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Palace of Nations

The Palace of Nations is the home of the United Nations Office at Geneva, located in Geneva, Switzerland. It was built between 1938 to serve as the headquarters of the League of Nations, it has served as the home of the United Nations Office at Geneva since 1946 when the Secretary-General of the United Nations signed a Headquarters Agreement with the Swiss authorities, although Switzerland did not become a member of the United Nations until 2002. In 2012 alone, the Palace of Nations hosted more than 10,000 intergovernmental meetings. An architectural competition held in the 1920s to choose a design for the complex described the project as follows: The Palace, whose construction is the object of the competition, is intended to house all the organs of the League of Nations in Geneva, it should be designed in such a way as to allow these organs to work, to preside and to hold discussions, independently and in the calm atmosphere which should prevail when dealing with problems of an international dimension.

A jury of architects was selected to choose a final design from among 377 entries but was unable to decide on a winner. The five architects behind the leading entries were chosen to collaborate on a final design: Julien Flegenheimer of Switzerland, Camille Lefèvre and Henri-Paul Nénot of France, Carlo Broggi of Italy and József Vágó of Hungary. Donations from League members were used in the interior; the Palace constituted at the time of completion, volume wise, the second-largest building complex in Europe after Versailles. After its transfer to the United Nations, two extensions were added to the building, which increased the size of the usable area of the building. Between 1950 and 1952, three floors were added to the "K" building, the "D" building was constructed to house temporarily the World Health Organization; the "E" building was added between 1968 and 1973 as a conference facility, with bringing the total of conference rooms to 34. With the additions, the complex is 600 metres long and holds 2,800 offices, with a total volume of 853,000 m3 In December 1988, in order to hear Yasser Arafat, the United Nations General Assembly moved its 43rd session from the United Nations Headquarters in New York to the Palace of Nations.

The Palace is located in Ariana Park, bequeathed to the City of Geneva in 1890 by Gustave de Revilliod de la Rive, on several conditions: i.a. that the park always remain accessible to the public and that he be buried in the park. The park contains a 1668 chalet. Beneath the Palace's foundation stone is a time capsule containing a document listing the names of the League of Nations member states, a copy of the Covenant of the League, specimen coins of all the countries represented at the league's Tenth Assembly. A medal showing the Palace of Nations with the Jura Mountains in the background was struck in silvered bronze; the building has a clear view of the French Alps. Kuntz, Joëlle. Geneva and the Call of Internationalism: A History. Geneva: Editions Zoé. ISBN 978-2-88182-855-3. United Nations Office at Geneva Palais des Nations

Ramakrishna Hegde

Ramakrishna Mahabaleshwar Hegde was an Indian politician who served as the tenth Chief Minister of Karnataka for three terms between 1983 and 1988. He was elected to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly in 1957, 1962, 1967, 1983, 1985 and 1989, to the Rajya Sabha for two terms, 1978–83 and 1996–2002, he served as Minister of Commerce and Industry in the Union government. Hegde was born at Siddapura in Uttara Kannada district into a Havyaka Brahmin family, he was son of Mahabaleshwar Hegde and Smt. Saraswati Amma Hegde, who hailed from Sirimane village near sringeri. Hegde completed a part of his studies at the Kashi Vidyapeeth in Varanasi and obtained a degree in law from Allahabad university. A lawyer by profession, he participated in the Quit India Movement of 1942 and was an active member of the Congress Party. Hegde became the president of the Uttara Kannada District Congress Committee from 1954 to 1957 and rose to become the general secretary of the Mysore Pradesh Congress Committee in 1958, a post he held until 1962.

Much of his early administrative experience was built up during the governments of S. Nijalingappa and Veerendra Patil, he was first appointed a deputy minister. He was promoted to cabinet-minister rank, holding diverse portfolios such as Youth Welfare and Sports, Industries, Panchayat Raj, Development and Publicity, Excise and Finance between 1962–71. During the famous split in the Congress in 1969, Hegde followed in the footsteps of his mentor Nijalingappa and joined the Congress, the faction, opposed to Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, he was Leader of the Opposition in the Karnataka Legislative Council for a few years until 1974. The 1975 Emergency crackdown on opposition leaders saw his arrest along with several other state and national level leaders; when the emergency was lifted, he joined the Janata Party and became the first general secretary of its Karnataka state unit. He was a member of the Rajya Sabha during 1978–83; when the Janata Party came to power by emerging as the single largest party in the 1983 State elections, he emerged as a consensus Brahmin candidate between the powerful Lingayat and Vokkaliga lobbies.

In the process, he became the first non-Congress chief minister of Karnataka. A master strategist, he cobbled up a two-thirds majority for his government by an arrangement of outside support from other parties, his government secured the outside support of the Bharatiya Janata Party, Left parties and 16 Independents. Following the poor performance of the Janata Party in the 1984 Lok Sabha elections, Hegde resigned on the grounds that his party had lost its popular mandate and sought a fresh mandate for his government. In the 1985 elections, the Janata Party came to power on its own with a comfortable majority; as Chief Minister between 1983 and 1985 and again between 1985 and 1988, he became an active votary of State rights within a federal set-up, but one who made no concession to regional or linguistic chauvinism. Secondly, he took innovative initiatives in expanding the federal principle within the State in the area of devolving power to local bodies and in trying to enforce accountability.

During his Chief Ministership, Karnataka pioneered legislation on Panchayat Raj that devolved a substantial degree of financial and administrative powers to a three-tiered structure of local government. He supported the tireless work of his Minister for Rural Development and Panchayat Raj, Abdul Nazir Sab, in promoting devolution of power to the gram panchayats in the state, the Karnataka implementation became a role model for the rest of India. In 1984 he introduced legislation to deal with official and administrative corruption through the institution of the Lokayukta, he started the'Kannada watchdog panel' to oversee the implementation of Kannada in administration. He has the rare distinction of presenting thirteen finance budgets in the state assembly; as Chief Minister, Hegde enjoyed immense personal popularity and was acknowledged as an efficient administrator. However, as days passed by, his rule was mired with several scams involving alleged corruption on the part of his own family, his son was accused of taking money for a medical seat.

There were allegations made by the Congress against him in a case involving the transfer of shares by the NGEF company. He submitted resignation from chief ministership on 13 February 1986 when the Karnataka High Court censured his government for the way it handled arrack bottling contracts, but withdrew his resignation after three days on 16 February, he resigned and quit office in 1988 after allegations of phone tapping of prominent politicians and businessmen in the State. Hegde filed a case against Subramanian Swamy in 1989 and 1990 after Swamy accused him in tapping, he was the Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission of India during the tenure of V. P. Singh, he was expelled from Janata Dal by its president Lalu Prasad Yadav, as per the instructions of Prime Minister H. D. Deve Gowda in 1996. Following his expulsion, Hegde formed the Rashtreeya Nava nirmana vedike a social organisation and his own political party'Lok Shakti', he allied with the Bharatiya Janata Party and the alliance won a majority of the Lok Sabha seats from Karnataka in the 1998 General Elections.

He became the Commerce minister in the BJP led NDA government in 1998. After the Janata Dal split of 1999, the faction led by his protégé, Chief Minister J. H. Patel, the Lok Shakti merged to form the Janata Dal and allied with the BJP. However, the alliance suffered a setback in the 1999 General Elections owing to the anti incumbency against the P

Lake Saltonstall (Connecticut)

Lake Saltonstall is a long narrow lake located in south-central Connecticut. It covers an area of 0.66 square miles and is nestled in the center of the trap rock Saltonstall Mountain. The lake serves as part of the local water supply for surrounding towns; the lake and the area around it is owned by the South Central Connecticut Regional Water Authority, a company which regulates fishing and rents boats. Private boats are not allowed. A Regional Water Authority recreation permit may be purchased, which provides access to hiking trails and boat rentals at Lake Saltonstall and other properties owned and maintained by the RWA. There are a variety of fish native to Lake Saltonstall in addition to those that are stocked by the RWA. Fish in Lake Saltonstall include largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, trout, yellow perch and carp. Interstate 95 runs across the southern edge of the lake, connecting the towns of East Haven and Branford, Connecticut. Lake Saltonstall's maximum depth does not exceed 113 feet and its mean depth is 41 feet.

Lake Saltonstall Website SCCRWA Lake Saltonstall map and brochure