Cream soda is a sweet carbonated soft drink. Traditionally flavored with vanilla and based on the taste of a classic soda. A wide range of variations can be found worldwide. A recipe for cream soda—written by E. M. Sheldon and published in Michigan Farmer in 1852—called for water, cream of tartar, Epsom salts, sugar and milk, to be mixed heated, when cool mixed with water and a quarter teaspoonful of baking soda to make an effervescent drink, it was suggested as a temperance drink preferable to those of "Uncle Bacchus" and in compliance with the introduced Maine law. Alexander C. Howell, of Vienna, New Jersey, was granted a patent for "cream soda-water" on June 27, 1865. Howell's cream soda-water was made with sodium bicarbonate, sugar, egg whites, wheat flour, "any of the usual flavoring materials—such as oil of lemon, extracts of vanilla, pine-apple, to suit the taste" before drinking, the cream soda water was mixed with water and an acid such as tartaric acid or citric acid. In Canada, James William Black of Berwick, Nova Scotia was granted a U.
S. patent on December 8, 1885, a Canadian patent on July 5, 1886, for "ice-cream soda". Black's ice-cream soda, which contained whipped egg whites, lime juice, citric acid and bicarbonate of soda, was a concentrated syrup that could be reconstituted into an effervescent beverage by adding ordinary ice water. In the United States, cream soda is vanilla-flavored and is either clear or colored a light golden brown, but red, pink and blue are common variants. In some places in the U. S. where it is made on location in cafes, cream soda consists of soda water, vanilla syrup, cream or half and half. Popular brands include: Americana Honey Cream Soda AriZona Soda Shaq A-Treat Cream Soda A&W Vanilla Cream Soda Barq's Red Creme Soda Big Red Blue Sky Boylan's Creme Vanilla Big Shot Cream Soda Canfield's Swiss Creme Dad's Cream Soda Dr. Brown's Faygo Foxon Park Hosmer Mountain Henry Weinhard's Cream Soda IBC Jones Soda Jelly Belly French Vanilla Cream Soda Mug Cream Soda Original New York Seltzer Vanilla Cream Soda Polar Beverages Cream Soda Shasta Creme Soda SodaStream Cream Soda Syrup Sprecher Brewery Stewart's Vess Virgil's Cream Soda Wegmans Cream Soda White Rock Beverages ZeviaAnother variety is referred to as Italian cream soda.
Despite the name, this drink originated in the US, not in Italy. The name is due to it being a form of Italian soda. Italian cream soda is a mixture of carbonated water, vanilla syrup, added half and half or cream. Ratios vary but the taste is that of sweetened, flavored milk. In Canada, cream soda is pink and tastes like grenadine; some brands, such as Fanta, market a colourless version. Many brands have a foamy head. Brands include: Barq's Cream Soda Big 8 Cream Soda Cott Cream Soda Crush Fanta Jones Soda Kiri Cream Soda – colourless Life Brand The Pop Shoppe President's Choice Walmart Canada – US-style vanilla flavourSome American brands are available in Canada as imports. Cream soda is served as a "red pop" Fanta's Red Cream Soda. Colombiana - orange in color Crema Soda DG Soft Drink Cream Soda Frescolita - a bubble gum-flavored soda Solo Beverage Company ToniCol – a flavored vanilla soda In Australia, cream soda, creamy soda, or creaming soda refers to a pink or red soft drink with fruit and berry flavors produced by Kirks and Bickford's, among other brands.
Another local variant produced by Golden Circle is vanilla and fruit-flavored, colored yellow to distinguish it from existing brands. More traditional brown varieties are available, but less common. Brands include Kirks' Sno Drop, River Port, Schweppes, which produce a red variety as part of its "Traditionals" range; this is known as creaming soda, ice cream soda, chill drink, or cream soda, though the flavor changes are negligible. It is a bright yellow color or a white opaque, it is one of the many flavors sold by Foxton Fizz. It is one of the many carbonated drink-flavors offered by Golden Circle; the Netherlands has only one brand, called Frizz, caramel-colored. Ireland has a brand of cream soda called Country Spring. In the UK, A. G. Barr, Ben Shaw's, DG Jamaica manufacture their own brands of cream soda, many supermarkets sell it under their respective own brands. Pakola, a Pakistani brand of ice cream soda, is available. In Hong Kong, the Swire Coca Cola Company markets a yellow Schweppes Cream Soda.
Some people enjoy cream soda in a 1:1 ratio with fresh milk. In India, one major brands, still selling cream soda is Cottons. In Japan, "cream soda" is a term used for an ice cream float made with melon-flavored soda topped with a scoop of vanilla ice cream. In Malaysia, the F&N or Fraser and Neave brand makes a clear ice cream soda. Pakistan's popular brand is Pakola Ice Cream Soda, green in color. In Sri Lanka, Elephant House Cream Soda is the most popular soft drink. Meanwhile, Coca-Cola Beverages Sri Lanka launched their newest flavor, Fanta Cream Soda, in July 2009. In Thailand, Hale's Trading produces Hale's Blue Boy Brand Cream Soda Flavour
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
International Organization for Standardization
The International Organization for Standardization is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary and commercial standards, it is headquartered in Geneva and works in 164 countries. It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council; the International Organization for Standardization is an independent, non-governmental organization, the members of which are the standards organizations of the 164 member countries. It is the world's largest developer of voluntary international standards and facilitates world trade by providing common standards between nations. Over twenty thousand standards have been set covering everything from manufactured products and technology to food safety and healthcare. Use of the standards aids in the creation of products and services that are safe, reliable and of good quality.
The standards help businesses increase productivity while minimizing errors and waste. By enabling products from different markets to be directly compared, they facilitate companies in entering new markets and assist in the development of global trade on a fair basis; the standards serve to safeguard consumers and the end-users of products and services, ensuring that certified products conform to the minimum standards set internationally. The three official languages of the ISO are English and Russian; the name of the organization in French is Organisation internationale de normalisation, in Russian, Международная организация по стандартизации. ISO is not an acronym; the organization adopted ISO as its abbreviated name in reference to the Greek word isos, as its name in the three official languages would have different acronyms. During the founding meetings of the new organization, the Greek word explanation was not invoked, so this meaning may have been made public later. ISO gives this explanation of the name: "Because'International Organization for Standardization' would have different acronyms in different languages, our founders decided to give it the short form ISO.
ISO is derived from the Greek isos, meaning equal. Whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of our name is always ISO."Both the name ISO and the ISO logo are registered trademarks, their use is restricted. The organization today known as ISO began in 1928 as the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations, it was suspended in 1942 during World War II, but after the war ISA was approached by the formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee with a proposal to form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in London and agreed to join forces to create the new International Organization for Standardization. ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized authorities on standards, each one representing one country. Members meet annually at a General Assembly to discuss ISO's strategic objectives; the organization is coordinated by a Central Secretariat based in Geneva. A Council with a rotating membership of 20 member bodies provides guidance and governance, including setting the Central Secretariat's annual budget.
The Technical Management Board is responsible for over 250 technical committees, who develop the ISO standards. ISO has formed two joint committees with the International Electrotechnical Commission to develop standards and terminology in the areas of electrical and electronic related technologies. ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 was created in 1987 to "evelop, maintain and facilitate IT standards", where IT refers to information technology. ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 2 was created in 2009 for the purpose of "tandardization in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources". ISO has 163 national members. ISO has three membership categories: Member bodies are national bodies considered the most representative standards body in each country; these are the only members of ISO. Correspondent members are countries; these members do not participate in standards promulgation. Subscriber members are countries with small economies, they can follow the development of standards. Participating members are called "P" members, as opposed to observing members, who are called "O" members.
ISO is funded by a combination of: Organizations that manage the specific projects or loan experts to participate in the technical work. Subscriptions from member bodies; these subscriptions are in proportion to each country's gross national trade figures. Sale of standards. ISO's main products are international standards. ISO publishes technical reports, technical specifications, publicly available specifications, technical corrigenda, guides. International standards These are designated using the format ISO nnnnn: Title, where nnnnn is the number of the standard, p is an optional part number, yyyy is the year published, Title describes the subject. IEC for International Electrotechnical Commission is included if the standard results from the work of ISO/IEC JTC1. ASTM is used for standards developed in cooperation with ASTM International. Yyyy and IS are not used for an incomplete or unpublished standard and may under some
A&W Cream Soda
A&W Cream Soda is a cream soda carbonated soft drink introduced by A&W Root Beer in 1986. A&W Root Beer was first sold at a Veterans Day parade in Lodi, California in 1919 and the company established in 1922 by Frank Wright and Roy Allen; the first product they created was W Root Beer. It was not until 1986 that A&W Brands, headquartered in White Plains, N. Y. introduced A&W Cream Soda and A&W Diet Cream Soda through its network of franchised bottlers and distributors. Although cream soda had been created in 1852 by E. M. Sheldon, A&W Brands was one of the first American companies to make it commercially. In 1993, A&W Brands was purchased by Cadbury/Schweppes, in 1995 Cadbury/Schweppes purchased the Dr. Pepper/Seven-Up Company, which made A&W a part of the Dr. Pepper/Seven Up, Inc. In 2001, DPSU purchased the Snapple Beverage Group, moved the New York-based company operations to its new headquarters in Plano, Texas; this acquisition put A&W within the same company as the top soda brand companies and made A&W Cream Soda the top brand in cream sodas.
In 2017, the product was reformulated to be caffeine free. In 1991, A&W had its most popular cream soda campaign, they produced a summer advertisement with Woodstock displayed on the entire can. Snoopy and Woodstock are characters from the Peanuts Gang comic strips written by Charles M. Schulz. Snoopy can be seen playing baseball, having a cookout, lifting weights, walking the beach, riding a bike, jumping hurdles, listening to music; these cans were popular among buyers. These images can be seen on regular A&W cream soda as well as Diet A&W cream soda cans. Coca-Cola’s first polar bear print advertisement made its debut in France in 1922, for the next 70 years, polar bears appeared sporadically in print advertising. A&W, the leading root beer marketer, filmed their own commercial using polar bears in the summer of 1992. In that commercial, a real polar bear is seen in contrast to a mechanical polar bear, ice-skating in a fancy skirt; the commercial used the polar bears to distinguish a difference between regular A&W cream soda and sparkling A&W cream soda.
They use the real bear yawning to embody the regular cream soda, they use the ice-skating polar bear to represent the sparkling cream soda. The polar bears are used as a marketing technique to appeal to a large audience. "They are white, the color of innocence though in this case it's 800 pounds of skin-ripping innocence," Mr. Gilbert said. In 1992 Pepsi-Cola International and A&W Brands Inc. worked together over a signed agreement to increase the spread of A&W's bottled products in Asia. The company anticipated to sell $500,000,000 of A & W soft drinks in Asia within the span of ten years to make the company's brands as prevalent as Pepsi, distributed in Guam and Indonesia. In 1994, A&W put $7,000,000 into their marketing promotions, they partnered with the show Baywatch to produce greater sales for their product. Baywatch was ranked second among all of the popular TV shows, so they knew this was a great opportunity. In-show placement on four episodes of Baywatch appeared; the advertisement was shown as sponsors of a boogie board test during the episode.
The winner of the boogie board contest on the television show would receive a year's supply of A&W. A&W cream soda spent $1.5 million in ads commemorating "a little sparkle in a vanilla world." A new A&W campaign from New York, which featured regular people, kids to grandparents, all describing their satisfaction of A&W. The campaign took a different direction from A&W's common and past humorous ads, using sepia-toned images, their new tag-line introduced: “authentic.” In addition to making A&W well known in different countries, using Snoopy, making new marketing campaigns with polar bears, using the show Baywatch, A&W cream soda has had a few commercials. Joe Isuzu appeared in cream soda commercials as well as the Sumangala Band. Serving size: 12 fl. oz. Amount per serving: Calories: 170 Total fat: 0 g Sodium: 70 mg Total Carb: 46 g Caffeine: 0 mg Sugars: 45 g Protein: 0 gIngredients: Carbonated water, high fructose corn syrup and/or sugar, sodium benzoate and artificial flavors, caramel color, citric acid, yucca extract, flavored with vanilla extract.
Serving size: 8 fl. oz. Amount per serving: Calories: 0 Total Fat: 0 g Sodium: 65 mg Total Carb: 0 g Sugars: NA Protein: 0 gINGREDIENTS: Carbonated water, sodium benzoate, caramel color, citric acid, yucca extract and artificial flavors
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, animal foods & feed and veterinary products; as of 2017, 3/4th of the FDA budget is paid by people who consume pharmaceutical products, due to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act. The FDA was empowered by the United States Congress to enforce the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, which serves as the primary focus for the Agency; these include regulating lasers, cellular phones and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction. The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Human Services. Scott Gottlieb, M. D. is the current commissioner, who took over in May 2017. The FDA has its headquarters in Maryland; the agency has 223 field offices and 13 laboratories located throughout the 50 states, the United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico. In 2008, the FDA began to post employees to foreign countries, including China, Costa Rica, Chile and the United Kingdom. In recent years, the agency began undertaking a large-scale effort to consolidate its 25 operations in the Washington metropolitan area, moving from its main headquarters in Rockville and several fragmented office buildings to the former site of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in the White Oak area of Silver Spring, Maryland; the site was renamed from the White Oak Naval Surface Warfare Center to the Federal Research Center at White Oak. The first building, the Life Sciences Laboratory, was dedicated and opened with 104 employees on the campus in December 2003. Only one original building from the naval facility was kept.
All other buildings are new construction. The project is slated to be completed by 2021, assuming future Congressional funding While most of the Centers are located in the Washington, D. C. area as part of the Headquarters divisions, two offices – the Office of Regulatory Affairs and the Office of Criminal Investigations – are field offices with a workforce spread across the country. The Office of Regulatory Affairs is considered the "eyes and ears" of the agency, conducting the vast majority of the FDA's work in the field. Consumer Safety Officers, more called Investigators, are the individuals who inspect production and warehousing facilities, investigate complaints, illnesses, or outbreaks, review documentation in the case of medical devices, biological products, other items where it may be difficult to conduct a physical examination or take a physical sample of the product; the Office of Regulatory Affairs is divided into five regions, which are further divided into 20 districts. Districts are based on the geographic divisions of the federal court system.
Each district comprises a main district office and a number of Resident Posts, which are FDA remote offices that serve a particular geographic area. ORA includes the Agency's network of regulatory laboratories, which analyze any physical samples taken. Though samples are food-related, some laboratories are equipped to analyze drugs and radiation-emitting devices; the Office of Criminal Investigations was established in 1991 to investigate criminal cases. Unlike ORA Investigators, OCI Special Agents are armed, don't focus on technical aspects of the regulated industries. OCI agents pursue and develop cases where individuals and companies have committed criminal actions, such as fraudulent claims, or knowingly and willfully shipping known adulterated goods in interstate commerce. In many cases, OCI pursues cases involving Title 18 violations, in addition to prohibited acts as defined in Chapter III of the FD&C Act. OCI Special Agents come from other criminal investigations backgrounds, work with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Assistant Attorney General, Interpol.
OCI receives cases from a variety of sources—including ORA, local agencies, the FBI—and works with ORA Investigators to help develop the technical and science-based aspects of a case. OCI is a smaller branch; the FDA works with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administration and Border Protection, Consumer Product Safety Commission. Local and state government agencies work with the FDA to provide regulatory inspections and enforcement action; the FDA regulates more than US$2.4 trillion worth of consumer goods, about 25% of consumer expenditures in the United States. This includes $466 billion in food sales, $275 billion in drugs, $60 billion in cosmetics and $18 billion in vitamin supplements. Much of these expenditures are for goods imported into the United States; the FDA's federal budget request for fiscal year 2012 totaled $4.36 billion, while the proposed 2014 budget is $4.7 billion. About $2 billion of this budget is generated by user fees.
Pharmaceutical firms pay th
Big Red (soft drink)
Big Red is a soft drink created in 1937 by Grover C. Thomsen and R. H. Roark in Waco and known as Sun Tang Red Cream Soda, it is classified as an American variety of cream soda and it is the original "red cream soda". The name was changed to Tang Big Red Cream Soda in 1959 and to "Big Red" in 1969 by Harold Jansing president of the San Antonio bottling plant, after hearing a golf caddy refer to the soda by that name. Big Red was marketed in Central and South Texas and around Louisville, including parts of Southern Indiana; the Louisville connection was due to Roark owning the R. C. Bottling Company in Louisville and Kentucky was the first state in which this soda was available to consumers. May 16, 2018, was proclaimed "Big Red Day" by Louisville mayor Greg Fischer in recognition of the 80th anniversary of Big Red being sold in that city; the drink is popular in the Southern United States and is well known for its unique taste and red color. Its flavor, though thought to be bubble gum, is created by mixing orange and lemon oils with the traditional vanilla used in other cream sodas.
Big Red is produced and distributed by various independent soft drink bottlers including Keurig Dr Pepper, CCE, Pepsi Bottling Group under license from Big Red, Inc. based in Austin, Texas. Big Red was the sixth-highest selling soft drink company in the United States from 2002–2004, after Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Dr Pepper/7Up, Cott and National Beverage Company; as a preeminent red creme soda in the South, it is a staple of many Juneteenth celebrations. In 2007 Big Red Ltd. was purchased by Gary Smith, with backing from Citigroup Venture Capital and Goldman Sachs. Gary Smith now serves as the CEO of Big Red and All Sport, Inc.. In 2008 Keurig Dr Pepper purchased a minority interest in Inc.. Dr Pepper distributes 80% of the product that Big Red sells annually. Although the production facility is still in Waco, Big Red relocated their corporate headquarters to Austin, Texas in 2009. Big Red Big Red Zero Retro Big Red Big Red Vanilla Float Big Honey Lemonade Big Blue Big Pineapple Big Peach Big Manzana Sugar Free Big Red Vanilla Float Big Punch Fruit Punch Big Orange Big Red's website Big Red's NASCAR sponsorship
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula C6H8O7. It occurs in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms. More than a million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year, it is used as an acidifier, as a flavoring and chelating agent. A citrate is a derivative of citric acid. An example of the former, a salt is trisodium citrate; when part of a salt, the formula of the citrate ion is written as C6H5O3−7 or C3H5O3−3. Citric acid exists in greater than trace amounts in a variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably citrus fruits. Lemons and limes have high concentrations of the acid; the concentrations of citric acid in citrus fruits range from 0.005 mol/L for oranges and grapefruits to 0.30 mol/L in lemons and limes. Within species, these values vary depending on the cultivar and the circumstances in which the fruit was grown. Industrial-scale citric acid production first began in 1890 based on the Italian citrus fruit industry, where the juice was treated with hydrated lime to precipitate calcium citrate, isolated and converted back to the acid using diluted sulfuric acid.
In 1893, C. Wehmer discovered. However, microbial production of citric acid did not become industrially important until World War I disrupted Italian citrus exports. In 1917, American food chemist James Currie discovered certain strains of the mold Aspergillus niger could be efficient citric acid producers, the pharmaceutical company Pfizer began industrial-level production using this technique two years followed by Citrique Belge in 1929. In this production technique, still the major industrial route to citric acid used today, cultures of A. niger are fed on a sucrose or glucose-containing medium to produce citric acid. The source of sugar is corn steep liquor, hydrolyzed corn starch or other inexpensive sugary solutions. After the mold is filtered out of the resulting solution, citric acid is isolated by precipitating it with calcium hydroxide to yield calcium citrate salt, from which citric acid is regenerated by treatment with sulfuric acid, as in the direct extraction from citrus fruit juice.
In 1977, a patent was granted to Lever Brothers for the chemical synthesis of citric acid starting either from aconitic or isocitrate/alloisocitrate calcium salts under high pressure conditions. This produced citric acid in near quantitative conversion under what appeared to be a reverse non-enzymatic Krebs cycle reaction. In 2007, worldwide annual production stood at 1,600,000 tons. More than 50% of this volume was produced in China. More than 50% was used as an acidity regulator in beverages, some 20% in other food applications, 20% for detergent applications and 10% for related applications other than food, such as cosmetics, pharmaceutics and in the chemical industry. Citric acid was first isolated in 1784 by the chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who crystallized it from lemon juice, it can exist either as a monohydrate. The anhydrous form crystallizes from hot water, while the monohydrate forms when citric acid is crystallized from cold water; the monohydrate can be converted to the anhydrous form at about 78 °C.
Citric acid dissolves in absolute ethanol at 15 °C. It decomposes with loss of carbon dioxide above about 175 °C. Citric acid is considered to be a tribasic acid, with pKa values, extrapolated to zero ionic strength, of 5.21, 4.28 and 2.92 at 25 °C. The pKa of the hydroxyl group has been found, by means of 13C NMR spectroscopy, to be 14.4. The speciation diagram shows that solutions of citric acid are buffer solutions between about pH 2 and pH 8. In biological systems around pH 7, the two species present are the citrate ion and mono-hydrogen citrate ion; the SSC 20X hybridization buffer is an example in common use. Tables compiled for biochemical studies are available. On the other hand, the pH of a 1 mM solution of citric acid will be about 3.2. The pH of fruit juices from citrus fruits like oranges and lemons depends on the citric acid concentration, being lower for higher acid concentration and conversely. Acid salts of citric acid can be prepared by careful adjustment of the pH before crystallizing the compound.
See, for example, sodium citrate. The citrate ion forms complexes with metallic cations; the stability constants for the formation of these complexes are quite large because of the chelate effect. It forms complexes with alkali metal cations. However, when a chelate complex is formed using all three carboxylate groups, the chelate rings have 7 and 8 members, which are less stable thermodynamically than smaller chelate rings. In consequence, the hydroxyl group can be deprotonated, forming part of a more stable 5-membered ring, as in ammonium ferric citrate, 5Fe2·2H2O. Citric acid can be esterified at one or more of the carboxylic acid functional groups on the molecule, to form any of a variety of mono-, di-, tri-, mixed esters. Citrate is an intermediate in the TCA cycle, a central metabolic pathway for animals and bacteria. Citrate synthase catalyzes the condensation of oxaloacetate with acetyl CoA to form citrate. Citrate acts as the substrate for aconitase and is converted into aconitic acid.
The cycle ends with regeneration of oxaloacetate. This series