click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Paisley Abbey

Paisley Abbey is a parish church of the Church of Scotland, located on the east bank of the White Cart Water in the centre of the town of Paisley, about 12 miles west of Glasgow, in Scotland. Its origins date based on a former Cluniac monastery. Following the Reformation in the 16th century, it became a Church of Scotland parish kirk, it is believed. Some time after his death a shrine to the Saint was established, becoming a popular site of pilgrimage and veneration; the name Paisley may derive from the Brythonic Passeleg,'basilica', i.e.'major church', recalling an early, though undocumented, ecclesiastical importance. In 1163, Walter fitz Alan, the first High Steward of Scotland issued a charter for a priory to be set up on land owned by him in Paisley, it was dedicated to SS. Mary, James and Milburga. Around 13 monks came from the Cluniac priory at Much Wenlock in Shropshire to found the community. Paisley grew so that it was raised to the status of abbey in 1245. Monks from Paisley founded Crossraguel Abbey in Carrick, Ayrshire, in 1244.

In 1307, Edward I of England had the abbey burned down. However, it was rebuilt in the 14th century. William Wallace, born in nearby Elderslie, is believed to have been educated for some time when he was a boy in the abbey. In 1316, Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert I of Scotland and wife of Walter Stewart, the sixth High Steward of Scotland, was out riding near the abbey. During the ride, she fell from her horse and as she was pregnant at the time, she was taken to Paisley Abbey for medical care. There, King Robert II was born by caesarean section, in a time when anaesthesia wouldn't have been available, she was buried at the abbey. A cairn, at the junction of Dundonald Road and Renfrew Road one mile to the north of the Abbey, marks the spot where she reputedly fell from her horse. In 1491, absolution was granted by Abbot George Shaw, representing the Pope and in the presence of the relics, to James IV of Scotland and others implicated in the death of James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn. By 1499 Shaw had had built a new, larger pilgrims' chapel and added the sculptured stone frieze which can still be seen today, showing scenes from the life of St Miren.

It was brightly painted and may have been part of a rear panel of an altar before being put up as a frieze on the wall. A succession of fires and the collapse of the tower in the 15th and 16th centuries left the building in a ruined state. Although the western section was still used for worship, the eastern section was plundered for its stone. From 1858 to 1928 the north porch and the eastern choir were reconstructed on the remains of the ruined walls by the architect Macgregor Chalmers. After his death, work on the choir was completed by Sir Robert Lorimer. Paisley Abbey is the burial place of all six High Stewards of Scotland, Marjorie Bruce, the mother of Robert II and the wives of Robert II and King Robert III; the Celtic Barochan Cross, once sited near the village of Houston, Renfrewshire, is now located inside the abbey itself. The cross is thought to date from the 10th century. In the abbey's nave, the Wallace Memorial Window, which depicts the image of Samson, was donated in 1873. In the early 1990s an ancient vaulted drain of fine construction 13th century in date, was rediscovered running from the abbey to the White Cart.

Archaeological investigations and excavations took place in 1996, 3–16 September 2009, 2–12 September 2011 and 4 September 2013 and many items discovered. Some of these are now on display in the abbey; these include: a slate with music marked on it -, believed to be the oldest example of polyphonic music found in Scotland imported cloth seals chamber pots from c.1500 tweezers carved bone handles pottery fragments slate fragments The drain is thought to date from AD 1350-1400 and is at least 90 metres long, up to 2m wide and up to 2.2m high. The drain contains stonemasons marks on the walls, marks where gates used to be located. A virtual tour of the drain is available on YouTube. Events to involve the public in the archaeological investigation of the drain have been held, with the Renfrewshire Local History Forum. Paisley Abbey Drain is designated by Historic Environment Scotland as a Scheduled Ancient Monument and has similarities to other monastery drains, such as Fountains Abbey, Dundrennan Abbey and Melrose Abbey.

A tomb in the choir incorporating a much restored female effigy is believed to be that of Marjorie Bruce. Although there is no evidence that she is buried at that location, her remains are thought to be within the abbey; the tomb is reconstructed from fragments of different origin - the base, is to have formed part of the pulpitum of the Abbey, such as survives at Glasgow Cathedral. Opposite Marjorie Bruce lie the tombs of Robert III of Simon fitz Alan. Stained glass began to be replaced in the 1870s. Major works include a window by the huge east window by Douglas Strachan; the dramatic memorial window to James D. D. Shaw is by John Clark; the Abbey organ is reputedly one of the finest in Scotland, was built by the most distinguished of all 19th-century organ builders, Cavaillé-Coll of Paris in 1872. This is one of only six in the UK. Since 1872 it has been extended four times; the organ as rebuilt by Walkers in 1968 has 4 manuals, 65 stops and 5448 pipes.(National Pipe Organ Register. Pa

Cyril Martin (British Army officer)

Cyril Arthur Joseph Martin, GC, MC was a British Army officer, awarded the George Cross for the courage he showed in defusing a device while serving with the Corps of Royal Engineers Bomb Disposal Squad on 17/18 January 1943 in Battersea, London. He was born on 23 July 1897 in Derby and served with the Royal Garrison Artillery in the First World War with whom he earned the Military Cross, he was re-commissioned on 17 August 1940. From the beginning of the Blitz and during the heavy raids of 1940/41, Major Martin carried out bomb disposal work and dealt with a high number of unexploded bombs during this period, he continued with this work through to 1943. Following a Luftwaffe air raid on the night of 17-18 January 1943, a large bomb fell into the warehouse belonging to the Victoria Haulage Company in Battersea; the warehouse contained heavy machinery from the United States. Due to the importance of the machinery this bomb was a high priority for disposal; the bomb contained a new, unrecognised type of fuse, which contained both an anti-handling device and booby trap.

No exiting disarming techniques or equipment could deal with the fuse mechanism. A decision was made to remove the bomb's base plate and extract the explosive filling – Martin was called to carry out this task. After removing the base plate, Martin found that the explosive content was of the solid cast TNT type, which would require steaming at high pressure; the normal process for steaming, by remote control was deemed too risky. For this task the steam nozzle was directly applied by hand and used a low level amount of steam, enough to just soften the TNT fill, so it was pliable enough for it to be scooped out. Martin was assisted by another Lt R. W. Deans managed to steam out the explosive over the course of nearly 18 hours through a small hole bored into the bomb through which water and steam could be introduced. Notice of his award appeared in the London Gazette on 11 March 1943: The King has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the George Cross, in recognition of most conspicuous gallantry in carrying out hazardous work in a brave manner.

Owen, James. Danger UXB. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-1-4087-0255-0

Telephone numbers in Bulgaria

Telephone numbers in Bulgaria are under an open dialing plan, similar to those of Germany and Austria. Area codes should only be dialed. Area codes are prefixed with a trunk code of 0. For example, to call a number in Sofia, dial: xxx xxxx from a landline in Sofia 02 xxx xxxx from outside Sofia but in Bulgaria +359 2 xxx xxxx from outside Bulgaria Domestic numbers are limited to eight digits in length. Area codes vary in length from one to five digits. Subscriber number lengths vary accordingly, from seven digits down to three digits. Sofia lines on digital switches have seven-digit numbers, those on analog switches had six. For a long time, the state-owned Bulgarian Telecommunications Company had a monopoly on fixed telephone networks. However, this ended. BTC was privatized in 2004 and competing operators appeared. Larger areas, such as Sofia, Plovdiv and Burgas, are subdivided into zones. Although one cannot further reduce the number of dialed digits, the number itself shows which zone it is located in.

For example, in Sofia, numbers starting with 2, 82, 92 are located in the Western suburbs, 7, 87, 97 in the Eastern suburbs, 98 in the central area. In the recent decade there has been an intensive process of replacing the old analog switches with modern digital ones. In areas where both analog and digital switchers are operating, a subscriber number shows by its first digit if it is connected to an analog or a digital switch. In some areas it is possible to guess if a subscriber number was changed from analog to digital during its existence or was subscribed as digital initially. For example, in Blagoevgrad a number starting with 88 was subscribed as digital, a number starting with a single 8 was analog before; the first digit shows if a particular subscriber number is operated by BTC or another operator. The area codes are always cited with the trunk code. However, within the area, or when the Sofia code of 2 can be guessed from the context, it is omitted; as of 2012, "old" numbers in Sofia could still be dialed from within the capital without the city code.

Until 20 July 2003 GSM networks used six-digit subscriber numbers in accordance with the limit of eight digits for the domestic part of a number. With the increase of subscribers, all acquired new access codes. On 20 July 2003, Mobiltel used Globul used two; when these limits were to be overwhelmed, seven-digit subscriber numbers and single access codes per operator were introduced, hence M-tel reverted to 088 only, while Globul took the old M-tel code 089, the rest were freed up.. This change provokes an error in citing mobile numbers, quite similar to that of erroneous UK telephone codes; the first digit of the subscriber number is most cited as part of the access code, e.g. 887 XXX XXX, instead of the correct 88 7XXX XXX. This error remains for new subscriber numbers for Vivacom. However, unlike the situation in UK, this error has no effect since a mobile number must always be dialled with the access code. Dialing to a mobile network requires the access code together with the 0. Dialing from a mobile network requires either an area or access code with the trunk or international format.

The latter becomes a normal practice, since most people use number lists of their handsets, more people use their phones in roaming and all four operators show the caller ID in international format. The number 088 8888 888 was linked to three deaths in the early 2000s, leading M-tel to permanently remove the number from service; as in many countries, an area code is written with the dialling code 0 prepended as if it were part of the area code itself. * Until 2003, the codes 089 and 087 were used by M-Tel † Until 2003, the codes 098 and 099 were used by Telenor – see above

B. P. Loughridge

Billy Paul Loughridge is a cardiovascular surgeon and health care consultant in Tulsa, Oklahoma. He practiced cardiovascular surgery in Tulsa, Oklahoma from 1967 until 1998. During this period he performed more than 10,000 surgeries, he taught in medical schools, supervised surgery at two hospitals, wrote three books, served as an expert witness in numerous legal cases involving medical issues. In the 1970s he worked for four years with engineers at a company which makes oil pumping equipment in an unsuccessful attempt to create an artificial heart. Beyond his medical practice, Loughridge was involved in numerous charitable and cultural institutions, as a donor, board member and officer; some of Loughridge's ancestors moved to Oklahoma from Georgia. The most prominent of these was Rev. Robert McGill Loughridge, a Presbyterian minister who came to the Indian Territory as a missionary in 1843. In 1890 Reverend Loughridge was the co-author and publisher of the first English-Muscogee dictionary, his maternal great grandfather, John Martin Tuck, operated a ferry on the Red River south of Marietta, Oklahoma in the late nineteenth century.

Loughridge’s father, William Floyd Loughridge was born in 1915 in New Mexico where the family was homesteading. However, by the 1920s facing dire poverty, they moved back to Oklahoma, where Loughridge’s grandfather was a truck driver and farmed a small plot of land outside of Ardmore. B. P.’s mother, Elizabeth Loughridge, was born in Oklahoma in 1916. Both his parents were only able to attend school until the eighth grade. After their marriage, during the Great Depression, William Floyd and Elizabeth moved to a farm owned by Elizabeth’s family at Tuck’s Ferry on the Red River in southern Oklahoma. Both B. P. and his older sister Floydena were born in a farmhouse at Tuck’s Ferry, spent their early years there. When B. P. was born tens of thousands of Oklahoma farmers were moving west, driven from their land by the Dust Bowl. Floyd and Elizabeth Loughridge did not move to California but when B. P. reached school age his parents moved back to Ardmore, because it could provide their son and daughter with greater educational opportunities.

Loughridge and his sister were the first high school graduates in his immediate family. At Ardmore High School he lettered in football as a defensive back. A determined, if not overly talented athlete, he became a Golden Gloves boxer, reaching the state quarter finals as a lightweight. While in high school and college he was an amateur bull rider. For his fortieth birthday Loughridge participated in his final rodeo. However, not sports, were his real forte. Loughridge graduated from Ardmore High School in 1953, would be the first graduate of that school to hold a Fulbright Fellowship for study abroad. After graduating high school he entered the University of Oklahoma at Norman, intending to become a physician. In his first year, he worked as dish server in exchange for room and board. Unlike most pre-med students at the time, Loughridge majored in sociology, because of his interests in social issues and his understanding that medicine could not be disconnected from the larger society. However, he had minors in both zoology to prepare for medical school.

At the University of Oklahoma he joined the Sigma Chi fraternity. Some four decades he would be honored as a “Significant Sig” for his lifetime achievements, he graduated from college in the spring of 1957 and that fall entered the University of Oklahoma School of Medicine in Oklahoma City. He financed his medical education with loans from the Kellogg Foundation, washing glassware at night at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, working as an exterminator for a pest control company, he finished medical school in 1961 and shortly after graduation married Linda Faye Harrell, who finished her undergraduate education at the University of Oklahoma that year. Their marriage would last more than half a century, until her death in 2012. After their three children were grown, Linda Faye focused her energies on charitable work with cultural institutions, like the Tulsa Philharmonic and Tulsa Opera, the Tulsa Junior League, medical charities, she raised more than 1.5 million dollars for St. John Hospital in Oklahoma.

Following his graduation from medical school, Dr. Loughridge was an intern at the University of Texas Medical Center in Galveston, he spent four years as a general surgical resident at the University of Oklahoma Medical Center in Oklahoma City. In 1964, while still a resident at the University of Oklahoma Medical Center, Loughridge received a fellowship from the National Institute of Health to conduct cardiovascular research; as an NIH Fellow he was one of the pioneering researchers working on the development of artificial tissue valves in heart surgery. Loughridge published the results of this research in the Surgical Forum in 1965. During this residency Loughridge was the co-author of three other published scholarly articles. Loughridge’s scholarship led him to Sahlgrenska University in Göteberg, Sweden, as a Fulbright scholar in 1966-67. Before he headed to Sweden Loughridge, reflecting common understandings of socialized medicine in the US at the time, suggested that socialized medicine was leading to a decline in the number of men becoming physicians in that country.

But Loughridge noted that medical residence “earn a higher salary” in Sweden than in the US, that the medical case was as good as in the United States. He noted that while Sweden he would have a higher standard of living there than he did as a resident in the United Stat

Die (album)

Die! is the sixth album by the rapper Necro. Die! was alluded to on Necro's MySpace profile as a "brand new solo album coming September 2009". Die! was Necro's first album since Death Rap in 2007 and was released by Psycho+Logical-Records. The album's release date was finalised when the album cover was released on March 25, 2010. There are no featured guests on the album because, as Necro wrote on his website forums, "I decided I wanna make the entire album no collabos, it will be Necro beats and Necro lyrics from start to finish."On July 17, 2010, Necro revealed on website's forum that he was being sued by Ani DiFranco for sampling her song "Used to You" for the track "The Asshole Anthem". ITunes and Amazon subsequently removed the album from their stores, Necro confirmed he was in the process of re-releasing the album without this track included. Necro – vocals, composing, production All tracks produced by Necro

Old Glory

Old Glory is a nickname for the flag of the United States. The original "Old Glory" was a flag owned by the 19th-century American sea captain William Driver, who flew the flag during his career at sea and brought it to Nashville, where he settled. Driver prized the flag and ensured its safety from the Confederates, who attempted to seize the flag during the American Civil War. In 1922, Driver's daughter and niece claimed to own the original "Old Glory," which became part of the collection of the Smithsonian Institution, where they remain at the National Museum of American History. Captain William Driver was born on March 1803, in Salem, Massachusetts. At age 13, Driver ran away from home to become a cabin boy on a ship. At 21, Driver qualified as a master mariner and assumed command of his own ship, the Charles Doggett. In celebration of his appointment, Driver's mother and other women sewed the flag and gave it to him as a gift in 1824. With this flag flying over his ship, Driver went on to have a colorful career as a U.

S. merchant seaman, sailing to China, India and the South Pacific. He knew some Fijian. In 1831, while voyaging in the South Pacific, Driver's ship "was the sole surviving vessel of six that departed Salem the same day." Driver picked up 65 descendants of the survivors of HMS Bounty and brought them back to Pitcairn Island. Driver was convinced. Driver was attached to the flag, writing: "It has been my staunch companion and protection. Savages and heathens and oppressed, hailed and welcomed it at the far end of the wide world. Why should it not be called Old Glory?"Driver retired from seafaring in 1837 after his wife Martha Silsbee Babbage died from throat cancer. Driver had three young children, he settled in Nashville, where his three brothers operated a store. Driver remarried the next year to Sarah Jane Parks, a Southerner with whom he had several more children. Driver took his flag with him to Nashville, flying it on holidays shine; the flag was so large that he attached it to a rope from his attic window and stretched it on a pulley across the street to secure it to a locust tree.

Driver served as vestryman of Christ Episcopal Church. In 1860, his wife and daughters repaired the flag, sewing on 10 additional stars, Driver added by appliqué a small white anchor in the lower right corner, to symbolize his maritime career. By that time, the secession crisis had begun and Driver's family was split. While Driver was a staunch Unionist, two of his sons were fervent Confederates who enlisted in local regiments. One of Driver’s sons died from wounds suffered at Perryville. In March 1862, Driver wrote: "Two sons in the army of the South! My entire house estranged...and when I come home...no one to soothe me."Soon after Tennessee seceded from the Union, Governor Isham G. Harris sent men to Driver's home to demand the flag. Driver, 58 years old, turned the men away at his door after demanding they produce a search warrant. An armed group returned to Driver's front porch, who refused to produce the flag, saying "If you want my flag you'll have to take it over my dead body."To save the flag from further threats and some of his neighbors sewed it into a coverlet and hid it until February 1862, when Nashville fell to Union forces.

When the Union Army, led by the 6th Ohio Infantry, entered the city, Driver went to Tennessee state capitol after seeing the U. S. flag and the 6th Ohio's regimental colors raised on the Capitol flagstaffand asked to see the general in command. Horace Fisher, the aide-de-camp to the Union commander in the city, Brigadier General William "Bull" Nelson, described Driver as "a stout, middle-aged man, with hair well shot with gray, short in stature, broad in shoulder, with a roll in his gait." Introducing himself as a sea captain and Unionist, Driver brought the coverlet with him and opened it, revealing the flag. Nelson ordered it run up on the Capitol flagstaff; the 6th Ohio adopted the motto "Old Glory."That night, a violent storm threatened to tear flag, so Driver replaced it with a newer flag, taking the original Old Glory for safekeeping. The flag remained in his home until December 1864; as Confederate troopers under the command of John Bell Hood sought to retake the city, Driver hung the flag out of the third-story window and left to join the defense of the city.

For the rest of the American Civil War, Driver served as provost marshal of Nashville, serving in hospitals. Mary Jane Roland, Driver's daughter, said Driver gave her the flag as a gift on July 10, 1873, telling her "This is my old ship flag Old Glory. I love it. Take it and cherish it as I have always cherished it. Driver died on March 3, 1886, was buried in the Nashville City Cemetery, where, at Driver's request, his rescue of the Bounty descendants is noted on his grave stone. Following Driver’s death, a family feud erupted over the ownership of the flag. Driver's niece, Harriet Ruth Waters Cooke, the daughter of Driver's youngest sister, said she inherited the flag and presented her version of Old Glory to the Essex Institute in Salem, which became the Peabody Essex Museum, along with family memorabilia that included a letter from the Pitcairn Islands to Driver. Cooke published a family memoir in 1889. Roland wrote an account of the flag, publishing Old Glory, The True Story in 1918. In that memoir, Roland disputed Cooke's narrative and presented evidence for her claim that th