The Palace of Fontainebleau or Château de Fontainebleau, located 55 kilometres southeast of the center of Paris, in the commune of Fontainebleau, is one of the largest French royal châteaux. The medieval castle and subsequent palace served as a residence for the French monarchs from Louis VII to Napoleon III. Francis I and Napoleon were the monarchs who had the most influence on the Palace as it stands today, it became a national museum in 1927 and was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1981. The earliest record of a fortified castle at Fontainebleau dates to 1137, it became a favorite residence and hunting lodge of the Kings of France because of the abundant game and many springs in the surrounding forest. It took its name from one of the springs, the fountain de Bliaud, located now in the English garden, next to the wing of Louis XV, it was used by King Louis VII, for whom Thomas Becket consecrated the chapel in 1169. In the 15th century some modifications and embellishments were made to the castle by Isabeau of Bavaria, the wife of King Charles VI, but the medieval structure remained intact until the reign of Francis I.
He commissioned the architect Gilles Le Breton to build a palace in the new Renaissance style imported from Italy. Le Breton preserved the old medieval donjon, where the King's apartments were located, but incorporated it into the new Renaissance-style Cour Ovale, or oval courtyard, built on the foundations of the old castle, it included monumental Porte Dorée, as its southern entrance. As well as a monumental Renaissance stairway, the portique de Serlio, to give access the royal apartments on the north side. Beginning in about 1528, Francis constructed the Galerie François Ier, which allowed him to pass directly from his apartments to the chapel of the Trinitaires, he brought the architect Sebastiano Serlio from Italy, the Florentine painter Giovanni Battista di Jacopo, known as Rosso Fiorentino, to decorate the new gallery. Between 1533 and 1539 Rosso Fiorentino filled the gallery with murals glorifying the King, framed in stucco ornament in high relief, lambris sculpted by the furniture maker Francesco Scibec da Carpi.
Another Italian painter, Francesco Primaticcio from Bologna, joined in the decoration of the palace. Together their style of decoration became known as the first School of Fontainebleau; this was the first great decorated gallery built in France. Broadly speaking, at Fontainebleau the Renaissance was introduced to France. In about 1540, Francis began another major addition to the chateau. Using land on the east side of the chateau purchased from the order of the Trinitaires, he began to build a new square of buildings around a large courtyard, it was enclosed on the north by the wing of the Ministers, on the east by the wing of Ferrare, on the south by a wing containing the new gallery of Ulysses. The chateau was surrounded by a new park in the style of the Italian Renaissance garden, with pavilions and the first grotto in France. Primaticcio created more monumental murals for the gallery of Ulysses. Following the death of Francis I, King Henry II decided to expand the chateau; the King and his wife chose Jean Bullant to do the work.
They extended the east wing of the lower court and decorated it with the first famous horseshoe-shaped staircase. In the oval court, they transformed the loggia planned by Francois into a Salle des Fêtes or grand ballroom with a coffered ceiling. Facing the courtyard of the fountain and the fish pond, they designed a new building, the Pavillon des Poeles, to contain the new apartments of the King; the decoration of the new ballroom and the gallery of Ulysses with murals by Francesco Primaticcio and sculptured stucco continued, under the direction of the Mannerists painters Primaticcio and Niccolò dell'Abbate. At Henri's orders the Nymphe de Fontainebleau by Benvenuto Cellini was installed at the gateway entrance of Château d'Anet, the primary domain of Henri's primary mistress Diane de Poitiers, it was the birth locale of Francis II of France, King Henry II’s firstborn son. Following the death of Henry II in a jousting accident, his widow, Catherine de' Medici, continued the construction and decoration of the château.
She named Primaticcio as the new superintendent of royal public works. He designed the section known today as the wing of the Belle Cheminée, noted for its elaborate chimneys and its two opposing stairways. In 1565, as a security measure due to the Wars of Religion, she had moat dug around the château to protect it against attack. King Henry IV made more additions to the château than any King since Francis I, he extended the oval court toward the west by building two pavilions, called Luxembourg. Between 1601 and 1606, he remade all the façades around the courtyard, including that of the chapel of Saint-Saturnin, to give the architecture greater harmony. On the east side, he built a new monumental gateway with a dome, called the porte du Baptistère. Between 1606 and 1609, he built a new courtyard, called the Cour des Offices or the Quartier Henry IV, to provide a place for the kitchens and residences for court officials. Two new galleries, the Galerie de Diane de Poitiers and the Galerie des Cerfs, were built to enclose the old garden of Diane.
He added a large Jeu de paume, or indoor tennis court, the largest such court existing in the world. A "second school of Fontainebleau" of painters and
The Face on the Milk Carton is a young adult novel written by author Caroline B. Cooney and first published in 1990; the first in the Janie Johnson series, it was adapted into a film for television. The book is about a 15-year-old girl named Janie Johnson, who starts to suspect that she may have been kidnapped, that her biological parents are somewhere in New Jersey, she happens to look down at a milk carton one day, she sees what looks like herself on the back, under the heading "Missing Child." Her life gets more stressful as she tries to hide the secret from her "parents," who she believes did not kidnap her. Janie tells her next-door neighbor, everything. Together the two of them unravel all of the secrets surrounding Janie Johnson's life; the book was number 79 on the most challenged books in the US for 1990-1999 and number 29 for 2000-2009. Books are banned or restricted at U. S. public schools for sex and profanity. While at lunch one day, Janie grabs her best friend, Sarah-Charlotte's milk carton and it changes her life completely.
She notices the'missing person' photo on the back of the milk carton and it happens to be herself when she was young, dressed in a white polka dotted dress. The milk carton says that Jennie Spring was kidnapped from a New Jersey shopping mall when she was three years old. Janie believes the carton must be some type of joke because her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Johnson, are loving parents that would never kidnap anyone Janie. Janie tries to put it out of her mind, but she begins having flashbacks, or what she calls "day-mares," of events and people that don't fit in with her current life, she remembers other children and a woman, not Mrs. Johnson, along with the dress. Janie goes to the attic and rummages through the boxes that she finds there, in the boxes, the school papers with the name Hannah Javensen, she finds the polka-dotted white dress that she saw on the milk carton. When confronted by Janie, Mr. and Mrs. Johnson explain that Hannah is their daughter, that Janie is Hannah's daughter, their granddaughter.
Hannah was a confused teen. She was mated to one of the men in her cult and one day showed up at the Johnsons' house with Janie. Hannah returned to her cult, the Johnsons left with Janie fearing that the cult would try to get her back, moving to a different state, changing their names from'Javensen' to'Johnson.' Janie comes to the conclusion that the memories are of her life in the cult before coming to the Johnsons. Janie is relieved that the people whom she believed to be her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Johnson, were not kidnappers. However, Janie cannot get the picture on the milk carton or the memories of another family out of her mind, she researches the Jennie Spring kidnapping. She comes to the conclusion that her parents might have kidnapped her. But, she tries to forgive them. Still and her boyfriend, Reeve, go to New Jersey to see the Spring family with their own eyes; the entire family has the same red hair that Janie has, which neither Mr. and Mrs. Johnson or Hannah has, it is evidence that Janie can't ignore.
She writes the Spring family a letter, but she doesn't mail the letter because she is still unsure about what to do. While at school, Janie loses the letter and the decision of whether to tell or not is taken out of her hands as she realizes that someone might have dropped it in the mail. Janie asks her parents what to do about the letter and confronts them with everything she has learned. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson are shocked, they figure that Hannah was the one who kidnapped Janie. Janie tries to keep them from telling anyone because she loves them much and doesn't want to hurt them, but Janie's mother is adamant. Janie Johnson series Abduction Etan Patz - His disappearance helped spark the missing children's movement, including new legislation and various methods for tracking down missing children, such as the milk-carton campaigns of the mid-1980s. Etan was the first missing child to be pictured on the side of a milk carton. Kidnapping of Jaycee Dugard Elizabeth Smart Ariel Castro kidnappings Abduction of Kamiyah Mobley
The 116th Division was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army. Its call sign was Storm Division, it was formed on 15 May 1938 in Kyoto as a B-class square division with the 106th Division. The nucleus for the formation was the 16th Division headquarters; the division was subordinated to the Central China Expeditionary Army. The division landed in Shanghai on 24 June 1938, was sent to the Dabie Mountains and Battle of Wuhan through Anqing. From March 1939, a small part of the division participated in the Battle of Nanchang. After the Central China Expeditionary Army was abolished, the division was reassigned to Thirteenth Army. In the aftermath of the Doolittle Raid 18 April 1942, the unit participated in the Zhejiang-Jiangxi campaign. In December 1942, the 138th Infantry Regiment was transferred to the 31st Division, therefore the 116th division became a triangular division. In November 1943, the division fought in the Battle of Changde, from May 1944 - in the Battle of Changsha. In October 1944, it was transferred to Twentieth Army and take a part in the Defense of Hengyang as a part of Operation Ichi-Go.
During the intensive 40-day assault of Chinese positions, the division has suffered major losses but was able to capture the city. From March 1945, it participated in the Battle of West Henan–North Hubei with the help of the newly created 86th Independent Mixed Brigade. By the day of the surrender of Japan on 15 August 1945, the division was still in Hengyang. List of Japanese Infantry Divisions This article incorporates material from Japanese Wikipedia page 第116師団, accessed 17 June 2016 Madej, W. Victor, Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle, 1937-1945, Allentown, PA: 1981