An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties. The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island.
The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. S. designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, those parcels came to be called "reservations".
The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection. Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement. The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August 1758. It was called Brotherton Indian Reservation and Edgepillock or Edgepelick; the area was 3284 acres.
Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1764 the "Plan for the Future Management of Indian Affairs" was proposed by the Board of Trade. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings. Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. This protocol was adopted by the United States Government after the American Revolution. On 11 March 1824, John C. Calhoun founded the Office of Indian Affairs as a division of the United States Department of War, to solve the land problem with 38 treaties with American Indian tribes; the document “Indian Treaties, Laws and Regulations Relating to Indian Affairs”’ published in 1825 in Washington City, America was signed by president Andrew Jackson.
He states that “we have placed the land reserves in a better state for the benefit of society” with approval of Indigenous reservations prior to 1850. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system. President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in 1837 to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before 1850. He says Indigenous Reservations are “all their reserves of land in the state of Michigan, on the principle of said reserves being sold at the public land offices for their benefit and the actual proceeds being paid to them.” The agreement is for the Indigenous Tribe to sell their land, based on a Reservation to build a “lighthouse.” President, Martin Van Buren wants to buy Indigenous Reservation Land to build infrastructure.
A Treaty signed by John Forsyth, the Secretary of State on behalf of, President Martin Van Buren of the United
Mormonism is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity started by Joseph Smith in Western New York in the 1820s and 30s. After Smith was killed in 1844, most Mormons followed Brigham Young on his westward journey to the area that became the Utah Territory, calling themselves The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Other sects include Mormon fundamentalism, which seeks to maintain practices and doctrines such as polygamy, other small independent denominations; the second-largest Latter Day Saint denomination, the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, since 2001 called the Community of Christ, does not describe itself as "Mormon", but follows a Trinitarian Christian restorationist theology, considers itself Restorationist in terms of Latter Day Saint doctrine. The word Mormon derived from the Book of Mormon, a religious text published by Smith, which he said he translated from golden plates with divine assistance.
The book describes itself as a chronicle of early indigenous peoples of the Americas and their dealings with God. Based on the book's name, Smith's early followers were more known as Mormons, their faith Mormonism; the term was considered pejorative, but Mormons no longer consider it so. Mormonism has common beliefs with the rest of the Latter Day Saint movement, including the use of and belief in the Bible, in other religious texts including the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants, it accepts the Pearl of Great Price as part of its scriptural canon, has a history of teaching eternal marriage, eternal progression and polygamy, although the LDS Church formally abandoned the practice of plural marriage in 1890. Cultural Mormonism, a lifestyle promoted by Mormon institutions, includes cultural Mormons who identify with the culture, but not the theology. Mormonism originated in the 1820s in western New York during a period of religious excitement known as the Second Great Awakening. After praying about which denomination he should join, Joseph Smith, Jr. said he received a vision in the spring of 1820.
Called the "First Vision", Smith said God the Father instructed him to join none of the existing churches because they were all wrong. During the 1820s Smith reported several angelic visitations, was told that God would use him to re-establish the true Christian church, that the Book of Mormon would be the means of establishing correct doctrine for the restored church. Smith, Oliver Cowdery, other early followers, began baptizing new converts in 1829. Formally organized in 1830 as the Church of Christ. Smith was seen by his followers as a modern-day prophet. Joseph Smith said the Book of Mormon was translated from writing on golden plates in a reformed Egyptian language, translated with the assistance of the Urim and Thummim and seer stones. Both the special spectacles and the seer stone were at times referred to as the "Urim and Thummim", he said an angel first showed him the location of the plates in 1823, buried in a nearby hill, but he was not allowed to take the plates until 1827. Smith began dictating the text of The Book of Mormon around the fall of 1827 until the summer of 1828 when 116 pages were lost.
Translation began again in April 1829 and finished in June 1829, saying that he translated it "by the gift and power of God". Oliver Cowdery acted as scribe for the majority of the translation. After the translation was completed, Smith said. During Smith's supposed possession few people were allowed to "witness" the plates; the book described itself as a chronicle of an early Israelite diaspora, integrating with the pre-existing indigenous peoples of the Americas, written by a people called the Nephites. According to The Book of Mormon, Lehi's family left Jerusalem at the urging of God c. 600 BC, sailed to the Americas c. 589 BC. The Nephites are described as descendants of the fourth son of the prophet Lehi; the Nephites are portrayed as having a belief in Christ hundreds of years before his birth. Historical accuracy and veracity of the Book of Mormon continues to be hotly contested. No archaeological, linguistic, or other evidence of the use of Egyptian writing in ancient America has been discovered.
To avoid confrontation with New York residents, the members moved to Kirtland and hoped to establish a permanent New Jerusalem or City of Zion in Jackson County, Missouri. However, they were expelled from Jackson County in 1833 and fled to other parts of Missouri in 1838. Violence between the Missourians and church members resulted in the governor of Missouri issuing an "extermination order," again forcing the church to relocate; the displaced Mormons fled to a small town called Commerce. The church bought the town, renamed it Nauvoo, lived with a degree of peace and prosperity for a few years. However, tensions between Mormons and non-Mormons again escalated, in 1844 Smith was killed by a mob, precipitating a succession crisis; the largest group of Mormons accepted Brigham Young as the new prophet/leader and emigrated to what became the Utah Territory. There, the church began the open practice of plural marriage, a form of polygyny which Smith had instituted in Nauvoo. Plural marriage became the faith's most sensational characteristic during the 19th century, but vigorous opposition by the United States Congress threatened the church's existence as a legal institution.
Further, polygamy was a major cause for the opposition to Mormonism in the states of Idaho and Arizona. In the 1890 Manifesto, church president Wilford Woodruff announced the official end of plural marriage; because of t
The Domínguez–Escalante expedition was a Spanish journey of exploration conducted in 1776 by two Franciscan priests, Atanasio Domínguez and Silvestre Vélez de Escalante, to find an overland route from Santa Fe, New Mexico to their Roman Catholic mission in Monterey, on the coast of northern California. Domínguez, Vélez de Escalante, Bernardo de Miera y Pacheco, acting as the expedition's cartographer, traveled with ten men from Santa Fe through many unexplored portions of the American West, including present-day western Colorado and northern Arizona. Along part of the journey, they were aided by three indigenous guides of the Timpanogos tribe; the land was harsh and unforgiving, hardships encountered during travel forced the group to return to Santa Fe before reaching Las Californias. Maps and documentation produced by the expedition aided future travelers; the Domínguez–Escalante route became an early template for the Old Spanish Trail, a trade route from Santa Fe to Pacific Coast settlements.
Fray Francisco Atanasio Domínguez was born in Mexico City about 1740, in 1757, at the age of 17, joined the Franciscan order. In October 1772, Domínguez was at the Convent of Veracruz as Commissary of the Third Order, he arrived in Santa Fe on March 22, 1776, in present-day New Mexico, of the Mexican province to inspect the Custody of the Conversion of St. Paul and investigate opening an overland route from Santa Fe to Monterey, California. Upon his return to Santa Fe and Mexico City, Domínguez submitted to his Franciscan superiors a report, critical of the administration of the New Mexico missions, his views caused him to fall out of favor with the Franciscans in power, leading him to an assignment to an obscure post at a Sonoran Desert mission in the Sonora y Sinaloa Province in northern Mexico. In 1777, Domínguez was the chaplain of presidios in Nueva Vizcaya. In 1800, he was at Janos, Mexico, he died between 1803 and 1805. Fray Francisco Silvestre Vélez de Escalante was born in Treceño, Spain about 1750.
When he was 17 he became a Franciscan in the Convento Grande in Mexico City. In 1774 he came to present-day New Mexico in the Mexican province. In June 1776 he was summoned by Domínguez for the expedition to California and remained in New Mexico for two years following the expedition, he died at the age of 30 in April 1780 in Parral, during his return journey to Mexico City for medical treatment. Vélez de Escalante was known for his journal. Bernardo Miera y Pacheco, a native of Valle de Carriedo, Mantanas de Burgos, lived in Chihuahua before he moved to El Paso in 1743. From 1754-56 he lived in Santa Fe. Multi-talented, he was an army engineer, Indian fighter, government agent and artist, it was his experience as a cartographer that made the expedition historic when he produced several maps of the expedition around 1778 and a report on the expedition, included in Herbert E. Bolton, Pageant in the Wilderness: The Story of the Escalante Expedition to the Interior Basin, he is known for his artwork, including a painting of St. Michael on an altar screen in Santa Fe's chapel of San Miguel and statuettes that were in the Zuni church.
Fathers Dominguez and Escalante named three Timpanogos/Ute Native Americans who joined the expedition as guides: "Silvestre", named after Silvestre Escalante, from present day Utah was the main Native guide from Colorado to Utah. Because of his recognition with his and other Ute tribes, the explorers enjoyed safe passage. "Joaquin", a 12-year-old boy, joined the expedition with Silvestre as a guide. After leaving Silvestre's village, near present Provo, Joaquin assisted the explorers on their return trip to Santa Fe, New Mexico, he was baptized there in the Catholic Church. "Jose Maria", the joined name of the Bible's Joseph and Maria, joined the expedition in Silvestre's village. Like Joaquin, Jose Maria was a boy also about 12 years old, he did not complete the journey to Santa Fe. Other men who began the expedition in Santa Fe include: Don Juan Pedro Cisneros, Alcalde mayor of Zuñi Pueblo Don Joaquin Lain, a native of Santa Cruz in Castilla la Vieja and citizen of Sante Fe at the time of the expedition.
He died in 1799. Lorenzo Olivares from La Villa del Paso, a citizen of El Paso at the time of the expedition Andrés Muñiz from Bernalillo, New Mexico served as an interpreter with the Utes language, he was part of Juan Maria de Rivera's expedition to the Gunnison River in 1775. Lucrecio Muñiz was the brother Andres Muniz, from Embudo, north of Santa Fe. Juan de Aguilar was born in New Mexico. Simon Lucero, a servant to Don Pedro Cisneros, may have been Zuni; the Domínguez–Escalante Expedition was undertaken in 1776 with the purpose of finding a route across the unexplored continental interior from Santa Fe, New Mexico to Spanish missions in Las Californias, such as the Spanish presidio at Monterey. On July 29, 1776, Atanasio Domínguez led the expedition from Santa Fe with fellow friar Silvestre Vélez de Escalante and cartographer Bernardo de Miera y Pacheco; the initial part of their journey followed the route taken by Juan Rivera eleven years earlier into the Ute country of southwestern Colorado.
Three Timpanogos guides led them through Utah. These Spanish colonists were the first European men to travel through much of the Colorado Plateau into Utah, back through Arizona to New Mexico. During the course of their trip, they documented the route and provided detailed i
Chief Walkara was a Shoshone leader of the Utah Indians known as the Timpanogo and Sanpete Band. It is not clear what cultural group the Utah or Timpanogo Indians belonged to, but they are listed as Shoshone, he had a reputation as a diplomat and warrior, a military leader of raiding parties, in the Wakara War. He was the most prominent Native American chief in the Utah area when the Mormon Pioneers arrived in 1847. One observer described Walkara in 1843 as: "the principal ruling chief... owing his position to great wealth. He is a good trader, trafficking with the whites and reselling goods to such of his nation as are less skillful in striking a bargain."In 1865, some ten years after his death, the Timpanogo agreed to go live on the Uintah Reservation under Chief Tabby-To-Kwanah and merged with the Northern Shoshone. Walkara is referred to as Ute, but this is incorrect. Ute is a blanket name for many tribes; the Shoshone have cultural and linguistic heritage as part of the Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Walkara is Shoshone and his name, means Hawk, in Shoshone. Walkara was born 1808 along the Spanish Fork River in Utah, he was one of the five sons of a chief of the Timpanogos Tribe. He spent much time fishing along the Utah Lake shores in what is now Vineyard. Walkara could communicate in Spanish and native languages, his brothers included Chief Arapeen, for whom the Arapeen Valley near Utah was named. He gathered a raiding band of warriors from Great Basin tribes, Ute and Shoshone, rode with his brothers on raids, his band raided ranches and attacked travelers in the Great Basin and along the Old Spanish Trail between New Mexico and California. Small native bands and tribes in the area paid him tribute in return for assistance. Walkara was distinguished by the yellow face paint that he wore; some people called him,'The Greatest Horse thief in History.' In California Walkara was known as a great horse thief, due to his stealing around 3,000 horses in Southern California in the 1840s. In some of these raids, the band fought Cahuilla leader Juan Antonio.
Mountain men James Beckwourth and Thomas "Pegleg" Smith were involved in this campaign and were known to trade with Walkara, providing the band with whiskey in return for horses. In 1845 Benjamin Davis Wilson, Justice of the Peace and assistant for Indian affairs in Riverside County, was commissioned to track down Walkara and his marauders and bring them to justice, but never succeeded, their mission was interrupted by the discovery of the Big Bear Lake area. No additional account of the pursuit was reported. Horsethief Canyon and Little Horsethief Canyon in the Cajon Pass are named for Walkara's exploits. Several men were killed in both canyons; when Mormon pioneers arrived in what is today known as Utah, they were caught between the Shoshone and the Ute: both tribes claimed the Salt Lake Valley. The settlers refused to pay the Shoshone for the land, knowing that they would have to pay the Ute as well. Brigham Young, the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, recommended that the Mormon settlers avoid trading with Native American tribes.
At this time, the Ute bands of Indians were divided, but Walkara's band was one of the most influential. Walkara recognized. However, the Ute were angered by the Mormons building a permanent settlement in the area, Walkara favored driving them out by force, his brother, wanted to accommodate the Mormons. After initial disagreement, Walkara conceded to Sowiette. Instead of war, the Mormons had peace with the Timpanogo; the first act of violence between the Ute and the Mormon settlers occurred on March 5, 1849. Some Ute had disregarded their leaders' instruction not to steal from the Mormons, had killed and stolen livestock from the settlers. In retaliation, the settlers set out to find those responsible, they ambushed some Ute. In April, Walkara supported Ute attacks on Fort Utah. In late 1849, Walkara met with Young, asking him to send men to help settle Ute land, with that request, settlers including Welcome Chapman went to the Sanpete Valley. Young dispatched a company of about 225 settlers, under the direction of Isaac Morley.
The settlers arrived at the present location of Manti, Utah in November, established a base camp for the winter, digging temporary shelters into the south side of the hill on which the LDS Manti Utah Temple now stands. It was an isolated place, at least four days by wagon from the nearest Mormon settlement. Relations between the Mormon settlers and the local Ute Indians were cooperative. Morley and his settlers felt. Morley wrote, "Did we come here to enrich ourselves in the things of this world? No. We were sent to enrich the Natives and comfort the hearts of the long oppressed."During the severe winter, a measles epidemic broke out. The Mormons used their limited medicine to nurse the Indians, when Mormon supplies ran low, the Ute shared their food supply. In 1850, Walkara agreed to be baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints with his son. Walkara traded women and children as slaves in order to trade for horses and ammunition. Mormon settlers tried to stop this practice, but their efforts only angered the tribe for inte
The Sevier River is a 385-mile -long river in the Great Basin of southwestern Utah in the United States. Originating west of Bryce Canyon National Park, the river flows north through a chain of high farming valleys and steep canyons along the west side of the Sevier Plateau, before turning southwest and terminating in the endorheic basin of Sevier Lake in the Sevier Desert, it is used extensively for irrigation along its course, with the consequence that Sevier Lake is dry. The Sevier River drainage basin of 11,574 square miles covers more than 13 percent of Utah and includes parts of ten counties, of which the river flows through seven; the name of the river is derived from the Spanish Rio Severo, "violent river". The Sevier is the longest river within the state of Utah; the Sevier River is formed by the confluence of Minnie Creek and Tyler Creek in Long Valley in Kane County. The headwaters are at an elevation of 7,310 ft between the Markagunt Plateau and the Paunsaugunt Plateau; the river flows north through a wide valley into Garfield County passing Panguitch.
It flows through the narrow, 5-mile Circleville Canyon and enters Piute County at the town of Circleville, is joined by the East Fork Sevier River at Kingston. North of Kingston, it is dammed to form Piute Reservoir; the Sevier continues north past Marysvale and through Marysvale Canyon into Sevier County. At Sevier the river enters the agricultural Sevier Valley, a 50-mile long basin between the Pavant Range on the west and the Sevier Plateau to the east. In the valley, the Sevier River flows northeast, passing the towns of Joseph, Richfield, Aurora and Redmond flows north into Sanpete County where it picks up the San Pitch River near Gunnison. In Juab County the Yuba Dam forms Sevier Bridge Reservoir, which extends into Sanpete County. Below the dam the river flows north turns abruptly west through Leamington Canyon, between the Canyon Mountains and Gilson Mountains, into Millard County; the river flows southwest across the Sevier Desert, where it is used for irrigation in the Delta area, is dammed at the DMAD and Gunnison Bend reservoirs.
The river is dry for the last 30 miles below Delta, through its confluence with the dry Beaver River before reaching the intermittent Sevier Lake bed. The Sevier River drainage basin is on the border of the Basin and Range Province and the Colorado Plateau, The north and west parts of the basin are defined by long linear mountain ranges such as the Pavant and Canyon Mountains. To the east and south rise high plateaus and block-shaped mountain ranges, chief of which are the Wasatch and Sevier Plateaus to the east, the Paunsaugunt and Markagunt Plateaus, the Pink Cliffs and the Tushar Mountains to the south; the entire basin is at high elevation, with the highest point at 12,174-foot Delano Peak in the Tushar Mountains. There are twelve other peaks in the basin rising more than 11,000 feet; the lowest point is at Sevier Lake, 4,524 feet above sea level. The basin experiences a continental climate ranging in character from semi-arid to alpine. Precipitation – ranging from 6.4 inches in the desert valleys to more than 40 inches in the mountains – falls as snow during the winter and early spring, as monsoon thunderstorms in late summer and early fall.
As of 1999, there was an estimated annual runoff of 823,000 acre feet in the Sevier River basin, but only about 32,900 acre feet of that reached Sevier Lake, in wet years. Before irrigation, not all of this water reached Sevier Lake due to large evaporation losses in the Sevier Desert; the Sevier River basin is bordered to the south by the drainage basins of Virgin River, Kanab Creek, Paria River, Dirty Devil River, all tributaries of the Colorado River. To the east it is bordered by the Price and San Rafael River basins, tributaries of the Green River, which flows into the Colorado. On the north it is bordered by the Utah Lake–Great Salt Lake basin, to the west it is bordered by the Great Salt Lake Desert basins. Most of the Sevier drainage is rural, composed of small farming communities; the largest town is Richfield, with a population of 7,723 as of 2016. About 69 percent of the land is federally owned, much of that in national forest lands such as the Manti-La Sal, Fishlake and Uinta National Forests.
The basin includes parts of Bryce Canyon National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument. About 23 percent of the basin is owned and 8 percent is owned by the state of Utah; the Sevier River corridor is a major transportation route, with U. S. Route 89 following the river for over 100 miles from its headwaters as far as Gunnison, I-70 paralleling the river for about 30 miles between Sevier and Salina. Surface rock in the Sevier River basin is composed of Tertiary igneous rock, sedimentary rock ranging in age from Jurassic to Quaternary; this is underlain by marine sedimentary rock including thick limestone layers, which accumulated prior to the Jurassic when the western US was part of a shallow sea. Uplift during the Jurassic and Cretaceous thrust western Utah above sea level for the first time. Between 100 and 80 million years ago the Sevier Orogeny created mountains much higher than those found in western Utah today; the Sevier Desert was formed starting about 20 million years ago due to crustal stretching that lowered the local terrain.
Another period of uplift occurred towards the end of the Tertiary, about 12–2 million years ago, creating most of the present-day mountain ranges and plateaus. Significant vertical displacement has o
Ute people are Native Americans of the Ute tribe and culture and are among the Great Basin classification of Indigenous People. They have lived in the regions of present-day Utah and Colorado for centuries, hunting and gathering food. In addition to their home regions within Colorado and Utah, their hunting grounds extended into Wyoming and New Mexico, they had sacred grounds outside of their home domain that were visited seasonally. Spiritual and ceremonial practices were observed by the Utes. There were twelve historic bands of Utes whose culture was influenced by neighboring Native Americans. Although they operated in family groups for hunting and gathering, they came together for ceremonies and trading; the Utes traded with other Native American tribes and Puebloans. When they made contact with early Euro-Americans, such as the Spanish, they traded with them. After they acquired horses from the Spanish, their lifestyle changed affecting their mobility, hunting practices, tribal organization.
Once defensive warriors, they became adept horsemen and warriors, raiding other Native Americans and Puebloans. Their prestige was based upon the number of horses they owned and their horsemanship, tested during horse races. Once the American West began to be inhabited by gold prospectors and settlers in the mid-1800s, the Utes were pressured off their ancestral lands, they entered into treaties to hold on to some of their land and were relocated to reservations. A few of the key conflicts during this period include the Walker War, Black Hawk War, the Meeker Massacre, they are now living in Utah and Colorado, within three Ute tribal reservations: Uintah-Ouray in northeastern Utah. The majority of Ute are believed to live on one of these reservations. Utah is named after these people; the origin of the word Ute is unknown. The Utes self-designation is based upon nuuchi-u. Ute people are from the Southern subdivision of the Numic-speaking branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, which are found entirely in the Western United States and Mexico.
The name of the language family was created to show that it includes both the Colorado River Numic language dialect chain that stretches from southeastern California, along the Colorado River to Colorado and the Nahuan languages of Mexico. It is believed that this Numic group originated near the border of Nevada and California spread North and East. By about 1000, there were hunters and gatherers in the Great Basin of Uto-Aztecan ethnicity that are believed to have been the ancestors of the Indigenous tribes of the Great Basin, including the Ute, Shoshone, Hopi and Chemehuevi peoples; some ethnologists postulate that the Southern Numic speakers, the Ute and Southern Paiute, left the Numic homeland first, based on language changes, that the Central and the Western subgroups spread out toward the east and north, sometime later. Shoshone and Comanche are Central Numic, Northern Paiute and Bannock are Western Numic; the Southern Numic-speaking tribes—the Utes, Southern Paiute, Chemehuevi— share many cultural and linguistic characteristics.
There were ancestral Utes in southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah by 1300, living a hunter-gather lifestyle. The Ute occupied much of the present state of Colorado by the 1600s, they were followed by the Comanches from the south in the 1700s, the Arapaho and Cheyenne from the plains who dominated the plains of Colorado. The Utes came to inhabit a large area including most of Utah and central Colorado, south into the San Juan River watershed of New Mexico; some Ute bands stayed near their home domains. Hunting grounds extended further into Utah and Colorado, as well as into Wyoming, Oklahoma and New Mexico. Winter camps were established along rivers near the present-day cities of Provo and Fort Duchesne in Utah and Pueblo, Fort Collins, Colorado Springs of Colorado. Aside from their home domain, there were sacred places in present-day Colorado; the Tabeguache Ute's name for Pikes Peak is Tavakiev. Living a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle, summers were spent in the Pikes Peak area mountains, considered by other tribes to be the domain of the Utes.
Pikes Peak was a sacred ceremonial area for the band. The mineral springs at Manitou Springs were sacred and Ute and other tribes came to the area, spent winters there, "share in the gifts of the waters without worry of conflict." Artifacts found from the nearby Garden of the Gods, such as grinding stones, "suggest the groups would gather together after their hunt to complete the tanning of hides and processing of meat."The old Ute Pass Trail went eastward from Monument Creek to Garden of the Gods and Manitou Springs to the Rocky Mountains. From Ute Pass, Utes journeyed eastward to hunt buffalo, they spent winters in mountain valleys. The North and Middle Parks of present-day Colorado were among favored hunting grounds, due to the abundance of game. Cañon Pintado, or painted canyon, is a prehistoric site with rock art from Fremont Utes; the Fremont art reflect an interest in agriculture, including corn stalks and use of light at different times of the year to show a planting calendar. There are images of figures holding shields, what appear to be battle victims, spears.
These were seen by the Domin
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging. Hunter-gatherer societies stand in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was humanity's first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history. Following the invention of agriculture, hunter-gatherers who did not change have been displaced or conquered by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world. In West Eurasia, agriculture lead to widespread genetic changes when older hunter-gatherer populations were replaced by Middle Eastern farmers during the Neolithic who in turn were overrun by Indo-Europeans during the Bronze Age. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers, many supplement their foraging activity with horticulture or pastoralism. During the 1970s, Lewis Binford suggested that early humans were obtaining food via scavenging, not hunting. Early humans in the Lower Paleolithic lived in forests and woodlands, which allowed them to collect seafood, eggs and fruits besides scavenging.
Rather than killing large animals for meat, according to this view, they used carcasses of such animals that had either been killed by predators or that had died of natural causes. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers survived in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover. According to the endurance running hypothesis, long-distance running as in persistence hunting, a method still practiced by some hunter-gatherer groups in modern times, was the driving evolutionary force leading to the evolution of certain human characteristics; this hypothesis does not contradict the scavenging hypothesis: both subsistence strategies could have been in use – sequentially, alternating or simultaneously. Hunting and gathering was the subsistence strategy employed by human societies beginning some 1.8 million years ago, by Homo erectus, from its appearance some 0.2 million years ago by Homo sapiens.
Prehistoric hunter-gatherers lived in groups that consisted of several families resulting in a size of a few dozen people. It remained the only mode of subsistence until the end of the Mesolithic period some 10,000 years ago, after this was replaced only with the spread of the Neolithic Revolution. Starting at the transition between the Middle to Upper Paleolithic period, some 80,000 to 70,000 years ago, some hunter-gatherers bands began to specialize, concentrating on hunting a smaller selection of game and gathering a smaller selection of food; this specialization of work involved creating specialized tools such as fishing nets and bone harpoons. The transition into the subsequent Neolithic period is chiefly defined by the unprecedented development of nascent agricultural practices. Agriculture originated as early as 12,000 years ago in the Middle East, independently originated in many other areas including Southeast Asia, parts of Africa and the Andes. Forest gardening was being used as a food production system in various parts of the world over this period.
Forest gardens originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions. In the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified and improved, whilst undesirable species were eliminated. Superior introduced species were selected and incorporated into the gardens. Many groups continued their hunter-gatherer ways of life, although their numbers have continually declined as a result of pressure from growing agricultural and pastoral communities. Many of them reside in arid regions or tropical forests. Areas that were available to hunter-gatherers were—and continue to be—encroached upon by the settlements of agriculturalists. In the resulting competition for land use, hunter-gatherer societies either adopted these practices or moved to other areas. In addition, Jared Diamond has blamed a decline in the availability of wild foods animal resources. In North and South America, for example, most large mammal species had gone extinct by the end of the Pleistocene—according to Diamond, because of overexploitation by humans, one of several explanations offered for the Quaternary extinction event there.
As the number and size of agricultural societies increased, they expanded into lands traditionally used by hunter-gatherers. This process of agriculture-driven expansion led to the development of the first forms of government in agricultural centers, such as the Fertile Crescent, Ancient India, Ancient China, Sub-Saharan Africa and Norte Chico; as a result of the now near-universal human reliance upon agriculture, the few contemporary hunter-gatherer cultures live in areas unsuitable for agricultural use. Archaeologists can use evidence such as stone tool use to track hunter-gatherer activities, including mobility. Most hunter-gatherers are semi-nomadic and live in temporary settlements. Mobile communities construct shelters using impermanent building materials, or they may use natural rock shelters, where they are available; some hunter-gatherer cultures, such as the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast and the Yakuts, lived in rich environments that allowed them to be sedentary or semi-sedentary.
Hunter-gatherers tend to have an egalitarian social ethos, although settled hunter-gatherers are an exception to this rule. Nearly