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Palace of Fine Arts

The Palace of Fine Arts in the Marina District of San Francisco, California, is a monumental structure constructed for the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition in order to exhibit works of art presented there. One of only a few surviving structures from the Exposition, it is still situated on its original site, it was rebuilt in 1965, renovation of the lagoon, a seismic retrofit were completed in early 2009. In addition to hosting art exhibitions, it remains a popular attraction for tourists and locals and is a favorite location for weddings and wedding party photographs for couples throughout the San Francisco Bay Area and such an icon that a miniature replica of it was built in Disney's California Adventure in Anaheim; the Palace of Fine Arts was one of ten palaces at the heart of the Panama-Pacific Exhibition, which included the exhibit palaces of Education, Liberal Arts, Varied Industries, Food Products, Transportation and Metallurgy and the Palace of Machinery. The Palace of Fine Arts was designed by Bernard Maybeck, who took his inspiration from Roman and Ancient Greek architecture in designing what was a fictional ruin from another time.

The structure bears a striking resemblance to the Château d'eau at the Promenade du Peyrou in Montpellier, designed by Jean-Antoine Giral. Both of these polygonal architectural follies feature monumental arches flanked by pairs of Corinthian columns and other neoclassical characteristics, both appear to "float" on the shallow reflecting pool in front of each. While most of the exposition was demolished when the exposition ended, the Palace was so beloved that a Palace Preservation League, founded by Phoebe Apperson Hearst, was founded while the fair was still in progress. For a time the Palace housed a continuous art exhibit, during the Great Depression, W. P. A. Artists were commissioned to replace the decayed Robert Reid murals on the ceiling of the rotunda. From 1934 to 1942 the exhibition hall was home to eighteen lighted tennis courts. During World War II, it was requisitioned by the military for storage of jeeps. At the end of the war, when the United Nations was created in San Francisco, limousines used by the world's statesmen came from a motor pool there.

From 1947 on the hall was put to various uses: as a city Park Department warehouse. While the Palace had been saved from demolition, its structure was not stable. Intended to only stand for the duration of the Exhibition, the colonnade and rotunda were not built of durable materials, thus framed in wood and covered with staff, a mixture of plaster and burlap-type fiber; as a result of the construction and vandalism, by the 1950s the simulated ruin was in fact a crumbling ruin. In 1964, the original Palace was demolished, with only the steel structure of the exhibit hall left standing; the buildings were reconstructed in permanent, light-weight, poured-in-place concrete, steel I-beams were hoisted into place for the dome of the rotunda. All the decorations and sculpture were constructed anew; the only changes were the absence of the murals in the dome, two end pylons of the colonnade, the original ornamentation of the exhibit hall. In 1969, the former Exhibit Hall became home to the Exploratorium interactive museum, and, in 1970 became the home of the 966-seat Palace of Fine Arts Theater.

In 2003, the City of San Francisco along with the Maybeck Foundation created a public-private partnership to restore the Palace and by 2010 work was done to restore and seismically retrofit the dome, rotunda and lagoon. In January 2013, the Exploratorium closed in preparation for its permanent move to the Embarcadero. Today, Australian eucalyptus trees fringe the eastern shore of the lagoon. Many forms of wildlife have made their home there including swans, geese, turtles and raccoons. Built around a small artificial lagoon, the Palace of Fine Arts is composed of a wide, 1,100 ft pergola around a central rotunda situated by the water; the lagoon was intended to echo those found in classical settings in Europe, where the expanse of water provides a mirror surface to reflect the grand buildings and an undisturbed vista to appreciate them from a distance. Ornamentation includes Bruno Louis Zimm's three repeating panels around the entablature of the rotunda, representing "The Struggle for the Beautiful", symbolizing Greek culture.

While Ulric Ellerhusen supplied the weeping women atop the colonnade and the sculptured frieze and allegorical figures representing Contemplation and Meditation. The underside of the Palace rotunda's dome features eight large insets, which contained murals by Robert Reid. Four depicted the conception and birth of Art, "its commitment to the Earth, its progress and acceptance by the human intellect," and the four "golds" of California; the Palace of Fine Arts was not the only building from the exposition to escape demolition. The Japanese Tea House was purchased in 1915 by land baron E. D. Swift and was transported by barge down the Bay to Belmont, California where it stands to this day; the Wisconsin and Virginia buildings were relocated to Marin County. The Ohio building was shipped to San Mateo County; the Column of Progress stood for a decade after the close of the Exhibition, but was demolished to accommodate traffic on Marina Boulevard. Although not built on the exhibition grounds, the only other structure from it s

Constructed wetland

A constructed wetland is an artificial wetland to treat municipal or industrial wastewater, greywater or stormwater runoff. It may be designed for land reclamation after mining, or as a mitigation step for natural areas lost to land development. Constructed wetlands are engineered systems that use natural functions vegetation and organisms to treat wastewater. Depending on the type of wastewater the design of the constructed wetland has to be adjusted accordingly. Constructed wetlands have been used to treat both on-site wastewater. Primary treatment is recommended when there is a large amount of suspended solids or soluble organic matter. To natural wetlands, constructed wetlands act as a biofilter and/or can remove a range of pollutants from the water. Constructed wetlands are a sanitation technology that have not been designed for pathogen removal, but instead, have been designed to remove other water quality constituents such as suspended solids, organic matter and nutrients. All types of pathogens are expected to be removed to some extent in a constructed wetland.

Subsurface wetland provide greater pathogen removal than surface wetlands. There are two main types of constructed wetlands: subsurface flow and surface flow constructed wetlands; the planted vegetation plays an important role in contaminant removal. The filter bed, consisting of sand and gravel, has an important role to play; some constructed wetlands may serve as a habitat for native and migratory wildlife, although, not their main purpose. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands are designed to have either horizontal flow or vertical flow of water through the gravel and sand bed. Vertical flow systems have a smaller space requirement than horizontal flow systems. Many terms are used to denote constructed wetlands, such as reed beds, soil infiltration beds, treatment wetlands, engineered wetlands, man-made or artificial wetlands. A biofilter has some similarities with a constructed wetland, but is without plants; the term of constructed wetlands can be used to describe restored and recultivated land, destroyed in the past through draining and converting into farmland, or mining.

A constructed wetland is an engineered sequence of water bodies designed to filter and treat waterborne pollutants found in sewage, industrial effluent or storm water runoff. Constructed wetlands are used for greywater treatment, they can be used after a septic tank for primary treatment in order to separate the solids from the liquid effluent. Some constructed wetland designs however do not use upfront primary treatment. Vegetation in a wetland provides a substrate upon which microorganisms can grow as they break down organic materials; this community of microorganisms is known as the periphyton. The periphyton and natural chemical processes are responsible for 90 percent of pollutant removal and waste breakdown; the plants remove about seven to ten percent of pollutants, act as a carbon source for the microbes when they decay. Different species of aquatic plants have different rates of heavy metal uptake, a consideration for plant selection in a constructed wetland used for water treatment. Constructed wetlands are of two basic types: surface flow wetlands.

Constructed wetlands are one example of nature-based solutions and of phytoremediation. Many regulatory agencies list treatment wetlands as one of their recommended "best management practices" for controlling urban runoff. Physical and biological processes combine in wetlands to remove contaminants from wastewater. An understanding of these processes is fundamental not only to designing wetland systems but to understanding the fate of chemicals once they enter the wetland. Theoretically, wastewater treatment within a constructed wetland occurs as it passes through the wetland medium and the plant rhizosphere. A thin film around each root hair is aerobic due to the leakage of oxygen from the rhizomes and rootlets. Aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms facilitate decomposition of organic matter. Microbial nitrification and subsequent denitrification releases nitrogen as gas to the atmosphere. Phosphorus is coprecipitated with iron and calcium compounds located in the root-bed medium. Suspended solids filter out as they settle in the water column in surface flow wetlands or are physically filtered out by the medium within subsurface flow wetlands.

Harmful bacteria and viruses are reduced by filtration and adsorption by biofilms on the gravel or sand media in subsurface flow and vertical flow systems. The dominant forms of nitrogen in wetlands that are of importance to wastewater treatment include organic nitrogen, ammonium and nitrite. Total nitrogen refers to all nitrogen species. Wastewater nitrogen removal is important because of ammonia’s toxicity to fish if discharged into watercourses. Excessive nitrates in drinking water is thought to cause methemoglobinemia in infants, which decreases the blood's oxygen transport ability. Moreover, excess input of N from point and non-point sources to surface water promotes eutrophication in rivers, lakes and coastal oceans which causes several problems in aquatic ecosystems e.g. toxic algal blooms, oxygen depletion in water, fish mortality, loss of aquatic biodiversity. Ammonia removal occurs in constructed wetlands – if they are designed to achieve biological nutrient removal – in a similar ways as in sewage treatment plants, except that no external, energy-intensive addition of air is needed.

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Tongan Australians

Tongan Australians are Australians who are of ethnic Tongan descent or Tonga-born people. According to the 2011 Australian census 10,560 Australians were born in Tonga, while 25,096 claimed Tongan ancestry. In 2006, 18,426 claimed Tongan ancestry, either alone or with another ancestry. Tongans were subject to the White Australia policy. In 1948, Akanesi Carrick – a cousin of Queen Sālote – and her two children were deported from Australia because of their race, despite being married to a British subject, Stewart Carrick. A Tongan man was deported from Australia in January 1975 because he had entered the country by "posing as a Maori". A decade another Tongan man sued the Australian Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs for racial discrimination, alleging the department was targeting Pacific Islanders in its administration of immigration law. Tongan migrants to Australia have tended to make their homes in the "arrival city" suburbs of Sydney's west; this pattern began in the 1970s, intensified in the 1980s, continues today.

As of 2011, over 60% of Tongan-born Australians live in the state of New South Wales. The 2006 Australian census recorded that the majority of the Tongan Australians live in New South Wales, followed by Victoria and Queensland. Despite there being few Australians of Tongan descent, Tongan Australians have excelled in the football codes of Rugby league and Rugby Union as evidenced by the list of notable Tongan Australians which include: Israel Folau, tri-code footballer and dual code international, being a Queensland State of Origin and Australian international Rugby League representative, AFL convert with GWS, most Rugby Union convert and Australian international Rugby Union representative with the NSW Waratahs Super Rugby club. Gorden Tallis, former Brisbane Broncos captain, Queensland State of Origin and Australian International representative in Rugby League Viliami Ofahengaue, affectionately known as Willie O, former Wallaby number eight and Flanker with 41 caps between 1990 and 1998, including the 1991 and 1995 World Cups.

Rodney Blake Adam Coleman Jim Dymock Anthony Fainga'a Saia Fainga'a Andrew Fifita Israel Folau Mahe Fonua Tyson Frizell Mark Gerrard Solomon Haumono John Hopoate William Hopoate Michael Jennings Toutai Kefu Brent Kite Leilani Latu Hau Latukefu Willie Manu Willie Mason Feleti Mateo Viliami Ofahengaue Wycliff Palu Tevita Pangai Junior Tatafu Polota-Nau George Smith Willie Tonga Anthony Tupou Tongan New Zealanders