Palace of Culture and Science, is a notable high-rise building in central Warsaw, Poland. With a total height of 237 metres it is the tallest building in Poland, the 5th-tallest building in the European Union and one of the tallest on the European continent. Constructed in 1955, it houses various public and cultural institutions such as cinemas, libraries, sports clubs, university faculties and authorities of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Since 2007 it has been enlisted in the Registry of Objects of Cultural Heritage. Motivated by Polish historical architecture and American art deco high-rise buildings, the PKiN was designed by Soviet architect Lev Rudnev in "Seven Sisters" style and is informally referred to as the Eighth Sister; the Palace was the tallest clock tower in the world until the installation of a clock mechanism on the NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building in Tokyo, Japan. The building was known as the Joseph Stalin's Palace of Culture and Science, but in the wake of destalinization the dedication to Stalin was revoked.
Stalin's name was removed from the interior lobby and one of the building's sculptures. Some Varsovians still use nicknames to refer to the palace, notably Peking, because of its abbreviated name PKiN), Pajac. Other less common names include Stalin's syringe, the Elephant in Lacy Underwear, Russian Wedding Cake, or Chuj Stalina. A popular saying among some of the locals has surfaced in the past few decades which insinuates that the Palace's observation deck has the city's "best view because it’s the only place in Warsaw with no view of the building". Construction started in 1952 and lasted until 1955. A gift from the Soviet Union to the people of Poland, the tower was constructed, using Soviet plans, by 3,500 to 5,000 Soviet workers and 4,000 Polish workers. Sixteen workers died in accidents during the construction; the builders were housed at a new suburban complex built at Poland's expense, with its own cinema, food court, community centre and swimming pool, called Osiedle "Przyjaźni". The architecture of the building is related to several similar skyscrapers built in the Soviet Union of the same era, most notably the Main building of Moscow State University.
However, the main architect Lev Rudnev incorporated some Polish architectural details into the project after traveling around Poland and seeing the architecture. The monumental walls are headed with pieces of masonry copied from Renaissance houses and palaces of Kraków and Zamość. Shortly after opening, the building hosted the 5th World Festival of Students. Many visiting dignitaries toured the Palace, it hosted performances by notable international artists, such as a 1967 concert by The Rolling Stones, the first by a major western rock group behind the Iron Curtain. In 1985, it hosted the historic Leonard Cohen concert, surrounded by many political expectations, which were avoided by Cohen in his prolonged introductions during the three-hour show. Four 6.3-metre clock faces were added to the top of the building ahead of the millennium celebrations in 2000. The building serves as an exhibition centre and office complex; the Palace contains a multiplex cinema with eight screens, four theatres, two museums, bookshops, a large swimming pool, an auditorium hall for 3,000 people called Congress Hall, an accredited university, Collegium Civitas, on the 11th and 12th floors of the building.
The terrace on the 30th floor, at 114 metres, is a well-known tourist attraction with a panoramic view of the city. The Congress Hall held the finals of Miss World 2006. In 2010, the illumination of the building was modernised and high-power LED lights were installed, allowing the Palace to take various colours at night; the first use of the new lighting was during Christmas in 2010, when the Palace was illuminated in green and white to resemble a Christmas tree. In December 2013, during the Euromaidan protests, it was illuminated in yellow and blue, the colours of the Ukrainian national flag as a sign of solidarity with the protesters; the Palace of Culture and Science is a controversial building for some, is viewed as a reminder of Soviet influence over the Polish People's Republic due to its construction during mass violations of human rights under Joseph Stalin. A coalition of veteran and nationalist groups in Poland as well as numerous right-wing political parties have called for its demolition.
In 2009 Foreign Minister Radoslaw Sikorski supported the demolition of the Palace noting the expense involved in its maintenance. Other prominent government leaders have continued to endorse demolition plans, including current Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki. However, others reject the idea noting that the Palace itself had become one of the symbolic icons of Warsaw and a building representing the city's rebirth from post-war rubble. Eighth Sister Latvian Academy of Sciences in Riga Casa Presei Libere in Bucharest Museum of Communism, Warsaw Neoclassical architecture Parade Square Socialist realism in Poland Michał Murawski, The Palace Complex: A Stalinist Skyscraper, Capitalist Warsaw, a City Transfixed, Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-0-253-03996-5 Official site Palace of Culture & Science at Structurae Skyscrapers of Warsaw – Palace of Culture and Science Google maps view on Palace of Culture and Science
Histone H1 is one of the five main histone protein families which are components of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. Though conserved, it is the most variable histone in sequence across species. Metazoan H1 proteins feature a central globular "winged helix" domain and long C- and short N-terminal tails. H1 is involved with the packing of the "beads on a string" sub-structures into a high order structure, whose details have not yet been solved. H1 found in protists and bacteria, otherwise known as nucleoprotein HC1/HC2, lack the central domain and the N-terminal tail. H1 is less conserved than core histones; the globular domain is the most conserved part of H1. Unlike the other histones, H1 does not make up the nucleosome "bead". Instead, it sits on top of the structure, keeping in place the DNA that has wrapped around the nucleosome. H1 is present in half the amount of the other four histones, which contribute two molecules to each nucleosome bead. In addition to binding to the nucleosome, the H1 protein binds to the "linker DNA" region between nucleosomes, helping stabilize the zig-zagged 30 nm chromatin fiber.
Much has been learned about histone H1 from studies on purified chromatin fibers. Ionic extraction of linker histones from native or reconstituted chromatin promotes its unfolding under hypotonic conditions from fibers of 30 nm width to beads-on-a-string nucleosome arrays, it is uncertain whether H1 promotes a solenoid-like chromatin fiber, in which exposed linker DNA is shortened, or whether it promotes a change in the angle of adjacent nucleosomes, without affecting linker length However, linker histones have been demonstrated to drive the compaction of chromatin fibres, reconstituted in vitro using synthetic DNA arrays of the strong'601' nucleosome positioning element. Nuclease digestion and DNA footprinting experiments suggest that the globular domain of histone H1 localizes near the nucleosome dyad, where it protects 15-30 base pairs of additional DNA. In addition, experiments on reconstituted chromatin reveal a characteristic stem motif at the dyad in the presence of H1. Despite gaps in our understanding, a general model has emerged wherein H1’s globular domain closes the nucleosome by crosslinking incoming and outgoing DNA, while the tail binds to linker DNA and neutralizes its negative charge.
Many experiments addressing H1 function have been performed on purified, processed chromatin under low-salt conditions, but H1’s role in vivo is less certain. Cellular studies have shown that overexpression of H1 can cause aberrant nuclear morphology and chromatin structure, that H1 can serve as both a positive and negative regulator of transcription, depending on the gene. In Xenopus egg extracts, linker histone depletion causes ~2-fold lengthwise extension of mitotic chromosomes, while overexpression causes chromosomes to hypercompact into an inseparable mass. Complete knockout of H1 in vivo has not been achieved in multicellular organisms due to the existence of multiple isoforms that may be present in several gene clusters, but various linker histone isoforms have been depleted to varying degrees in Tetrahymena, C. elegans, fruit fly, mouse, resulting in various organism-specific defects in nuclear morphology, chromatin structure, DNA methylation, and/or specific gene expression. While most histone H1 in the nucleus is bound to chromatin, H1 molecules shuttle between chromatin regions at a high rate.
It is difficult to understand how such a dynamic protein could be a structural component of chromatin, but it has been suggested that the steady-state equilibrium within the nucleus still favors association between H1 and chromatin, meaning that despite its dynamics, the vast majority of H1 at any given timepoint is chromatin bound. H1 compacts and stabilizes DNA under force and during chromatin assembly, which suggests that dynamic binding of H1 may provide protection for DNA in situations where nucleosomes need to be removed. Cytoplasmic factors appear to be necessary for the dynamic exchange of histone H1 on chromatin, but these have yet to be identified. H1 dynamics may be mediated to some degree by phosphorylation. O-glycosylation of H1 may promote chromatin compaction. Phosphorylation during interphase has been shown to decrease H1 affinity for chromatin and may promote chromatin decondensation and active transcription. However, during mitosis phosphorylation has been shown to increase the affinity of H1 for chromosomes and therefore promote mitotic chromosome condensation.
The H1 family in animals includes multiple H1 isoforms that can be expressed in different or overlapping tissues and developmental stages within a single organism. The reason for these multiple isoforms remains unclear, but both their evolutionary conservation from sea urchin to humans as well as significant differences in their amino acid sequences suggest that they are not functionally equivalent. One isoform is histone H5, only found in avian erythrocytes, which are unlike mammalian erythrocytes in that they have nuclei. Another isoform is the oocyte/zygotic H1M isoform, found in sea urchins, frogs and humans, replaced in the embryo by somatic isoforms H1A-E, H10 which resembles H5. Despite having more negative charges than somatic isoforms, H1M binds with higher affinity to mitotic chromosomes in Xenopus egg extracts. Like other histones, the histone H1 family is extensively post-translationally modified; this includes serine and threonine phosphorylation, lysine acetylation, lysine methylation and ubiquitination.
These PTMs are less well studied than the PTMs of other histones. Nucleosome histone chromatin linker histone H1 varian
"Walk with Me" is the third episode of the third season of the post-apocalyptic horror television series The Walking Dead, which aired on AMC in the United States on October 28, 2012. The episode focuses on Andrea. Merle Dixon, seen physically in season 1 and as an hallucination in season 2, returns in this episode as a series regular. Michonne and an ailing Andrea witness a military helicopter crash into a nearby forest, they find all but one of the crew dead, the survivor, badly injured. On hearing the approach of vehicles, her enslaved walkers, Andrea hide nearby, they observe a group of men rescue Welles and execute the other crewmen as they reanimate, using Rick's philosophy of conserving ammunition. Michonne's walkers make noises that alert the men to their presence, though Michonne decapitates the walkers to stop them and Andrea are captured. Andrea is surprised one of the men is Merle, Daryl's brother who Rick's group had left handcuffed to piping atop an Atlanta skyscraper. Merle was able to escape by sawing off his own hand, which he has replaced with a makeshift bayonet prosthetic.
Andrea faints from the shock. They are taken to Woodbury, a well-supplied, fortified town and sanctuary for around seventy survivors. After securing away their weapons, Merle interrogates them, explaining how he found his way from Atlanta to Woodbury, now has become the right-hand man to The Governor, the man who runs Woodbury. Andrea recounts her own escape from the Greene farmstead and separation from Rick's group, for whom Merle still holds contempt, they meet The Governor, who offers to let them stay. Michonne is uneasy and asks for her weapons back so they can leave, but Andrea wants to learn more about the town. Over breakfast, The Governor introduces them to Milton, his chief adviser, attempts to learn more about Rick's group from them using his charisma. Michonne remains aloof and warns Andrea of her distrust for The Governor, but Andrea thinks Woodbury is safe. Meanwhile, The Governor has interrogated Welles, learning that he was from a National Guard refugee camp located a short distance away from Woodbury.
The camp had been overrun and Welles and a few other National Guardsmen were the only survivors. The Governor promises Welles. After the breakfast with Andrea and Michonne, The Governor joins his men, they steal all the useful supplies. On returning to Woodbury, The Governor tells the town that the camp had fallen to walkers, stresses the importance of a fortified camp like Woodbury; the Governor is shown going into his private rooms and sitting in a chair, looking upon a number of tanks containing walker heads, including those of Michonne's enslaved walkers and of Welles. David Morrissey is added to the opening credits. Michael Rooker is added to the opening credits after having a recurring role in season one and guest starring in season two; the episode focuses on the new location of Woodbury, in contrast to the previous episode dedicated to the prison group. This episode is the first for Rick and Lori to be absent, and, as of this episode, no one has appeared in every episode; the episode was well received.
Zack Handlen, writing for The A. V. Club, gave the episode an A- on a scale from A to F. Eric Goldman at IGN gave the episode an 8.6 out of 10. Upon its initial broadcast on October 28, 2012, "Walk with Me" was watched by an estimated 10.51 million viewers, an increase of a million viewers from the previous episode. "Walk with Me" at AMC "Walk with Me" on IMDb "Walk with Me" at TV.com