An athlete is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance. The application of the term to those who participate in other activities, such as horse riding or driving, is somewhat controversial. Athletes may be amateurs. Most professional athletes have well-developed physiques obtained by extensive physical training and strict exercise accompanied by a strict dietary regimen; the word "athlete" is a romanization of the Greek: άθλητὴς, athlētēs, one who participates in a contest. The primary definition of "sportsman" according to Webster's Third Unabridged Dictionary is, "a person, active in sports: as: one who engages in the sports of the field and in hunting or fishing." Athletes involved in isotonic exercises have an increased mean left ventricular end-diastolic volume and are less to be depressed. Due to their strenuous physical activities, athletes are far more than the general population to visit massage salons and pay for services from massotherapists and masseurs.
Athletes whose sport espouses endurance more than strength have a lower calorie intake than other athletes. An "all-around athlete" is a person. Examples of people who played more than one sport professionally include Jim Thorpe, Lionel Conacher, Deion Sanders, Danny Ainge, Babe Zaharias and Erin Phillips. Others include Ricky Williams, Bo Jackson, Damon Allen, each of whom was drafted both by Major League Baseball and by professional gridiron football leagues such as the NFL and the CFL. Another female example is Heather Moyse, a multiple Winter Olympic gold medalist in bobsled and member of the World Rugby Hall of Fame who represented Canada internationally in track cycling and competed at university level in basketball and track and field. Japanese athletes such as Kazushi Sakuraba, Kazuyuki Fujita, Masakatsu Funaki and Naoya Ogawa have performed in professional wrestling and competed in mixed martial arts; the title of "World's Greatest Athlete" traditionally belongs to the world's top competitor in the decathlon and heptathlon in track and field.
The decathlon consists of 10 events: 100 meters, long jump, shot put, high jump, 400 meters, 110 m hurdles, pole vault, 1500 m. The heptathlon consists of seven events: the 100 m hurdles, high jump, shot put, 200 meters, long jump, 800 meters; these competitions require an athlete to possess the whole spectrum of athletic ability in order to be successful including speed, coordination, jumping ability, endurance. Although the title "World's Greatest Athlete" seems a natural fit for these two events, its traditional association with the decathlon/heptathlon began with Jim Thorpe. During the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm, Thorpe won the gold medal in the Decathlon. Thorpe notably competed professionally in soccer, American Football, basketball. King Gustav V of Sweden, while awarding Thorpe the decathlon gold said: "You, are the greatest athlete in the world." That title has become associated with the decathlon event since. Sportswear Outdoor enthusiast Jock Athlete of the Year Women's sports
The Korean Empire was the last independent unified Korean state. Proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty, the empire stood until Japan's annexation of Korea in August 1910. During the Korean Empire, Emperor Gojong oversaw the Gwangmu Reform, a partial modernization and Westernization of the military, land system, education system, of various industries. Korea in the Joseon dynasty had been a perfunctory client kingdom of China in the Qing dynasty due to the diplomatic reason though Joseon was managed by the King independently from China. Towards the end of the 19th century, influence over Korea was an area of conflict between the Qing and Japan; the First Sino-Japanese War marked the rapid decline of any power the Joseon state had managed to hold against foreign interference, as the battles of the conflict itself had been fought on Korean soil and the surrounding seas. With its newfound preeminence over the waning and weak Qing dynasty, Japan had delegates negotiate the Treaty of Shimonoseki with the Qing dynasty.
Through signing the treaty, a move designed to prevent the southern expansion of Russia, Japan wrested control over the Liaodong Peninsula from Qing and more over Korea. However, Russia recognized this agreement as an act against its interests in northeastern China and brought France and Germany to its side, in saying that the Liaodong Peninsula should be repatriated to Qing China. At the time, Japan was powerless to resist such foreign pressure by nations that it considered far more advanced and which it sought to emulate, as such relinquished its claim to Liaodong Peninsula. With the success of the three-country intervention, Russia emerged as another major power in East Asia, replacing the Qing Dynasty as the entity that the Joseon court's many government officials advocated close ties with to prevent more Japanese meddling in Korean politics. Queen Min, the consort of King Gojong recognized this change and formally established closer diplomatic relations with Russia to counter Japanese influence.
Queen Min began to emerge as a key figure in higher-level Korean counteraction against Japanese influence. Japan, seeing its designs endangered by the queen replaced its ambassador to Korea, Count Inoue, with Lieutenant-General Viscount Miura, a diplomat with a background in the Imperial Japanese Army, he subsequently orchestrated the assassination of Queen Min on October 8, 1895, at her residence at the Geoncheong Palace, the official sleeping quarters of the king within Gyeongbok Palace. With the assassination of his wife Queen Min, King Gojong and the Crown Prince fled to the Russian legation in 1896. During the time from Queen Min's death to the king's return from Russian protection, Korea underwent another major upheaval both at home and abroad. By 1894, new laws passed by progressives and reformers in the royal cabinet forced through long-desired reforms aimed at revamping Korea's antiquated society; these laws were called referring to the year in which they began. Meanwhile, the new reforms aimed at modernizing Korean society soon attracted controversy from within.
Anti-Japanese sentiment, which had become entrenched in the minds of commoners and aristocrats alike during the Japanese invasions of Korea, became pervasive in the royal court and upper echelons of society following the Ganghwa Treaty of 1876 and soon extended explosively to most Koreans following perceived Japanese meddling in court politics and the assassination of Queen Min. However, the new and modern reforms pushed forward by the pro-Japanese progressives, the most controversial of, the mandatory cutting of the traditional man bun, ignited further resentment and discontent; this led to the uprising of the Eulmi temporary armies aimed at avenging the assassination of Queen Min. In 1897, King Gojong, yielding to rising pressure from both overseas and the demands of the Independence Association-led public opinion, returned to Gyŏngungung. There, he proclaimed the founding of the "Great Korean Empire" re-designated the national title as such, declared the new era name Gwangmu severing Korea's superficial historic ties as a tributary of Qing China, which Korea had adhered to since the prior Manchurian invasion in 1636.
Gojong became the Gwangmu Emperor, the first imperial head of state and hereditary sovereign of the Korean Empire. This marked the complete end of the old world order and traditional tributary system in the Far East. Korea's new status as an empire meant "Completely independence from Qing's sphere of influence" which means Korea was not influenced from Qing externally according to the Treaty of Shimonoseki of 1895 and implemented the "full and complete" independence according to the treaty; the name meaning "Great Han Empire", was derived from Samhan the Three Kingdoms of Korea, in the tradition of naming new states after historic states. The significance of the declaration of an Empire, in the Korean understanding of the situation was to declare Korea's end of tributary relationship with the Qing dynasty; the usage of Emperor was reserved only for the emperor of China, the Son of Heaven. Korean dynasties had given tribute to Chinese dynasties; when Japan experienced the Meiji Restoration, the Emperor of Japan was declared the source of sovereignty in the Japanese government.
Upon receiving news of the Meiji restoration from Japan, the Korean government refused
Names of Seoul
Seoul has been known in the past by the successive names Wiryeseong, Hanseong or Hanyang. During the period of Japanese occupation, Seoul was named to the Japanese Keijō or Gyeongseong in Korean, its current name is Seoul, this name has been in use since at least 1882, at times concurrently with other names. Seoul is a rendering of the Korean word “seo'ul”, pronounced. An etymological hypothesis presumes that the origin of the native word “seo'ul” derives from the native name Seorabeol, which referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla called Geumseong. Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja, although its name is presumed to derive from 徐羅伐, so Chinese-speaking countries for decades have referred to the city by its former name: 漢城. On a 1751 map of China and Korea prepared in France, Seoul was marked as "King-Ki-Tao, Capitale de la Coree", using an approximation of the Chinese pronunciation of Gyeonggi Province; the use of "King-Ki-Tao" to refer to Seoul was repeated again on the 1851 Tallis/Rapkin map of both Japan and Korea.
For a time during the late 1940s and early 1950s, the transliterated name Sūwū, which resembles the English pronunciation for Seoul, was used. This caused problems in translation, as in Korean, the terms "Seoul" and "Hanseong" are considered different. There exist many institutions and entities, most of them having no connections whatsoever, which use either name; when the names of these institutions and entities are translated into Chinese, both "Seoul" and "Hanseong" were automatically translated to 漢城. Typical examples of such errors in translation included Seoul National University versus Hansung University, which both would be translated to 漢城大學, as well as Seoul Science High School versus Hansung Science High School; the problem, along with the confusion it caused for years, was solved in January 2005, when the Seoul City Government under mayor Lee Myung Bak publicly requested that the Chinese name of the city be changed to 首爾, written as 首尔 in simplified Chinese in mainland China. The name was chosen by a select committee out of two names, the other being 首午爾.
The chosen name is a close transliteration of Seoul in Mandarin Chinese. For a some time after the name change, Chinese-language news media have used both names interchangeably during their publications or broadcasts. Despite the adoption of Shǒu'ěr in Chinese media, the name Hànchéng is still used by some Chinese people. For some time, Mainland Chinese media did not adopt the new name, claiming that Chinese people have the right to choose how they name other cities around the world, they relented by the end of the year. This change was intended for Chinese speakers only, has no effect on the Korean language name; the new name would be pronounced 수이 in Korean. Some linguists have criticized the selection of the new name, claiming that its pronunciation in Korean bears no resemblance to the native name at all, that its intended representation of the Korean pronunciation, while effective in Mandarin, is lost in other regional dialects, such as in Cantonese, where the name is pronounced "sau2 yi5", or in Shanghainese, in which the new name is pronounced "sew2 el3".
These critics have said that the names "西蔚" or "徐蔚" would have been much more effective in representing the city's Korean name. "Gyeongseong" is a Sino-Korean word for "capital city". It was in occasional use to refer to Seoul throughout the Joseon dynasty, having earlier referred to the capitals of Goryeo and Silla; the term came into much wider use during the period of Japanese rule, because it is the Korean form of Keijō, the former Japanese name used for Seoul during the colonial rule. Seoul was called Hanseong or Hanyang during the Joseon dynasty, but the city's main railway station, Seoul Station, opened with the name "Gyeongseong Station" in 1900, which it retained until 1905, it was called Gyeongseong Station again from 1915 to 1947. Gyeong is still used to refer to Seoul in the names of various railway lines and freeways, including: Gyeongbu Line and Gyeongbu Expressway between Seoul and Busan. Name of Korea History of Korea Korean Studies List discussion of the names Gyeongseong and Gyeongin
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
Kim Gu known by his pen name Baekbeom, was a Korean nationalist politician. He was the sixth and the last Premier of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, a leader of the Korean independence movement against the Japanese Empire, a reunification activist after 1945. Kim was born on August 29, 1876, in Teot-gol, Baek-un-bang, South Hwanghae Province, the only son of a farmer Kim Soon-young and his wife Kwak Nack-won, his name at birth was Kim Changahm. When he was nine years old, he started to study Chinese classic texts such as Zizhi Tongjian, Great Learning at local seodangs. Kim was a descendant of Kim Suk-seung, his 31 Great-grandfather, the founder of the Andong Kim clan who are famous for being descendants of King Kyung Soon. Kim's 21G-grandfather Kim Sa-hyeong was one of the meritorious retainer at the founding of the Joseon dynasty, his 11G-grandfather Kim Dae-chung escaped to Hanyang to Haeju and concealed his identity. Kim Ja-jeom was his 11 Great-grandfather, Kim Dae-chung's third cousin.
At the age of 16, Kim failed. After that, he joined the Donghak Movement, a rebellion against government and foreign oppressions in 1893 and changed his name to Kim Changsoo; as the organization grew he was appointed the district leader of Palbong at the age of 17 and a Donghak army regiment. Under the instruction of Donghak leader Choi Si-hyung, Kim's troops stormed the Haeju fort in Hwanghae-do, but the army was defeated by governmental forces. After that, he was defeated by his companion, Lee Dong-yeop in the turf war of Donghak's organization. Thereafter, the Royal Army's General An Tae-hun (안태훈. At 20, with I-eon Kim whom he had met around Yalu River, Kim attacked the Royal Army unit holding the Gang-gye fort, supported by the Qing dynasty's army. However, the attack failed and he went into hiding. In February 1896, Kim stayed at an inn in Chihapo, Hwanghae Province while traveling to southern regions. There he found a Japanese man named Tsuchida Josuke, a trader from Tsushima, Nagasaki and killed him believing that he was a Japanese army lieutenant involved in the assassination of the queen.
In his autobiography,'Baekbeom Ilji', Kim describes his motivation at the time as follows: Since many Japaneses go through Chihapo every day, there is no reason for him to disguise as a Korean if he were an ordinary merchant or workman. Could he be Miura or one of his accomplices who killed the queen, fled from Seoul and hiding here? If he is not, a Japanese man with a disguise and a sword can do nothing but harm to my country and people. I will revenge for my queen by killing this Japanese man; the following morning, Kim attacked Tsuchida, killed him. The "Report from acting administrator Hagihara Moriichi of Incheon Consulate on the current situation of Incheon" describes Tsuchida as a "commoner from Nagasaki Prefecture" and an "employee of a Nagasaki trader on a business trip". However, Kim argued in his autobiography that Tsuchida was concealing a sword and had identification papers that showed him to be a Japanese army lieutenant. Kim was tortured and sentenced to death. According to'Baekbeom Ilji', many Korean people were sympathetic and admired him for his patriotism and bravery, as shown by the facts that his execution was suspended by order of Emperor Gwangmu, that Korean judicial officials behaved politely to him despite Japanese pressure to execute him promptly, that influential Koreans at the time made efforts to rescue him by repeated petitions to Korean Justice Department Officials and by collecting money for his ransom before his scheduled execution date.
In prison, Kim had a chance to read newly published textbooks about Western culture and science such as Taeseo Shinsa and Saegye Jiji. He was impressed by the strengths of the new Western science and recognized the importance of education for the Korean people, he started to teach about 100 illiterate fellow prisoners. The Korean newspaper Hwhangsung Shinbo reported at the time that by his teaching of prisoners Kim Chang Soo changed the Incheon Prison into a school. In 1898 he broke out of prison and escaped into Magoksa, a Buddhist temple in Gongju, Chungcheong province, entered the Buddhist priesthood. A year Kim left the priesthood and returned to Hwanghae, where he devoted himself to the enlightenment and education of the Korean people, founding Jangyeon School and the Yangsan School in 1907, becoming the principal of the Yangsan School. In 1904, he married Choi Jun-rye from Hwanghae Province. In 1905, the Eulsa Treaty was made between Korea, making Korea a protectorate of Japan. Kim participated in a mass protest against the treaty in Seoul and presented a memorial to Emperor Gwangmu urging him to withdraw from the treaty.
In 1908, Kim joined New People's Association, a national-level underground organization established by Ahn Changho for nonviolent Korean independence movement. In 1910, the Japanese colonial government arrested An Myung-geun for plotting to assassinate Governor-General Terauchi Masatake. Kim, a close friend of An, was suspected of being an accomplice and arrested as well. Like other jailed suspects, Kim was severe
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Pyongyang, P'yŏngyang or Pyeongyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea. Pyongyang is located on the Taedong River about 109 kilometres upstream from its mouth on the Yellow Sea. According to the 2008 population census, it has a population of 3,255,288; the city was split from the South Pyongan province in 1946. It is administered as a directly-administered city with equal status to provinces, the same as special cities in South Korea, including Seoul; the city's other historic names include Kisong, Rakrang, Sŏgyong, Hogyong and Heijō. There are several variants. During the early 20th century, Pyongyang came to be known among missionaries as being the "Jerusalem of the East", due to its historical status as a stronghold of Christianity, namely Protestantism during the Pyongyang revival of 1907. After Kim Il-sung's death in 1994, some members of Kim Jong-il's faction proposed changing the name of Pyongyang to "Kim Il-sung City", but others suggested that North Korea should begin calling Seoul "Kim Il-sung City" instead and grant Pyongyang the moniker "Kim Jong-il City", in the end neither proposal was implemented.
The Russian transliteration Пхёнья́н was adapted in Romanian as Phenian. In Poland the hyperforeignist pronunciation /ˈfɛɲ.jan/ is commoner than the original /ˈpxɛɲ.jan/. In 1955, archaeologists excavated evidence of prehistoric occupation in a large ancient village in the Pyongyang area, called Kŭmtan-ni, dating to the Jeulmun and Mumun pottery periods. North Koreans associate Pyongyang with the mythological city of "Asadal", or Wanggeom-seong, the first second millennium BC capital of Gojoseon according to Korean historiographies beginning with the 13th-century Samgungnyusa. Historians deny this claim because earlier Chinese historiographical works such as the Guanzi, Classic of Mountains and Seas, Records of the Grand Historian, Records of the Three Kingdoms, mention a much "Joseon"; the connection between the two therefore may have been asserted by North Korea for the use of propaganda. Pyongyang became a major city in old Joseon. Korean mythology asserts that Pyongyang was founded in 1122 BC on the site of the capital of the legendary king Dangun.
Wanggeom-seong, in the location of Pyongyang, became the capital of Gojoseon from 194 to 108 BC. It fell in the Han conquest of Gojoseon in 108 BC. Emperor Wu of Han ordered four commanderies be set up, with Lelang Commandery in the center and its capital established as 樂浪. Several archaeological findings from the Eastern Han period in the Pyeongyang area seems to suggest that Han forces launched brief incursions around these parts; the area around the city was called Nanglang during the early Three Kingdoms period. As the capital of Nanglang, Pyeongyang remained an important commercial and cultural outpost after the Lelang Commandery was destroyed by an expanding Goguryeo in 313. Goguryeo moved its capital there in 427. According to Christopher Beckwith, Pyongyang is the Sino-Korean reading of the name they gave it in their language: Piarna, or "level land". In 668, Pyongyang became the capital of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East established by the Tang dynasty of China. However, by 676, it was left on the border between Silla and Balhae.
Pyongyang was left abandoned during the Later Silla period, until it was recovered by Wang Geon and decreed as the Western Capital of Goryeo. During the Joseon period, it became the provincial capital of Pyeongan Province. During the Japanese invasions of Korea, Pyongyang was captured by the Japanese until they were defeated in the Siege of Pyongyang. In the 17th century, it became temporarily occupied during the Qing invasion of Joseon until peace arrangements were made between Korea and Qing China. While the invasions made Koreans suspicious of foreigners, the influence of Christianity began to grow after the country opened itself up to foreigners in the 16th century. Pyongyang became the base of Christian expansion in Korea, by 1880 it had more than 100 churches and more Protestant missionaries than any other Asian city. In 1890, the city had 40,000 inhabitants, it was the site of the Battle of Pyongyang during the First Sino-Japanese War, which led to the destruction and depopulation of much of the city.
It was the provincial capital of South Pyeongan Province beginning in 1896. Under Japanese colonial rule, the city became an industrial center, called Heijō in Japanese. Pyongyang in the 1920s In July 1931 the city experienced anti-Chinese riots as a result of the Wanpaoshan Incident and the sensationalized media reports about it which appeared in Imperial Japanese and Korean newspapers. By 1938, Pyongyang had a population of 235,000. On 25 August 1945, the Soviet 25th Army entered Pyongyang and it became the temporary capital of the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea. A People's Committee was established there, led by veteran Christian nationalist Cho Man-sik. Pyongyang became the de facto capital of North Korea upon its establishment in 1948. At the time, the Pyongyang government aimed to recapture Seoul. Pyongyang was again damaged in the Korean War, during which it was occupied by South Korean forces from 19 October to 6 December 1950. In 1952, it was the target of the largest aerial raid of the entire war, involving 1,400 UN aircraft.
After the war, the city was quickly