Lower Haight, San Francisco
The Lower Haight is a neighborhood, sometimes referred to as Haight-Fillmore, in San Francisco, California. The eastern boundary is placed at Webster Street, Laguna Street. It is east of the more famous Haight-Ashbury, which is known as the Upper Haight. The name derives from the significant elevation change as Haight Street climbs steeply from Scott Street to Buena Vista Park, the area straddles a shallow valley between Mint Hill and Upper Haight, sloping down from Oak Street toward Duboce. Duboce Park, toward the corner of Duboce and Scott, is a park containing a childrens playground, dog park. Adjacent neighborhoods include the Western Addition/Alamo Square to the north, Duboce Triangle to the south, Hayes Valley to the east, in 2015, many real estate listings inaccurately called the Lower Haight Hayes Valley but no part of Haight Street is part of Hayes Valley. The Association considers the neighborhood to be a subset of the Hayes Valley, a mixture of restaurants, small nightclubs, drinking establishments, residences and hair salons characterizes the Lower Haight.
Neighborhood institutions include John Muir Elementary School, San Francisco Zen Center, The United States Mint and Koshland parks, Lower Haight differs from Upper Haight by having a more diverse population and a smaller number of retail businesses. The Victorian and Edwardian houses tend to be less ornately painted and maintained in the Lower Haight than in the Haight/Ashbury neighborhood, the neighborhood has been referred to as having a grungey, post-punk bohemian atmosphere. In response to crime, a moratorium was placed in 2006 on new licenses in the neighborhood. In 2008, the San Francisco Planning Commission decided that the historic pattern of crime is no barrier to having multiple Medical Cannabis Dispensaries there. The San Francisco Zen Center is at the northeast edge of the neighborhood in an elegant brick building designed by famed architect Julia Morgan in 1922. The area is served by several San Francisco Municipal Railway bus lines, surveys show that this neighborhood has one of the highest number of daily trips by bike per capita of any San Francisco neighborhood, and walking is very popular.
Haight-Ashbury Lower Haight Neighborhood Site Haighteration a blog about the Lower Haight, sFStation, Lower Haight Lower Haight group, Tribe. net
Springfield is a city in western New England, and the seat of Hampden County, United States. Springfield sits on the bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers, the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern Mill River. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 153,060. Metropolitan Springfield, as one of two areas in Massachusetts, had an estimated population of 698,903 as of 2009. The first Springfield in the New World, it is the largest city in Western New England, and the urban, economic and it is the third-largest city in Massachusetts and fourth-largest in New England after Boston and Providence. Hartford, the capital of Connecticut, lies 23.9 miles south of Springfield, bradley International Airport, which sits 12 miles south of Metro Center Springfield, is Hartford-Springfields airport. Springfield was founded in 1636 by English Puritan William Pynchon as Agawam Plantation under the administration of the Connecticut Colony, in 1641 it was renamed after Pynchons hometown of Springfield, England, following incidents that precipitated the settlement joining the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
From 1777 until its closing during the Vietnam War, the Springfield Armory attracted skilled laborers to Springfield, arsenal at Springfield during Shays Rebellion of 1787 led directly to the formation of the U. S. Springfield is located at 42°6′45″N 72°32′51″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 33.2 square miles, of which 32.1 square miles is land and 1.1 square miles is water. Once nicknamed The City in a Forest, Springfield features over 4, aside from its rivers, Springfields 2nd most prominent topographical feature is the citys 735 acres Forest Park, designed by renowned landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. Forest Park borders Western Massachusetts most affluent town, Springfield shares borders with other well-heeled suburbs such as East Longmeadow, Wilbraham and the de-industrializing city of Chicopee. The small cities of Agawam and West Springfield, Massachusetts lie less than a mile from Springfields Metro Center, across the Connecticut River.
The City of Springfield owns the Springfield Country Club, which is located in the city of West Springfield, Massachusetts. Springfield, like other cities in southern New England, has a continental climate with four distinct seasons. Winters are cold with a average in January of around 26 °F. During winter, noreaster storms can drop significant snowfalls on Springfield, Springfields summers are very warm and sometimes humid. During summer, several times per month, on hot days afternoon thunderstorms will develop when unstable warm air collides with approaching cold fronts, the daily average in July is around 74 °F. Usually several days during the summer exceed 90 °F, constituting a heat wave and fall temperatures are usually pleasant, with mild days and crisp, cool nights
In the United Kingdom and former British colonies, a Victorian house generally means any house built during the reign of Queen Victoria. During the Industrial Revolution, successive housing booms resulted in the building of many millions of Victorian houses which are now a feature of most British towns. In the UK, Victorian houses follow a range of architectural styles. Starting from the early classicism inherited from Regency architecture, the Italianate style gained influence in the 1820 and 1850s, and the Gothic Revival style became prevalent by the 1880s. Later in the Victorian era, the Queen Anne style and the Arts and Crafts movement increased in influence, resulting in the transition to styles typically seen in Edwardian houses. Victorian houses are found in many former British colonies where the style might be adapted to local building materials or customs, for example in Sydney and Melaka. In the United States, Victorian house styles include Second Empire, Queen Anne, Shingle, Richardsonian Romanesque, early in the Victorian era, up to the 1840s houses were still influenced by the classicism of Regency styles.
From the 1850s domestic buildings became increasingly influenced by the Gothic Revival, incorporating features such as pointed, projecting porches, bay windows. In addition to general architectural influences, this change in style resulted from several other factors. There was progressive introduction from the 1850s of various building regulations and cold water, at the start of the Victorian era, some houses had running tap water and a boiler for hot water. By the turn of the century and cold running water were a common feature, lighting powered by gas was available in many towns from the start of the Victorian era. By the end of the Victorian era, many houses had gas, a basement with a cellar for the storage of coal, required for open fires and to heat water. Sash windows but with larger panes of glass, from the 1850s, than the characteristic 6 plus 6 smaller panes seen in Georgian, Victorian houses were generally built in terraces or as detached houses. Building materials were brick or local stone, bricks were made in factories some distance away, to standard sizes, rather than the earlier practice of digging clay locally and making bricks on site.
The majority of houses were roofed with slate, quarried mainly in Wales, the clay tiles used in some houses would be available locally. Vegetation and small garden were often incorporated into Victorian homes, as forms of nature were prized by the suburban domestic ideal and these catered not only for the rich and the new middling-classes but for the poor. In deprived areas, Victorian houses were very small, for example. Some of these areas became slums or rookeries, and were cleared, some smaller, two-up two-down houses still survive, for example in Salford, Greater Manchester
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. The style of architecture that was created, though characterised as Neo-Renaissance, was essentially of its own time. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain about 1802 by John Nash and this small country house is generally accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from which is derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barrys Italianate style drew heavily for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, the style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved popularity in the United States. A late intimation of Nashs development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon.
Later examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building often enhanced by a belvedere complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor, unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew heavily on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and his most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden. Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Charles Barry into many of his London terraces. Following the completion of Osborne House in 1851, the became a popular choice of design for the small mansions built by the new. These were mostly built in cities surrounded by large but not extensive gardens, on occasions very similar, if not identical, designs to these Italianate villas would be topped by mansard roofs, and termed chateauesque. However, after a modest spate of Italianate villas, and French chateaux by 1855 the most favoured style of an English country house was Gothic, the Italianate style came to the small town of Newton Abbot in Devon, with Isambard Brunels atmospheric railway pumping houses.
An example that is not very known, but a clear example of Italianate architecture, is St. Christophers Anglican church in Hinchley Wood, Surrey. When the Ottomans exiled Fakhreddine to Tuscany in 1613, he entered an alliance with the Medicis, upon his return to Lebanon in 1618, he began modernising Lebanon. He developed an industry, upgraded olive-oil production, and brought with him numerous Italian engineers who began the construction of mansions. The cities of Beirut and Sidon were especially built in the Italianate style, the influence of these buildings, such as the ones in Deir el Qamar, influenced building in Lebanon for many centuries and continues to the present time
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Edwardian architecture is an architectural style popular during the reign of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. Architecture from up to the year 1914 may be included in this style, Edwardian architecture is generally less ornate than high or late Victorian architecture, apart from a subset - used for major buildings - known as Edwardian Baroque architecture. The Victorian Society campaigns to preserve Edwardian Architecture, Decorative patterns were less complex, both wallpaper and curtain designs were more plain. Clutter, There was less clutter than in the Victorian era, ornaments were perhaps grouped rather than everywhere. And Victorian Art Nouveau Georgian Arts and Crafts Edwardian era Edwardian Baroque architecture Federation architecture Gray, A. S. Edwardian Architecture, the Edwardian House, the Middle-Class Home in Britain 1880-1914
Alamo Square, San Francisco
Alamo Square is a residential neighborhood and park in San Francisco, California, in the Western Addition. Its boundaries are not well-defined, but are considered to be Webster Street on the east, Golden Gate Avenue on the north, Divisadero Street on the west. The park is bordered by Hayes Street to the south, Steiner Street to the east, Fulton Street to the north, named after the lone cottonwood tree, Alamo Hill, was a watering hole on the horseback trail from Mission Dolores to the Presidio in the 1800s. In 1856, Mayor James Van Ness created a 12.7 acre park surrounding the watering hole, Alamo Square Park includes a playground and a tennis court, and is frequented by neighbors and dog owners. On a clear day, the Transamerica Pyramid building and the tops of the Golden Gate Bridge, the San Francisco City Hall can be seen directly down Fulton Street. The area is part of the citys fifth Supervisorial district and is served by several Muni bus lines, including the 5,21,22, in 2016 it was closed for a $4.3 million renovation lasting seven months.
The Alamo Square neighborhood is characterized by Victorian architecture that was largely untouched by the urban renewal projects in other parts of the Western Addition. The Alamo Square area contains the second largest concentration of homes over 10,000 square feet in San Francisco, after the Pacific Heights neighborhood. A row of Victorian houses facing the park on Steiner Street, a number of movies, television shows and commercials have been filmed in or around Alamo Square. The park features heavily in the 1978 horror film The Invasion of the Body Snatchers, the opening sequence of the American sitcom Full House features a romp in Alamo Square Park with the famous row of Victorians in the background. With a high degree of integrity to its designs, the District clearly serves as a visual reminder of how businessmen lived two to four generations ago. Efforts on the part of Alamo Square and North Panhandle residents and merchants have led to restrictions on chain stores on the corridor, Neighborhood groups include the Alamo Square Neighborhood Association and the Haight-Divisadero Neighborhood Merchants Association.
Author Alice Walker lived in one of the Painted Lady Victorians across from Alamo Square park up to the mid-1990s. Parks of San Francisco 49-Mile Scenic Drive Map of district 5 of the county, which Alamo Square is a part of Alamo Square Neighborhood Association Alamo Square, from San Francisco Parks Alliance
In a motion picture, television program or video game, the opening credits or opening titles are shown at the very beginning and list the most important members of the production. They are now shown as text superimposed on a blank screen or static pictures. There may or may not be accompanying music, when opening credits are built into a separate sequence of their own, the correct term is title sequence. Opening credits since the early 1980s, if present at all, identify the major actors and crew, while the credits list an extensive cast. In movies and television, the title and opening credits may be preceded by an open, or teaser. For instance, the sequence of the 1968 film Oliver. The only credit at films end is a listing of most of the cast and these are set against a replay of some of the Consider Yourself sequence. Some opening credits are presented over the sequences of a film. The opening credits for the 1993 film The Fugitive continued intermittently over several opening scenes, the opening credits for the 1968 film Once Upon a Time in the West lasted for fourteen minutes.
The first sound film to begin without any opening credits was Walt Disneys Fantasia and this general release version has been the one most often seen by audiences. In the roadshow version of the film, unseen by most audiences until its DVD release, the intermission was omitted in the general release version. Orson Welles Citizen Kane begins with only a title credit and this practice was extremely uncommon during that era. West Side Story begins with a shot of an ink sketch of the New York City skyline as it was when the film was made, as the background of the shot changes color several times, we hear an overture medley of some of the films songs. As the overture ends, the camera back and we see the title of the film the rest of the credits are shown as graffiti at the end of the film. Most Disney films released between 1937 and 1981 had all the information in the opening credits, while the closing consisted only of the credit The End. However, Mary Poppins was the first Disney film to have longer closing credits, most Soviet films presented all film-related information in the opening credits, rather than at the closing which consist of only a THE END title.
The final credit screen identified the studio corresponding to the logo at the beginning, and it could contain the frame with the technical information about the cinematographic film manufacturer. American films tended to list the names of the actors before the names of the directors, exceptions were made in the films of director Frank Capra, whose name was usually billed before the films title
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne aged 18, after her fathers three brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments, Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together, after Alberts death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength and her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era and it was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover and her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victorias father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, until 1817, Edwards niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen and her brother Leopold was Princess Charlottes widower.
The Duke and Duchess of Kents only child, was born at 4.15 a. m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace and she was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of the Dukes eldest brother, the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarences daughters died as infants. Victorias father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old, a week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son, George IV. The Duke of York died in 1827, when George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive
Cape May Historic District
The Cape May Historic District is an area of 380 acres with over 600 buildings in the resort town of Cape May, Cape May County, New Jersey. The city claims to be Americas first seaside resort and has buildings in the Late Victorian style, including the Eclectic, Stick. According to National Park Service architectural historian Carolyn Pitts, Cape May has one of the largest collections of late 19th century frame buildings left in the United States and that give it a homogeneous architectural character, a kind of textbook of vernacular American building. The City of Cape May sits at the end of Cape May Peninsula which divides the Atlantic Ocean from the Delaware Bay. Cape May Point, about two miles west of the City of Cape May, borders the Bay, while Cape May City borders the Ocean. Cape Island Creek, a creek and marsh, originally divided the site of the city from the rest of Cape May. The Cape May Canal, built in 1942, now divides both Cape May City and Cape May Point from the rest of the peninsula, Cape May was first discovered by Europeans by Henry Hudson on August 28,1609.
He landed on the shore of Delaware Bay a few north of Cape May Point before returning to the Atlantic Ocean. In 1632 the Dutch established a fishing and whaling settlement in the area, by the 1660s the English gained control and Daniel Coxe, a London Quaker, organized a government in 1687. Early settlers worked in the lumber, whaling, fishing, a road along the coast built in 1796 helped establish the hamlet of Cape May. The early emergence of Cape May as a resort was due to easy transport by water from Philadelphia to the Atlantic Ocean. Early Cape May vacationers were carried to the town on sloops from Philadelphia, southerners became a large proportion of summer vacationers. The resort business in Cape May began to thrive when regular traffic on the Delaware River began after the War of 1812, carrying passengers from Philadelphia and New Castle. Commodore Stephen Decatur made his home at the Atlantic Hotel about this time. The predecessor of the Congress Hall Hotel was opened in 1816 by Thomas Hughes and it took its current name in 1828, when Hughes was elected to Congress.
There are six boarding houses, three of which are large, the sea bathing is convenient and excellent, the beach affords pleasant drives. Early visitors included Henry Clay in 1847, and Abraham Lincoln in 1849, serving Presidents who visited included Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, Ulysses Grant, Chester Arthur, and Benjamin Harrison. Harrison made Congress Hall his Summer White House, from the 1850s through the 1880s up to 3,000 visitors arrived each day during the summer season
Toledo is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, United States. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, at the end of Lake Erie bordering the state of Michigan. The city was founded by United States citizens in 1833 on the west bank of the Maumee River and it was re-founded in 1837, after conclusion of the Toledo War, when it was incorporated in Ohio. After construction of the Miami and Erie Canal, Toledo grew quickly and it has since become a city with an art community, auto assembly businesses, education and local sports teams. The citys glass industry has earned it the nickname, The Glass City, the population of Toledo as of the 2010 Census was 287,208, making it the 71st-largest city in the United States. It is the fourth most populous city in the U. S. state of Ohio after Columbus and Cincinnati. The Toledo metropolitan area had a 2010 population of 651,429, and was the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the state of Ohio, behind Cleveland, Cincinnati and Akron. Varying cultures of indigenous peoples lived along the rivers and lakefront of what is now northwestern Ohio for thousands of years, when the city of Toledo was preparing to pave its streets, it surveyed two prehistoric semicircular earthworks, presumably for stockades.
One was at the intersection of Clayton and Oliver streets on the bank of Swan Creek. Such earthworks were typical of mound-building peoples and this region was part of a larger area controlled by the historic tribes of the Wyandot and the people of the Council of Three Fires. The first European to visit the area was Étienne Brûlé, a French-Canadian guide and explorer, the French established trading posts in the area by 1680 to take advantage of the lucrative fur trade. The Odawa moved from Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula at the invitation of the French and they settled an area extending into northwest Ohio. By the early 18th century, the Odawa occupied areas along most of the Maumee River to its mouth and they served as middlemen between the French and tribes further to the west and north. The Wyandot occupied central Ohio, and the Shawnee and Lenape occupied the southern areas, the area was not settled by European-Americans until 1795 and after. They were finally defeated in 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers and this loose affiliation of tribes included the Wyandot and Council of Three Fires.
By a treaty in 1795, they ceded large areas of territory in Ohio to the United States, according to Charles E. Slocum, the American military built Fort Industry at the mouth of the Maumee about 1805, but as a temporary stockade. No official reports support the 19th-century tradition of its history there. The United States continued to work to extinguish land claims of Native Americans, in the Treaty of Detroit, the above four tribes ceded a large land area to the United States of what became southeastern Michigan and northwestern Ohio, to the mouth of the Maumee River