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Palaestina Prima

Palæstina Prima or Palaestina I was a Byzantine province from 390, until the 7th century. It was lost to the Sassanid Empire in 614, but was re-annexed in 628, before its final loss during the Muslim conquest of Syria in 636; the area became organized under late Roman Empire as part of the Diocese of the East, in which it was included together with the provinces of Isauria, Cyprus, Mesopotamia, Osroene and Arabia Petraea. Under Byzantium, a new subdivision did further split the province of Cilicia into Cilicia Prima, Cilicia Secunda. Despite Christian domination, through 4th and 5th centuries Samaritans developed a semi-autonomy in the hill country of Samaria, a move which escalated into a series of open revolts; the four major Samaritan Revolts during this period caused a near extinction of the Samaritan community, as well as significant Christian losses. In the late 6th century and their Christian Ghassanid allies took a clear upper hand in the struggle. In 614, Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Secunda were conquered by Jewish army.

The event shocked the Christian society, as many of its churches were destroyed and the True Cross taken by the Persians to Ctesiphon. After withdrawal of the Persian troops and the subsequent surrender of the local Jewish rebels, the area was re-annexed by Byzantium in 628. Byzantine control of the province was again and irreversibly lost in 636, during the Muslim conquest of Syria; the province of Palaestina Prima included a mixed Greek and Aramaic-speaking population, with Greek and Roman Christians forming one of its largest demographic groups. Samaritans were the second dominant group, which populated most of the hill country of Samaria, numbering around one million in the 4th and 5th centuries. Minorities of Jews, Christian Ghassanids and Nabateans were present as well. Jews formed a majority in the neighbouring Palaestina Secunda, while the Ghassanids and Nabateans inhabited the Arabian desert to the south and east. Most of the Jews of prior Antiquity, had been exiled to Babylon after wars with the Romans, leading to the creation of the Pharisaical Babylonian Talmud.

Depending on the time, either a notable Roman or Persian military presence would be noted. During the Byzantine period, Palestina Prima became a center of Christianity, attracting numerous monks and religious scholars from the Near East and Southern Europe, abandoning previous Roman and Hellenistic cults. Arianism and other forms of Christianity found themselves in a hostile environment as well. Variants of the Mosaic religion were still at large from the 4th until the 6th centuries, practiced by ethnoreligious communities of Samaritans and Jews. However, with the decline of the Samaritan and Jewish populations through war and by conversion during the 6th and 7th century, the religion declined as well. By the late Byzantine period, fewer synagogues could be found and many were destroyed in violent events; the city of Hebron is notable in being one of the last Jewish cities remaining. Palaestina Secunda Palestina Salutaris Coele-Syria Iudaea Province Shahîd, Irfan. Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century, Volume 1.

Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 978-0-88-402214-5

David Rittenhouse Laboratory

The David Rittenhouse Laboratory is an academic and research building at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The building is named for David Rittenhouse, a notable American astronomer and Penn professor of the 18th century and the president of the American Philosophical Society. DRL is the home of two departments of the University of Pennsylvania: the Physics and Astronomy Department and the Mathematics Department. Many other disciplines hold classes in the building due to its ample lecture space; because of this, the building is one of the most used at the university. There is an observatory on the roof, accessible to astronomy students; the three-story portion of the building was constructed in 1954. The four-story addition was built in 1967. Partial funding for the building came from the General Authority of Pennsylvania, which has a seal displayed on the first floor of the building; the architect for the original structure was James R. Edmonds, Jr. though the addition was designed by Van Alan.

There are stylistic differences between the two parts of the structure – for example, the windows of the 1967 section on the Walnut Street facade are fashioned in the shape of the rounded-edge television monitors of the time. In February 2019, a group of faculty, graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, staff petitioned the administration to fix the recurring maintenance problems that occur in the building. Department of Mathematics, University of Pennsylvania Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania

Bavarian Prealps

The Bavarian Prealps are a mountain range within the Northern Limestone Alps in south Germany. They include the Bavarian Prealp region between the river Loisach to the west and the river Inn to the east; the term is not defined politically, but alpine-geographically because small areas of the Bavarian Prealps lie in Tyrol. The term is not to be confused with the Bavarian Alpine Foreland; these terms include the whole of the alpine region and the whole Alpine Foreland on Bavarian state territory. Except in the Ester Mountains in the extreme west, the summits of the Bavarian Prealps are all below 2000 metres in height and only a few have prominent limestone cliffs. According to the 1984 classification of the Eastern Alps by the German Alpine Club the Bavarian Prealps are delineated as follows: Prealp region from Murnau via Kochel am See, Bad Tölz to Rosenheim – Inn to KiefersfeldenKieferbach – Glemmbach – Ellbach – Kaiserhaus – Brandenberger Ache – Erzherzog-Johann-Klause – Sattelbach – Ampelsbach – Achenbach – Walchen – Isar to Krün – Kranzbach – Kankerbach – Garmisch-Partenkirchen – Loisach to Murnau.

The westernmost part of the Bavarian Prealps is formed by the Ester Mountains and its highest peak, the Krottenkopf, the highest summit in the Prealps. To the northeast the range is enclosed by the Herzogstand and Heimgarten and the long ridge of the Benediktenwand; the eastern part of the Prealps between the rivers Isar and Inn is known as the Mangfall Mountains, because its streams – the Rottach, Weißach and Leitzach – all flow into the Mangfall river, which drains the whole area and forming an important groundwater store for the city of Munich. The highest peak in the eastern part of the Bavarian Prealps – located on Austrian state territory in spite of the name – is the Hinteres Sonnwendjoch at 1,986 metres/6,516 ft above sea level; the Bavarian Prealps border the following mountain ranges in the Alps: Chiemgau Alps Kaiser Mountains Brandenberg Alps Karwendel Wetterstein mountains Ammergau Alps To the north the Bavarian Prealps border on the Alpine Foreland. Many peaks in the Bavarian Prealps are part of Munich's Hausbergen and may be climbed all year round on foot, by ski mountaineers or with snowshoes.

There are good and simple family-friendly, routes to most of the summits. Several offer scenic well-protected climbing routes across a wide range of climbing grades: the Roßstein and Buchstein, Ruchenköpfe. A ski touring classic is the Rotwand-Reib ` n; the Via Alpina, a cross-border long-distance trail with five route sections, runs over the entire Alps, including the Bavarian Prealps. The Violette Way of the Via Alpina runs in 9 stages through the Bavarian Prealps as follows: Stage A51 runs from Oberaudorf to the Brünnsteinhaus Stage A52 runs from the Brünnsteinhaus to the Rotwandhaus via the Ursprungtal Stage A53 runs from the Rotwandhaus to Sutten via the Spitzingsee Stage A54 runs from Sutten to Kreuth via the Risserkogel Stage A55 runs from Kreuth to Lenggries via the Hirschberghütte and the Lenggrieser Hütte Stage A56 runs from Lenggries to the Tutzinger Hütte via the Brauneck Stage A57 runs from der Tutzinger Hütte to the Herzogstand via the Kesselberghöhe Stage A58 runs from the Herzogstand to the Weilheimer Hütte via Eschenlohe Stage A59 runs from der Weilheimer Hütte to Garmisch-Partenkirchen via the WankThe Munich–Venice Dream Path, first publicised in 1977 runs through the Bavarian Prealps.

Although it is not an official long-distance path, it has become well known because so many walking clubs and states were involved in its creation. The third section of the Dream Path runs from Geretsried to the Brauneck Gipfelhaus via Bad Tölz and Lenggries. Most of this stage is located in the Alpine Foreland; the fourth stage runs from the Brauneck-Gipfelhaus via the Benediktenwand in the Jachenau. The fifth stage runs from the Jachenau to Vorderriß; the end point is at Hinterriß. In addition there is the Via Bavarica Tyrolensis, a 225-kilometre cycle path from Munich to the Tyrol. German Alpine Club: Alpenvereins-Jahrbuch "Berg'84": Die Einteilung der Ostalpen M. u. E. Zebhauser: Alpenvereinsführer Bayerische Voralpen Ost, Rother-Verlag, 1992, ISBN 3-7633-1120-3 Bernd Ritschel/Malte Roeper: Bayerische Alpen zwischen Oberammergau und Bayrischzell with articles by Hermann Magerer, Michael Pause, Hans Steinbichler et al. 1st edn. 2001, Rother-Verlag, ISBN 3-7633-7505-8 Tours and summits in the Bavarian Prealps at steinmandl.de Large selection of walks in the Munich Hausbergen Mountain tours & ski tours - many route descriptions from the Bavarian Prealps with photos Description of numerous climbing routes Description of numerous mountain tours