springs to be found, many of them in the recesses of Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, which is on the eastern side of the mountains. The Great Basin Divide, continues north through the Indian Springs Pass region, the highest point is Mount Charleston, at 11,918 ft. The area around Mt. Charleston is protected in the Mount Charleston Wilderness, the area is typically 20-30°F cooler than the valleys below, and it is a popular getaway for Las Vegas residents and visitors. The Las Vegas Ski and Snowboard Resort lies in Lee Canyon on State Highway 156, the Spring Mountains are a sky island ecosystem. Palmers chipmunk is endemic to the Spring Mountains, carpenter Canyon USDA Spring Mountain Page Overview of the Spring Mountains Spring Mountains Peaks, elevations, and GPS coordinates
Carpenter Canyon is a canyon on the western side of the Spring Mountains, partially within the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, in Clark County, southern Nevada west of the Las Vegas Valley. Carpenter Canyon is accessible via State Route 160 and Carpenter Canyon Road near Pahrump, Carpenter Canyon Road is a minimally maintained dirt road reaching roughly 10 miles into the mountains and Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest. A clearwater stream, the Carpenter Canyon Creek, runs through Carpenter Canyon the entire year, supporting a population of trout. A number of springs can be found in the recesses of the Red Rock Canyon area which lies on the side of the range. One of the more notable springs feeds Carpenter Canyon Creek, in Lower Carpenter Canyon, Creosote bush - Larrea tridentata and golden native bunchgrasses dominate the landscape. Moving further up in elevation, Banana yucca - Yucca baccata, Mojave yucca - Yucca schidigera, small flowering plants become common. At around 5,000 feet, Utah Juniper -Juniperus osteosperma trees and Single-leaf Pinyon - Pinus monophylla are introduced, towards the source of the creek, and the head of the canyon Ponderosa Pine - Pinus ponderosa and a wide variety of flowering plants are prevalent.
This includes the indigenous Desert Columbine - Aquilegia shockleyi, riparian plants, such as Fremont Cottonwood - Populus fremontii, flank the creek banks. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area Pinyon-juniper woodland Friends of Nevada Wilderness website
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Pahrump Valley is a Mojave Desert valley west of Las Vegas and the Spring Mountains massif in southern Nye County and eastern San Bernardino County, California. Pahrump, Nevada, is in the center and the Tecopa. The valley has routes to Death Valley and a route to Las Vegas, Pahrump along with Valley Electric will soon be the first town in Nevada to offer fiber internet to each house within its geographical area. The Pahrump Valley was crossed by the Old Spanish Trail and the Salt Lake Road, Route 160 turns northwest to Pahrump in the valleys center-north meets U. S. Route 95 at the valleys north perimeter. Carpenter Canyon road starts near Pahrump and runs about 10 miles to Carpenter Canyon, Carpenter Canyon creek is one of the few year round fish creeks in the Spring Mountains. In California, the Nopah Range borders the valleys southwest, with the north of the adjacent Resting Spring Range merging north to form the northwest border of the Pahrump Valley, the mostly east-west Kingston Range is the southern border of the valley.
The closest community to Pahrump is Shoshone, California,25 mi southwest, with Ash Meadows Ranch and Death Valley Junction, the Pahrump Valley Wilderness is in the southern Pahrump Valley, the northern Kingston Range, and the California and Mesquite Valleys. McCracken, Robert D. Pahrump, A Valley Waiting to Become a City