Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe
The Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe or Committee of Ministers is the Council of Europe's decision-making body. It comprises the Foreign Affairs Ministers of all the member states, or their permanent diplomatic representatives in Strasbourg, it is both a governmental body, where national approaches to problems facing European society can be discussed on an equal footing, a collective forum, where Europe-wide responses to such challenges are formulated. In collaboration with the Parliamentary Assembly, it is the guardian of the Council's fundamental values, monitors member states' compliance with their undertakings; the Minister of Foreign Affairs of each Council of Europe member state sits on the Committee of Ministers. In May 1951 the Committee of Ministers invited each member state to appoint a Permanent Representative who would be in constant touch with the organisation. All Permanent Representatives reside in Strasbourg, they are senior diplomats with ambassadorial rank chargés d'affaires.
In 1952 the Committee of Ministers decided. The Ministers' Deputies have the same decision-making powers as the Ministers. A Deputy is also the Permanent Representative of the member State; the second in rank in a delegation has the title "Deputy Permanent Representative", not to be confused with "Ministers' Deputy". The Committee meets at ministerial level once a year, in November; the meetings, known as "sessions", are held in Strasbourg and last one full day or two half days. While the greater part of each session is devoted to political dialogue, the Ministers may discuss all matters of mutual interest with the exception of national defence. Although the records of the sessions are confidential, a final communiqué is issued at the end of each meeting; the Ministers may issue one or more declarations. "Meetings of the Ministers' Deputies" are held in the Committee of Ministers' meeting room once a week. The Deputies meet several times a week in subsidiary groups; the Committee of Ministers performs a triple role.
The work and activities of the Committee of Ministers include political dialogue, developing public international law through Council of Europe conventions, interacting with the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, interacting with the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe. The Committee of Ministers has the authority to invite European States to become members of the Council of Europe, it may suspend or terminate membership. The process of admission begins when the Committee of Ministers, having received an official application for membership, consults the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe; the Assembly adopts an opinion, published in the Assembly's texts adopted. If the Committee decides that a state can be admitted, it adopts a resolution inviting that state to become a member; the invitation specifies the number of seats that the state will have in the Assembly as well as its contribution to the budget. The invitations have included a number of conditions concerning the implementation of democratic reforms in the applicant state.
Once invited, a state becomes a member by depositing by the Minister for Foreign Affairs, an instrument of accession with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. The only European states which are not members of the Council of Europe and thus could in principle be admitted are Belarus and the Vatican as well as Kosovo pending clarification of its international legal status. Once the European Union has attained full legal personality, it could accede to the Council of Europe. So far, the European Community has only signed Council of Europe treaties. Article 15.a of the Statute states that the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe "shall consider the action required to further the aim of the Council of Europe, including the conclusion of conventions and agreements". Over 190 treaties have now been opened for signature; the European Convention of Human Rights of 1950 is one of the best known Council of Europe treaties and the one with the strongest supervision mechanism by the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg and the Committee of Ministers.
The text of any treaty is finalised. Under Article 20 of the Statute adoption of a treaty requires: a two-thirds majority of the representatives casting a vote; the same majorities are required to authorise the publication of any explanatory report. The Committee fixes the date that the treaty will be opened for signature. Conventions are binding for those States which ratify them. Article 15.b of the Statute provides for the Committee of Ministers to make recommendations to member states on matters for which the Committee has agreed "a common policy". Under Article 20 of the Statute, adoption of a recommendation requires a unanimous vote of all representatives present and a majority of those entitled to vote. However, at their 519 bis meeting the Ministers' Deputies decided to make their voting procedure more flexible and made a "Gentleman's agreemen
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, is used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from the Latin fortis and facere. From early history to modern times, walls have been necessary for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest; some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the first small cities to be fortified. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae. A Greek phrourion was a fortified collection of buildings used as a military garrison, is the equivalent of the Roman castellum or English fortress; these constructions served the purpose of a watch tower, to guard certain roads and lands that might threaten the kingdom. Though smaller than a real fortress, they acted as a border guard rather than a real strongpoint to watch and maintain the border; the art of setting out a military camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called "castrametation" since the time of the Roman legions.
Fortification is divided into two branches: permanent fortification and field fortification. There is an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the generic fort or fortress in that they are a residence of a monarch or noble and command a specific defensive territory. Roman forts and hill forts were the main antecedents of castles in Europe, which emerged in the 9th century in the Carolingian Empire; the Early Middle Ages saw the creation of some towns built around castles. Medieval-style fortifications were made obsolete by the arrival of cannons in the 14th century. Fortifications in the age of black powder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb and disperse the energy of cannon fire. Walls exposed to direct cannon fire were vulnerable, so the walls were sunk into ditches fronted by earth slopes to improve protection; the arrival of explosive shells in the 19th century led to yet another stage in the evolution of fortification.
Star forts did not fare well against the effects of high explosive, the intricate arrangements of bastions, flanking batteries and the constructed lines of fire for the defending cannon could be disrupted by explosive shells. Steel-and-concrete fortifications were common during the early 20th centuries; however the advances in modern warfare since World War I have made large-scale fortifications obsolete in most situations. Demilitarized zones along borders are arguably another type of fortification, although a passive kind, providing a buffer between hostile militaries. Many US military installations are known as forts. Indeed, during the pioneering era of North America, many outposts on the frontiers non-military outposts, were referred to generically as forts. Larger military installations may be called fortresses; the word fortification can refer to the practice of improving an area's defence with defensive works. City walls are fortifications but are not called fortresses; the art of setting out a military camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called castrametation since the time of the Roman legions.
The art/science of laying siege to a fortification and of destroying it is called siegecraft or siege warfare and is formally known as poliorcetics. In some texts this latter term applies to the art of building a fortification. Fortification is divided into two branches: permanent fortification and field fortification. Permanent fortifications are erected at leisure, with all the resources that a state can supply of constructive and mechanical skill, are built of enduring materials. Field fortifications—for example breastworks—and known as fieldworks or earthworks, are extemporized by troops in the field assisted by such local labour and tools as may be procurable and with materials that do not require much preparation, such as earth and light timber, or sandbags. An example of field fortification was the construction of Fort Necessity by George Washington in 1754. There is an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification; this is employed when in the course of a campaign it becomes desirable to protect some locality with the best imitation of permanent defences that can be made in a short time, ample resources and skilled civilian labour being available.
An example of this is the construction of Roman forts in England and in other Roman territories where camps were set up with the intention of staying for some time, but not permanently. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the generic fort or fortress in that it describes a residence of a monarch or noble and commands a specific defensive territory. An example of this is the massive medieval castle of Carcassonne. From early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for many cities. In Bulgaria, near the town of Provadia a walled fortified settlement today called Solnitsata starting from 4700 BC had a diameter of about 300 feet, was home to 350 people living in two-storey houses, was encircled by a fortified wall; the huge walls around the settlement, which were built tall and with stone blocks which are 6 feet high and 4.5 feet thick, make it one of the earliest walled settlements in Europe but it is younger than the walled town of Sesklo in Greece from 6800 BC.
Uruk in ancient Su
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
A tennis court is the venue where the sport of tennis is played. It is a firm rectangular surface with a low net stretched across the center; the same surface can be used to play. A variety of surfaces can be used to create a tennis court, each with its own characteristics which affect the playing style of the game; the dimensions of a tennis court are defined and regulated by the International Tennis Federation governing body and are written down in the annual'Rules of Tennis' document. The court is 78 feet long, its width is 36 feet for doubles matches. The service line is 21 feet from the net. Additional clear space around the court is needed in order for players to reach overrun balls for a total of 60 feet wide and 120 feet long. A net is stretched across the full width of the court, parallel with the baselines, dividing it into two equal ends; the net is 3 feet 6 inches high at the posts, 3 feet high in the center. The net posts are 3 feet outside the doubles court on each side or, for a singles net, 3 feet outside the singles court on each side.
The ITF's Play and Stay campaign promotes playing on smaller courts with slower red and green balls for younger children. This gives children more time and control so they can serve and score from the first lesson on courts that are sized to fit their bodies; the ITF has mandated that official competition for children aged 10 years and under should be played on "Orange" courts 18 m long by 6.4 m wide. Competition for children under 8 years is played on "Red" courts that are 5.5 m wide. The net is always 0.8 m high in the center. Tennis is played on a variety of surfaces and each surface has its own characteristics which affect the playing style of the game. There are four main types of courts depending on the materials used for the court surface: clay courts, hard courts, grass courts and carpet courts; the International Tennis Federation lists different surfaces and properties and classifies surfaces into one of five pace settings: Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Of the current four Grand Slam tournaments, the Australian and US Open use hard courts, French Open is played on clay, Wimbledon, the only Grand Slam to have always been played on the same surface, is played on grass.
The Australian Open switched from grass to hard courts in 1988 and in its early years the French championship alternated between clay and sand/rubble courts. The US Open is the only major to have been played on three surfaces. ITF uses the following classification for tennis court surface types: Clay courts are made of crushed shale, stone or brick; the French Open is the only Grand Slam tournament to use clay courts. Clay courts produce a high bounce in comparison to grass or hard courts. For this reason, the clay court takes away many of the advantages of big serves, which makes it hard for serve-based players to dominate on the surface. Clay courts are cheaper to construct than other types of tennis courts, but a clay surface costs more to maintain. Clay courts need to be rolled to preserve flatness; the clay's water content must be balanced. Clay courts are more common in Europe and Latin America than in North America, tend to favour baseline players. For the Grand Slams clay courts have been used at the US Open from 1975 to 1977 and the French Open since 1891.
Grass courts are the fastest type of courts in common use. They consist of grass grown on hard-packed soil, which adds additional variables: bounces depend on how healthy the grass is, how it has been mowed, the wear and tear of recent play. Points are very quick where fast, low bounces keep rallies short, the serve plays a more important role than on other surfaces. Grass courts tend to favour serve-and-volley tennis players. Grass courts were once among the most common tennis surfaces, but are now rare due to high maintenance costs as they must be watered and mown and take a longer time to dry after rain than hard courts; the grass surface, however, is the most physically forgiving to the human body because of its softness. For the Grand Slams grass courts have been used at the Australian Open from 1905 to 1987, the US Open from 1881 to 1974, Wimbledon since 1877. Hard courts are made of uniform rigid material covered with an acrylic surface layer to offer greater consistency of bounce than other outdoor surfaces.
Hard courts can vary in speed. The quantity of sand added to the paint can affect the rate at which the ball slows down; the US Open is played on DecoTurf while the Australian Open is played on Plexicushion, both acrylic-topped hard court surfaces. For the Grand Slams hard courts have been used at the Australian Open since 1988 and the US Open since 1978. "Carpet" in tennis means any removable court covering. Indoor arenas store rolls of rubber-backed court surfacing and install it temporarily for tennis events, but they are not in use any more for professional events. A short piled form of artificial turf infilled with sand is used for some outdoor courts in Asia. Carpet is a fast surface, faster than hardcourt, with low bounce. Notable tennis tournaments previously
William I, German Emperor
William I, or in German Wilhelm I, of the House of Hohenzollern, was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first head of state of a united Germany. Under the leadership of William and his Minister President Otto von Bismarck, Prussia achieved the unification of Germany and the establishment of the German Empire. Despite his long support of Bismarck as Minister President, William held strong reservations about some of Bismarck's more reactionary policies, including his anti-Catholicism and tough handling of subordinates. In contrast to the domineering Bismarck, William was described as polite, gentlemanly and, while staunchly conservative, he was more open to certain classical liberal ideas than his grandson Wilhelm II; the future king and emperor was born William Frederick Louis of Prussia in the Kronprinzenpalais in Berlin on 22 March 1797. As the second son of Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Prince Frederick William, himself son of King Frederick William II, William was not expected to ascend to the throne.
His grandfather died the year he was born, at age 53, in 1797, his father Frederick William III became king. He was educated from 1801 to 1809 by Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Delbrück, in charge of the education of William's brother, the Crown Prince Frederick William. At age twelve, his father appointed him an officer in the Prussian army; the year 1806 saw the defeat of Prussia by the end of the Holy Roman Empire. William served in the army from 1814 onward. Like his father he fought against Napoleon I of France during the part of the Napoleonic Wars known in Germany as the Befreiungskriege, was a brave soldier, he won the Iron Cross for his actions at Bar-sur-Aube. The war and the fight against France left a lifelong impression on him, he had a long-standing antipathy towards the French. In 1815, William was promoted to major and commanded a battalion of the 1. Garderegiment, he fought under Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at the Battles of Waterloo. He became a diplomat, engaging in diplomatic missions after 1815.
William was a brother of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia. In 1817 he accompanied his sister to Saint Petersburg. In 1816, William became the commander of the Stettiner Gardelandwehrbataillon and in 1818 was promoted to Generalmajor; the next year, William was appointed inspector of the VII. and VIII. Army Corps; this made him a spokesman of the Prussian Army within the House of Hohenzollern. He argued in favour of a well-trained and well-equipped army. In 1820, William became commander of the 1. Gardedivision and in 1825 was promoted to commanding general of the III. Army Corps. In 1826 William was forced to abandon a relationship with Polish noblewoman Elisa Radziwill, his cousin whom he had been attracted to, when it was deemed an inappropriate match by his father, it is alleged that Elisa had an illegitimate daughter by William, brought up by Joseph and Caroline Kroll, owners of the Kroll Opera House in Berlin, was given the name Agnes Kroll. She married a Carl Friedrich Ludwig Dettman and emigrated to Sydney, Australia, in 1849.
They had a family of two daughters. Agnes died in 1904. In 1829, William married Princess Augusta, the daughter of Grand Duke Karl Friedrich of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, their marriage was outwardly stable, but not a happy one. In 1840 his older brother became King of Prussia. Since he had no children, William was first in line to succeed him to the throne and thus was given the title Prinz von Preußen. Against his convictions but out of loyalty towards his brother, William signed the bill setting up a Prussian parliament in 1847 and took a seat in the upper chamber, the Herrenhaus. During the Revolutions of 1848, William crushed a revolt in Berlin, aimed at Frederick William IV; the use of cannons earned him the nickname Kartätschenprinz. Indeed, he had to flee to England for a while, disguised as a merchant, he helped to put down an uprising in Baden, where he commanded the Prussian army. In October 1849, he became governor-general of Rhineland and Westfalia, with a seat at the Electoral Palace in Koblenz.
During their time at Koblenz and his wife entertained liberal scholars such as the historian Maximilian Wolfgang Duncker, August von Bethmann-Hollweg and Clemens Theodor Perthes. William's opposition to liberal ideas softened. In 1854, the prince was raised to the rank of a field-marshal and made governor of the federal fortress of Mainz. In 1857 Frederick William IV suffered a stroke and became mentally disabled for the rest of his life. In January 1858, William became Prince Regent for his brother only temporarily but after October on a permanent basis. Against the advice of his brother, William swore an oath of office on the Prussian constitution and promised to preserve it "solid and inviolable". William appointed a liberal, Karl Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, as Minister President and thus initiated what became known as the "New Era" in Prussia, although there were conflicts between William and the liberal majority in the Landtag on matters of reforming the armed forces. On 2 January 1861, Frederick William IV died and William ascended the throne as William I of Prussia.
In July a student from Leipzig attempted to assassinate William, but he was only injured. Like Frederick I of Prussia, William tr
Council of Europe
The Council of Europe is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights and the rule of law in Europe. Founded in 1949, it has 47 member states, covers 820 million people and operates with an annual budget of 500 million euros; the organisation is distinct from the 28-nation European Union, although it is sometimes confused with it because the EU has adopted the original European Flag, created by the Council of Europe in 1955, as well as the European Anthem. No country has joined the EU without first belonging to the Council of Europe; the Council of Europe is an official United Nations Observer. Unlike the EU, the Council of Europe cannot make binding laws, but it does have the power to enforce select international agreements reached by European states on various topics; the best known body of the Council of Europe is the European Court of Human Rights, which enforces the European Convention on Human Rights. The Council's two statutory bodies are the Committee of Ministers, comprising the foreign ministers of each member state, the Parliamentary Assembly, composed of members of the national parliaments of each member state.
The Commissioner for Human Rights is an independent institution within the Council of Europe, mandated to promote awareness of and respect for human rights in the member states. The Secretary General heads the secretariat of the organisation. Other major CoE bodies include the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and the European Audiovisual Observatory; the headquarters of the Council of Europe are in France. English and French are its two official languages; the Committee of Ministers, the Parliamentary Assembly and the Congress use German, Italian and Turkish for some of their work. Britain's wartime leader Sir Winston Churchill was the first to suggest the creation of "a Council of Europe" in a BBC radio broadcast on 21 March 1943, while the second world war was still raging. In his own words, he tried to "peer through the mists of the future to the end of the war," once victory had been achieved, think about how to re-build and maintain peace on a shattered continent. Given that Europe had been at the origin of two world wars, the creation of such a body would be, he suggested, "a stupendous business".
He returned to the idea during a well-known speech at the University of Zurich on 19 September 1946, throwing the full weight of his considerable post-war prestige behind it. The future structure of the Council of Europe was discussed at a specific congress of several hundred leading politicians, government representatives and civil society in The Hague, Netherlands, in 1948. There were two schools of thought competing: some favoured a classical international organisation with representatives of governments, while others preferred a political forum with parliamentarians. Both approaches were combined through the creation of a Committee of Ministers and a Consultative Assembly, the two main bodies mentioned in the Statute of the Council of Europe; this dual intergovernmental and inter-parliamentary structure was copied for the European Communities, North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The Council of Europe was founded on 5 May 1949 by the Treaty of London.
The Statute was signed in London on that day by ten states: Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom. Three months on 10 August 1949, 100 members of the Council's Consultative Assembly, parliamentarians drawn from twelve nations, met in Strasbourg for its first plenary session, held over 18 sittings and lasting nearly a month, they debated how to reconcile and reconstruct a continent still reeling from war, yet facing a new East-West divide, launched the concept of a trans-national court to protect the basic human rights of every European citizen, took the first steps towards what would in time become the European Union. In August 1949, Paul-Henri Spaak of Belgium was elected president of the first session of the assembly. Spaak helped develop a network of intergovernmental contacts in many fields, such as human rights, local government, culture and youth policy. However, the organization only played an advisory role, was not nearly strong enough to achieve Spaak's long-term goals of European unification.
In 2018 an archive of all speeches made to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe by heads of state or government since the Council of Europe's creation in 1949 appeared online, the fruit of a two-year project entitled "Voices of Europe". At the time of its launch, the archive comprised 263 speeches delivered over a 70-year period by some 216 Presidents, Prime Ministers and religious leaders from 45 countries - though it continues to expand, as new speeches are added every few months; some early speeches by individuals considered to be "founding figures" of the European institutions if they were not heads of state or government at the time, are included. Addresses by eight monarchs appear in the list as well as the speeches given by religious figures and several leaders from countries in the Middle East and North Africa; the full text of the speeches is given in both En
Henry Bernard (architect)
Henry Bernard was a French architect and urban planner. Son of Henri Bernard, born 25 September 1880 in Albertville, Louise Jeanne Marie "Lily" Vallat, born 22 August 1882 in Saint-Étienne, his parents married on 22 May 1911 in Sury-le-Comtal. Bernard had two brothers, born in 1913, Jean, born in 1933 from another marriage. Bernard received his diploma in architecture in 1938; that same year he won first prize in the Prix de Rome. Afterwards he worked as an architect in charge of civil buildings and national monuments, a position concerned with the renovation of historic buildings, he served as urban planner for the city of Grenoble, director of the Atelier parisien d’urbanisme, studio director of the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts. He was elected to the Académie des Beaux-Arts in 1968, he became president of that institution in 1988, serving until his death in 1994. After World War II, he participated in the rebuilding of Caen, under the direction of Marc Brillaud de Laujardière. Campus 1 of the University of Caen Lower Normandy, protected building in 2012 Church of Saint Julian, protected building in 2007Other works: Palace of Europe, the Council of Europe's headquarters in Strasbourg Maison de la Radio, Paris Val-d'Oise prefecture building in Cergy The teaching hospitals of Caen and Grenoble fr:Henry Bernard Louis Leygue Sculptor-Maison de la Radio