The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Known as the Houses of Parliament after its occupants, the Palace lies on the north bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster, in central London, England, its name, which derives from the neighbouring Westminster Abbey, may refer to either of two structures: the Old Palace, a medieval building-complex destroyed by fire in 1834, or its replacement, the New Palace that stands today. The palace is owned by the monarch in right of the Crown and, for ceremonial purposes, retains its original status as a royal residence. Committees appointed by both houses manage the building and report to the Speaker of the House of Commons and to the Lord Speaker; the first royal palace constructed on the site dated from the 11th century, Westminster became the primary residence of the Kings of England until fire destroyed much of the complex in 1512.
After that, it served as the home of the Parliament of England, which had met there since the 13th century, as the seat of the Royal Courts of Justice, based in and around Westminster Hall. In 1834 an greater fire ravaged the rebuilt Houses of Parliament, the only significant medieval structures to survive were Westminster Hall, the Cloisters of St Stephen's, the Chapel of St Mary Undercroft, the Jewel Tower. In the subsequent competition for the reconstruction of the Palace, the architect Charles Barry won with a design for new buildings in the Gothic Revival style inspired by the English Perpendicular Gothic style of the 14th–16th centuries; the remains of the Old Palace were incorporated into its much larger replacement, which contains over 1,100 rooms organised symmetrically around two series of courtyards and which has a floor area of 112,476 m2. Part of the New Palace's area of 3.24 hectares was reclaimed from the River Thames, the setting of its nearly 300-metre long façade, called the River Front.
Augustus Pugin, a leading authority on Gothic architecture and style, assisted Barry and designed the interior of the Palace. Construction started in 1840 and lasted for 30 years, suffering great delays and cost overruns, as well as the death of both leading architects. Major conservation work has taken place since to reverse the effects of London's air pollution, extensive repairs followed the Second World War, including the reconstruction of the Commons Chamber following its bombing in 1941; the Palace is one of the centres of political life in the United Kingdom. The Elizabeth Tower, in particular referred to by the name of its main bell, Big Ben, has become an iconic landmark of London and of the United Kingdom in general, one of the most popular tourist attractions in the city, an emblem of parliamentary democracy. Tsar Nicholas I of Russia called the new palace "a dream in stone"; the Palace of Westminster has been a Grade I listed building since 1970 and part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987.
The Palace of Westminster site was strategically important during the Middle Ages, as it was located on the banks of the River Thames. Known in medieval times as Thorney Island, the site may have been first-used for a royal residence by Canute the Great during his reign from 1016 to 1035. St Edward the Confessor, the penultimate Anglo-Saxon monarch of England, built a royal palace on Thorney Island just west of the City of London at about the same time as he built Westminster Abbey. Thorney Island and the surrounding area soon became known as Westminster. Neither the buildings used by the Anglo-Saxons nor those used by William I survive; the oldest existing part of the Palace dates from the reign of William I's successor, King William II. The Palace of Westminster was the monarch's principal residence in the late Medieval period; the predecessor of Parliament, the Curia Regis, met in Westminster Hall. Simon de Montfort's parliament, the first to include representatives of the major towns, met at the Palace in 1265.
The "Model Parliament", the first official Parliament of England, met there in 1295, all subsequent English Parliaments and after 1707, all British Parliaments have met at the Palace. In 1512, during the early years of the reign of King Henry VIII, fire destroyed the royal residential area of the palace. In 1534, Henry VIII acquired York Place from Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, a powerful minister who had lost the King's favour. Renaming it the Palace of Whitehall, Henry used it as his principal residence. Although Westminster remained a royal palace, it was used by the two Houses of Parliament and by the various royal law courts. In February 2020 a secret door was discovered, built for the coronation of King Charles II in 1661; the doorway is located in the cloister behind Westminster Hall. Because it was a royal residence, the Palace included no purpose-built chambers for the two Houses. Important state ceremonies were held in the Painted Chamber, built in the 13th century as the main bedchamber for King Henry III.
The House of Lords met in the Queen's Chamber, a modest Medieval hall towards the southern end of the complex, with the adjoining Prince's Chamber used as the robing room for peers and for the monarch during state openin
The Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference is an undergraduate foreign-affairs conference in the United States. NAFAC seeks to explore current, demanding issues from both a civilian and military perspective and thus to provide a forum for addressing pressing international concerns. Held at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland since 1961, NAFAC brings together Naval Academy students and their civilian and military counterparts from around the world to share ideas and concerns relating to international affairs. Past speakers include: George H. W. Bush, Joseph Biden, Stephen Hadley, Madeleine Albright, Condoleezza Rice, Robert Gates, Wesley Clark, Charles Krauthammer, Sheryl Sandberg and Hillary Clinton; the 2020 NAFAC Conference will take place April 7th-9th at the United States Naval Academy. The theme will be War and the Gray Zone and can be described by the following: Between war and peace lies a gray zone. Competition has become covert and continuous and rests on deception and deniability.
Rogue and revisionist powers challenge the U. S. in ways that aren’t quite provocative enough to merit a conventional response. Adversaries craft false narratives that supplant the truth, send “little green men” across borders, brazenly steal intellectual property, interfere in elections, weaponize social media. While none of these are traditional elements of warfare, they are not elements of peace. Actors such as China, Russia and North Korea appear to operate comfortably in this gray zone, while the US and its allies may be a step behind; this conference aims to cast light on these shadowy practices and to assess the prospects for a more tangible peace. Each year a unique theme is chosen for NAFAC. Conference attendees bring with them unique attitudes and approaches that, through discussion and interaction, are intended to enlighten the thinking of their peers; the entire conference is run by United States Naval Academy Midshipmen. These future officers of the Navy and the Marine Corps serve as moderators, as a minority percentage of delegates.
Harvard University and the United States Senior Military Colleges are examples of schools with annual partnerships to sponsor delegates to NAFAC. NAFAC is proud to have a reciprocal exchange partnership with the MSC Student Conference on National Affairs at Texas A&M University, founded in 1955. A Naval Academy Professor, United States Army COL Rocco Paone, served as a facilitator in 1962 for MSC SCONA 8 after founding NAFAC and thereby a partnership lasting into the present day. 1961- Founding Year 1996 - A New Multilaterlism 1997 - The Struggle for Democracy 1998 - Asia Rising? 1999 - Keeping Peace 2000 - Civil-Military Relations 2001 - Terrorism 2002 - Central and Southwest Asia 2003 - Strangers in a Common Land: Preserving Israel and Palestine 2004 - Post-War Reconstruction: Iraq 2005 - Power and Purpose: Defining America's Role in the World 2006 - Africa: Turning Attention into Action 2007 - Asia At The Crossroads 2008 - Latin America 2009 - Bridging the Gap: Combatting Global Poverty 2010 - National Security Beyond the Horizon: Changing Threats in a Changing World 2011 - People and Politics in the Internet Age 2012 - The Eclipse of the West?
2013 - Time of Transition 2014 - Human Security in the Information Age 2015 - Sustainability and Sovereignty: Global Security in a Resource-Strained World 2016 - Women and Security: The Implications of Promoting Global Gender Equality 2017- A New Era of Great Power Competition? 2018 - Guarding Liberty in a World of Democratic Undoing 2019 - Coming Apart: The Fate of the Rules-based Order 2020 - War and the Gray Zone usna.edu/NAFAC/ Official Website https://www.facebook.com/USNAFAC/ Facebook Social Media Page
The Complete Guide to Everything, sometimes abbreviated to TCGTE, is a weekly podcast hosted by Tom Reynolds and Tim Daniels of Brooklyn, New York. It is 60–90 minutes long and released weekly on Sundays. Most episodes cover one overarching topic, which serves as a jumping off point for off-topic conversations about cultural observations; this is preceded or followed by recurring segments, such as "Tim and Tom Solve Your Problems". The first episode of The Complete Guide to Everything was released on July 2, 2009. In the "International Travel" episode, the hosts discussed the theft of Daniel's property, a bag containing an iPad, MacBook, speakers. While some speculation was made during the episode about the possible culprit, no arrests were made. On an ad-hoc basis some "official artwork" based on the content of an episode is produced by Natalie Al-Tahhan and this is displayed on the website along the show notes. An official iPhone application giving access to every episode, the TCGTE blog, the host's blogs, the host's Twitter accounts and a messaging facility is available on the Apple App Store.
The first gathering of TCGTE fans took place at Porterhouse Brewery in Covent Garden, London in October 2010. The official TCGTE website refers to the gathering as "the first international meet up" of TCGTE fans. Prior to TCGTE, Reynolds and Daniels hosted 24cast, which began in January 2006 and lasted 23 episodes; the podcast was about the Fox television show 24, but covered many other topics and issues. Episodes were released in a somewhat sporadic manner; the show gathered a reputation within the 24 podcast community, where it billed itself as the "only explicit podcast about 24." Following up 24cast, the two created The Drudge Report Report Report. The four-episode series consists of hosts Reynolds and Chris reading articles from Drudge Report and making humorous comments about them. In The Complete Guide to Everything episode "Electronic Dance Music", Reynolds and Daniels announced they would be producing a new podcast that would focus more on popular culture topics like movies, comics, TV.
On October 17, 2013, the first episode of Pop Everything was released on Soundcloud. Some of the show's recurring segments include: "Tim and Tom Solve Your Problems" – Introduced in the episode "Life on the Road", the hosts answer emails from listeners asking for advice; the topics pertain to advice relating to social behavior or relationships. Of all of the show segments listed, "Tim & Tom Solve Your Problems" is the most regular and longest running. "Fifty Shades of Tim" – Introduced in the episode "Fears: Elevators". After many weeks of Tom attempting to get Tim to read Fifty Shades of Grey in order to do an episode on the book, Tom begins summarizing the book to Tim chapter by chapter over the course of several episodes; the segment was discontinued due to the excessively graphic nature of the novel. "The Mundane Bucket List" – Introduced in the episode "Underwear", the "Mundane Bucket List" is a tongue-in-cheek take on a traditional bucket list. Each week and Tom take turns to propose something that they would like to do before they die but would be considered by most people to be mundane.
"The Gauntlet" – Introduced in the episode "Colon Health and Final Destination", the hosts run through a range of topic suggestions gathered from social media and forums. The hosts read through suggestions for future topics giving a quick opinion about the topic suggested, it was implied that topics that passed "the gauntlet" would go on to become future full length episodes, however the hosts have since announced this was never their true intention. The segment was discontinued. "You're Awful" – Introduced in the episode "Public Services", the hosts drew on reports from listeners of instances where they had pointed out to a member of the public that the behavior they had seen that person exhibit was unacceptable by saying "You're Awful". Over the course of several episodes, the segment morphed and began drawing on articles from The New York Times for further examples of "awful" behavior; the segment is referred to as "A Particular Kind of Asshole You Didn't Know Existed Until The New York Times Pointed It Out To You."
The segment recurs on an irregular basis. Official website