A palaestra was the site of ancient Greek wrestling schools. Events that did not require a lot of space, such as boxing and wrestling, were practised there; the palaestra functioned both independently and as a part of public gymnasia. Compare Ancient Greek palaiein - "to wrestle" and palē - "wrestling" Palaestrophylax or palaistrophylax, meaning “palaestra guard”, was the guardian or the director of a Palaestra; the architecture of the palaestra, although allowing for some variation, followed a distinct, standard plan. The palaestra consisted of a rectangular court surrounded by colonnades with adjoining rooms; these rooms might house a variety of functions: bathing, ball playing and storage of clothes, seating for socializing, observation, or instruction, storage of oil, dust or athletic equipment. Vitruvius, through his text De Architectura, is an important ancient source about this building type and provides many details about what he calls “palaestra, Greek-style”. Although the specifics of his descriptions do not always correspond to the architectural evidence because he was writing around 27 BC, his account provides insight into the general design and uses of this type of space.
As Vitruvius describes, the palaestra was square or rectangular in shape with colonnades along all four sides creating porticoes. The portico on the northern side of the palaestra was of double depth to protect against the weather. Big halls were built along the single depth sides of the palaestra with seats for those enjoying intellectual pursuits, the double depth side was divided into an area for youth activities, a punching bag area, a room for applying powders, a room for cold bathing, an oil storeroom. Good examples of this building type come from two major Greek sites: Olympia and Delphi. During the Roman Imperial period the palaestra was combined with, or joined to, a bath; when the Arabs and the Turkish adopted the tradition of the Roman baths, they did not continue the tradition of the attached palaestra. Palaestra at Olympia Palaestra at Delphi "Palaestra". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Perseus Digital Library, Olympia Perseus Digital Library, Delphi
The Order of Christopher Columbus is an order of the Dominican Republic. It was established on 21 July 1937; the Head of State confers the order, by advice of the council of the order, both to civilians and military personnel to recognize services. This order honors the life and works of Christopher Columbus firstly and secondly recognize services to the Dominican Republic or humanitarian services and distinction in the arts and sciences. There is a council of the order consisting of ten members; the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Dominican Republic is an ex oficio member and president of the council. The members of the council are awarded with the fourth grade of the order; the order is divided in seven grades: Collar is awarded to the President of the Republic Grand Cross with Gold Breast Star is awarded to foreign heads of state and to former presidents and vice presidents Grand Cross with Silver Breast Star is awarded to members of legislatures and the supreme court, ministers of state and the metropolitan archbishop Grand Officer is awarded to service chiefs and high officials of government and church Commander is awarded to governors of provinces, directors general of instruction, directors of academies, deans of universities and others of similar importance Officer is awarded to professors and heads of schools, officers of the rank of colonel and above and civilians of equal importance Knight is award to others The collar of the Order will be solid, of 18 carat gold, formed in four parts, consisting of a laurel´s coronet and of Christopher Columbus´s bust.
Below, will suspended the order’s badge. The laurel’s coronet, the coat of arms and the badge will be adorned with precious stones; the badge of the order has precedence before other orders' badges except the badges of the Order of Merit of Duarte and Mella and the Order of Military Merit. Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, Jr. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores Medals of the Dominican Republic Orden Heráldica de Cristóbal Colón
Smør, or after the coat of arms, "Leopard's head", was the name of a Norwegian medieval family of the high nobility. The family was one of the few original noble families of Norway, as it, unlike many other families, did not originate from Denmark or Sweden; the family owned land in Norway, as well as on the Faroe Islands and Shetland. The male line of the family died out in the late 15th century; the coat of arms of the Smør-family had a blue background, a golden Leopard's head under a red chevron. The family is sometimes alternatively called "Leopard's head" after the coat of arms; the word "smør" is Norwegian for butter, which in the Norwegian Middle Ages was an item of payment, one of the standard products of paying taxes with. As such, the family was named after one of the most important goods in society; the contemporary use of the family name Smør has been contested, as it has been suggested that the name was more of an epithet for only some of the members, as not all members of the family are known to have used it.
Regardless, the, at least informal, use of the name Smør for the entirety of the family has since the 16th century, been a common standard. The first person that can be regarded as a member of the family was Jon Smør, he was a knight and riksråd. The first positively known member of the family was Jon Hallvardson Smør; the latter Jon's son, Svale Jonson Smør, is one of the more well-known members of the family, becoming important in Norway during the early 15th century. He was a knight and Lord of Bergenhus Fortress, the first to use Smør as a family name. One of Svale's children was Jon Svaleson Smør a knight, riksråd, in 1482 was promoted to the highest title known of a member of the Smør-family, as he was elected regent of Norway in the midst of a two-year interregnum. Jon, drowned the year after, in 1483, as the last man of the direct male-line of the family. Through the female members of the family, the family survived by, among others, the noble families "Orm", Galte and Benkestok, into modern times.
As such, some Norwegians in Western Norway, can trace their ancestry back to some of the members of the Smør family. The following shows the family tree of the Smør-family: Odd. Vår felles slektshistorie. Hardanger, Sunnhordland og Ryfylke m.m. 1170-1650