Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is most used to protect, color, or provide texture to objects. Paint can be made or purchased in many colors—and in many different types, such as watercolor or synthetic. Paint is stored and applied as a liquid, but most types dry into a solid. Most paints are either oil-based or water-based and each have distinct characteristics. For one, it is illegal in most municipalities to discard oil based paint down household drains or sewers. Solvents for clean up are different for water based paint than they are for oil based paint. Water-based paints and oil-based paints will cure differently based on the outside ambient temperature of the object being painted Usually the object being painted must be over 10 °C, although some manufacturers of external paints/primers claim they can be applied when temperatures are as low as 2 °C. Paint was one of the earliest inventions of mankind.
Some cave paintings drawn with red or yellow ochre, manganese oxide, charcoal may have been made by early Homo sapiens as long as 40,000 years ago. Paint may be older. In 2003 and 2004, South African archeologists reported finds in Blombos Cave of a 100,000-year-old human-made ochre-based mixture that could have been used like paint. Further excavation in the same cave resulted in the 2011 report of a complete toolkit for grinding pigments and making a primitive paint-like substance. Ancient colored walls at Dendera, which were exposed for years to the elements, still possess their brilliant color, as vivid as when they were painted about 2,000 years ago; the Egyptians mixed their colors with a gummy substance and applied them separately from each other without any blending or mixture. They appear to have used six colors: white, blue, red and green, they first covered the area with white traced the design in black, leaving out the lights of the ground color. They used minium for red of a dark tinge.
Pliny mentions some painted ceilings in his day in the town of Ardea, made prior to the foundation of Rome. He expressed great surprise and admiration after the lapse of so many centuries. Paint was made with the yolk of eggs and therefore, the substance would harden and adhere to the surface it was applied to. Pigment was made from plants and different soils. Most paints used either water as a base. A still extant example of 17th-century house oil painting is Ham House in Surrey, where a primer was used along with several undercoats and an elaborate decorative overcoat; the process was done by hand by the painters, which exposed them to lead poisoning, due to the white-lead powder. In 1718, Marshall Smith invented Engine for the Grinding of Colours" in England, it is not known how it operated, but it was a device that increased the efficiency of pigment grinding dramatically. Soon, a company called Emerton and Manby was advertising exceptionally low-priced paints, ground with labour-saving technology: One Pound of Colour ground in a Horse-Mill will paint twelve Yards of Work, whereas Colour ground any other Way, will not do half that Quantity.
By the proper onset of the Industrial Revolution, in the mid-18th century, paint was being ground in steam-powered mills, an alternative to lead-based pigments had been found in a white derivative of zinc oxide. Interior house painting became the norm as the 19th century progressed, both for decorative reasons and because the paint was effective in preventing the walls rotting from damp. Linseed oil was increasingly used as an inexpensive binder. In 1866, Sherwin-Williams in the United States opened as a large paint-maker and invented a paint that could be used from the tin without preparation, it was not until the stimulus of World War II created a shortage of linseed oil in the supply market that artificial resins, or alkyds, were invented. Cheap and easy to make, they held the color well and lasted for a long time; the vehicle is composed of the binder. In this case, once the paint has dried or cured nearly all of the diluent has evaporated and only the binder is left on the coated surface.
Thus, an important quantity in coatings formulation is the "vehicle solids", sometimes called the "resin solids" of the formula. This is the proportion of the wet coating weight, binder, i.e. the polymer backbone of the film that will remain after drying or curing is complete. The binder is the film-forming component of paint, it is the only component, always present among all the various types of formulations. Many binders must be thinned; the type of thinner, if present, varies with the binder. The binder imparts properties such as gloss, durability and toughness. Binders include synthetic or natural resins such as alkyds, vinyl-acrylics, vinyl acetate/ethylene, polyesters, melamine resins, silanes or siloxanes or oils. Binders can be categorized according to the mechanisms for film formation. Thermoplastic mechanisms include coalescence. Drying refers to simple evaporation of the thinner to leave a coherent film behind. Coalescence refers to a mechanism that involves drying followed by actual interpenetration and fusion of discrete particles.
Thermoplastic film-forming mechanisms are sometimes describe
Green Optics Co. Ltd. is a South Korean optics company with the capacity for planning, processing, coating and evaluation of optical items. 1997: Established 1999: Incorporated 2001: ISO 9001 Certified 2005: Main factory built 2006: ISO14001 Certified 2009: Partnership with Samsung 2011: Construction completed on Research and Development facility. Awarded equipment management contract with South Korean Astronomy and Space Science Institute. 2014: Construction completed on Third Factory. 2015: View Tomorrow subsidiary company created. 2016: Construction completed on Fifth Factory --- Large Precision Optics. Zinc Sulfide lens released to international market. Head Mounted Displays: starting in 2000 the company began working with HMDs. Areas of research include augmented and virtual reality for educational and training purposes, as well as entertainment and personal use. Advanced Display manufacturing: areas of research include transparent displays for use in Heads Up Display for aviation and automotive applications, augmented reality.
Semiconductors Advanced Lens manufacturing 2001: King of the Inventors Prize at the Scientific Technology Exhibition in Chungcheongbuk-do Participated at the Seoul International Image and Optical Device Exhibition Won the Bronze Medal in Small and Medium Company Technology Innovation Competition2006: Grand Prize at the Regional Innovation Exhibition by the South Korean Ministry of Commerce and Energy. Participated in CeBIT20062007: Participated in CeBIT20072009: Awarded the Grand Prize Innovative Entrepreneurship by the Korean Accounting Committee2010: Awarded the Technology Prize by the Korean Optics Committee Awarded the Million Dollar Export Tower Trophy by the government of South Korea.2012: Awarded the 2012 Grand Corporation Prize by the Korea Industrial Technology Association Participated and exhibited at CES.2014: Korean Minister of Education Prize Selected by Korea Industrial Complex Corporation as a Global Leading Company.2015: Exhibited at CES Great Intellectual Property CEO by Korean Patent Office Small and Medium Business Administration Awarded the Small and Medium Company Integrated Daejeon by the President of South Korea Awarded the Grand Prize for the Future Growth of Korea by Money Today2016: Participated at CES 2016
The A62 derby is the name of a football derby, given to matches played between Huddersfield Town and Oldham Athletic. The two clubs are separated by 15 miles and are located close to the M62 motorway crossing the Pennines in the historic counties of Yorkshire and Lancashire making it a traditional'War of the Roses' clash; the first game between Huddersfield and Oldham was played in the First Division of English football during the 1920–21 season, although league meetings remained rare until the 1980s. Therefore, there was little rivalry between the clubs until more recent times, with regular meetings in the decades since leading to increased significance and intensity in the fixture when both clubs spent a number of seasons vying for promotion from the third tier; the two sides have not met in a competitive fixture since 2012. Indeed, it took Oldham until 20 April 1974 to record their first victory over Huddersfield, an emphatic 6-0 scoreline at the tenth attempt that more guaranteed the Latics promotion back to the Second Division.
The highest attendance involving the two clubs was set on 9 January 1932 when 30,607 watched a 1–1 draw at Oldham's Boundary Park in a third round FA Cup tie. The first fixture between the two clubs was a First Division game on 2 May 1921 and resulted in a 3–1 win for Huddersfield; the biggest victories resulted in a 6-0 to Huddersfield in the FA Cup at Leeds Road on 13 January 1932 and a 6-0 to Oldham in the Third Division on 20 April 1974. Huddersfield have been beaten on two other occasions at Boundary Park, with a 4-0 win in September 2002 and a 4-1 win in March 2008 for Oldham; the most remarkable game between the two clubs was on 20 September 1986, when Huddersfield defeated Oldham 5-4 - all the more surprising when considering that Huddersfield played with ten men from the 23rd minute and that Oldham had played their previous six games that season without conceding a goal, winning five of them. Huddersfield Town win Oldham Athletic win Draw The following players have played for Huddersfield Town and Oldham Athletic.
In addition to this a number of people have links to both clubs including: Frank Bunn played for Oldham from 1987 to 1990 before managing the club in 2018 and was a member of the coaching staff at Huddersfield. Ian Greaves played for local club Oldham and managed Huddersfield from 1968 to 1974. Andy Ritchie played for Oldham in two separate spells, whilst managing the club from 1998 to 2001, managed Huddersfield from 2007 to 2008, his final game as Huddersfield manager was a 4-1 defeat against Oldham at Boundary Park. Mick Wadsworth managed Oldham from 2001 to 2002, managed Huddersfield from 2002 to 2003. Neil Warnock managed Huddersfield from 1993 to 1995, managed Oldham from 1997 to 1998
Łukasz Burliga is a Polish footballer who plays for Wisła Kraków as defender. In the 2007–08 season, he won the Młoda Ekstraklasa title with Wisła Kraków's youth team. During the 2008 -- 09 season, he scored 12 goals in the Młoda Ekstraklasa. During the second half of the 2008–09 season he played on loan at Flota Świnoujście in the Polish First League. On 18 February 2016 he signed three-and-a-half year contract with Ekstraklasa side Jagiellonia Białystok. Wisła Kraków Młoda Ekstraklasa: 2007–08Wisła KrakówEkstraklasa: 2010–11 Łukasz Burliga at 90minut.pl Łukasz Burliga at Soccerway
Arrow Classic Rock is a Dutch radio station, that plays classic rock and some modern rock. Arrow Classic Rock broadcasts on FM and is receivable via cable, all nationwide. Owned by Ad Ossendrijver and Willem van Kooten, the station started broadcasts via all Dutch cablenetworks in 1996 and bought AM 828 from Veronica FM in 1998. In 2003 the frequencies of medium wave had been redistributed and the station moved to AM 675. In May 2007 Crosspoints BV, the company which produced Arrow Classic Rock and Arrow Jazz FM bought Caz! to use their FM frequencies. On 31 January 2008 they ceased their AM transmissions, transmitting an announcement in English advising their move to FM and to use the web stream. Three evenings a week, a variety of program specials can be heard. On Monday Liselotte Hegt presents the program Arrow High Voltage!, on Tuesday Arie Verstegen presented Symphonic Mania! and Wednesday to hear the Bluesbox Gerry Jungen. The station can be received via cable, DVB and the Internet. Once a year the station organizes Arrow Rock Festival, one of the largest rock festivals in the Netherlands with dozens of big-name bands playing every year.
Aerosmith performed at Arrow Rock Festival 2007 along with Europe. In 2008, Kiss headlined the festival. Arrow contributes to the newly founded Pinkpop Classic rock festival, to be held August 2007 featuring the performance of Status Quo, among others. In October Arrow has Rocktober, in the spirit of Rock, that includes: The sympho-25 The blues top 50 The album top 100 of the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s The best guitar player, bass player and drummer The Arrow rock 500 British Invasion Rock in Waterland Ad Ossendrijver and Willem van Kooten started in autumn 1996 with Arrow Classic Rock Radio; the station sent non-stop rock music 24-hours a day via the cable. The philosophy was: first money attract DJs. On April 1, 1997 the broadcasting frequencies would be distributed; this was different. Only in 2003 the Dutch government passed after numerous legal procedures to divide FM frequencies. On January 15, 1998 stopped Hitradio Veronica with broadcast via the medium. Arrow Classic Rock Radio took one of its frequencies over 828 kHz broadcast from Heinenoord.
This could be achieved by Netherlands over the air. That year launched presented programs in the evenings. Gerry Jungen moved from the VARA to Arrow Classic Rock. René van den Abeele, which at Radio Noordzee Nationaal three years Rock from Holland had compiled and presented, adopted in February 1998 Classic Album Special on, he took care of presentation. He was responsible for the editing of the weekly Rolling Stones Special, presented by Luc van Rooij. Harry de Winter and Kees Baars place behind the Arrow microphone. In May 2003 were the Dutch broadcasting frequencies divided. In addition, Arrow Classic Rock offered a normal - recoup - amount to different FM frequency plots, they fell by their real bidding on the lots by the wayside because other parties offered much higher amounts. Thus, the transmitter was no airwave frequency. Soon, a deal was signed with Quality Radio, owner of AM 675 which Arrow Classic Rock still came into the ether. In early 2004 the company began behind Arrow Classic Rock FM sister station called Arrow Jazz FM.
The retirement benefit "Jazz" FM land was not divided in May 2003 and in November 2003 was still Van Kooten and Ossendrijver won. In 2006 PCM was pursued cross media; this was not a success, Ad Ossendrijver bought all the shares and independently with Arrow Classic Rock and Arrow Jazz FM continued, operated by Cross Point BV. On 1 July 2007 the company CrossPoints BV Ad Ossendrijver took the ether frequencies of Caz! over by SBS Broadcasting and placed directly on the Arrow Classic Rock FM frequencies. The AM675 was done by early 2008 on Radio Maria. In May and June 2008 Arrow began testing Arrow Talks at 362 m, but it remained only a test. On 10 July 2008, the Arrow radio group put the radio station Caz! Temporarily in the area of the AM frequencies 828 kHz, 362 m. From 2003 to 2008, it has organized the annual Arrow Rock Festival. In October, Arrow dominated by Rocktober, meaning that the Arrow Rock 500 and other Top X tables are turned in the sign of symphonic rock and blues. In February 2009, Crosspoints BV was ordered by the Radiocommunications Agency to cease Arrow Classic Rock broadcasting on the FM frequencies across the Netherlands by March 11 after a dispute about licence fees.
Because of the financial crisis Crosspoints BV was not longer able to pay millions for licence fees to the Dutch government for the distribution of a special interest music station. After FM-distribution stopped, Arrow Classic Rock was still broadcasting via all Dutch cable networks, online and on AM 828 kHz 24 hours a day. On 5 May 2009 Crosspoints switched off the AM-transmitter because only a limited number of listeners could be reached. At the time of Arrow Classic Rock on the FM were told several presented programs on the channel. Rinse Blanksma presented Roadrunner since November 12, 2007 to April 29, 2009; the afternoon edition of this program was presented by Maurice Verschuuren. Furthermore, Manuela Kemp with the afternoon show Rock Temple between 12:00 and 13:00 hour, Marisa Heutink with the evening program Rock of Ages to hear on the station. On weekends there are several themes of hours with different types of rock music. On the weekday evening is heard nonstop music under Classic Rock Around The Clock, in the hours before midnight Easy Rock & Ballads.
Furthermore, there are made several days special programs in the evening, like every Tuesday from nine to ten hours Arrow Sym
Chittenden County Transportation Authority was the public transit system headquartered in Burlington in Chittenden County, Vermont. CCTA served the communities of Burlington, South Burlington, Shelburne and Milton; as well as providing regular bus routes to these member municipalities, CCTA served parts of Colchester and had express routes for commuters travelling between Burlington and Montpelier, St. Albans. On March 17, 2014, a strike by the bus drivers' union shut down bus service, restored on April 4, 2014, after settlement of the strike. On January 22, 2016, it was announced that the CCTA will be renamed to Green Mountain Transit, completing a merger with the Green Mountain Transit Authority to become a regional system; as of October 2016, the merger has been completed. CCTA's transit center was located on Cherry Street in downtown Burlington. Most of the local routes operated from the portion of the terminal which occupies the south side of Cherry Street from Church Street to west of Saint Paul Street.
All of the commuter and express routes were operated from Pearl Street in the vicinity of Saint Paul Street. As of May 2015, a replacement terminal was under construction on Saint Paul Street, between Pearl and Cherry Streets; the "Downtown Transit Center" was scheduled to be completed in 2016. The Downtown Transit Center opened October 13, 2016, in conjunction with the merger with the GMTA. Most of the fleet is made up of Gillig low-floor transit buses, although a number of older RTS transit buses remain in use on Burlington Neighborhood Special routes. In recent years, MCI long-distance buses and various shuttle buses built on Ford F350 chassis have been purchased for intercity routes and transit service in outlying towns, respectively. Most local routes operated Monday through Saturday with 30-minute service patterns during the day, with most services leaving Cherry Street at:15 and:45 after the hour; some busier routes have 15-minute service during rush hours. Rush hours are 6:30 to 9:00 AM and 3:00 to 6:30 PM weekdays.
Denotes routes with 15-minute service. NB: Northbound; these are shuttle buses that each operate one day per week, in the morning, to/from senior housing centers. The general public is welcome on these routes. Denotes Burlington destinations $1.25 per one-way trip on local routes $12.00 for Adult 10-ride pass $50.00 for Adult monthly pass Free transfers are available for those needing to connect one-way on another bus. They are not valid for round trips. Fletcher Allen Health Care employees may receive a 25% discount on LINK Express passes. University of Vermont, St. Michael's College, Champlain College and Middlebury College students may receive free bus fare for most CCTA routes. No discount fares are available on Local Commuter or LINK Express routes. $4.00 per one-way trip $150 for Adult Monthly Pass $40 for 10-ride pass $2.00 per one-way trip $75 for Adult Monthly Pass $20 for 10-ride pass CCTA Webpage