Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Joseph-Louis Duc was a French architect. Duc came to early, with his very well received work at the July Column in Paris, and spent much of the rest of his career on a single building complex. Born in Paris, Duc was educated at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, Duc took the Prix de Rome in 1825 for a design of a proposed Paris City Hall. During his three-year stay at the Villa de Medici in Rome his associates there included Félix Duban, Henri Labrouste, upon his return from Rome Ducs first significant commission was the decoration for the July Column, built from 1831 to 1840. Appointed as assistant to Jean-Antoine Alavoine, Duc took over the project on Alavoines death in 1834. The foundation of the column is Alavoines work, the column itself is acknowledged as solely Ducs work, with the appointment Duc simultaneously was made a Knight of the Legion of Honor. Duc would spend his remaining thirty-nine years renovating and extending the Palais de Justice, almost completed at the time of the Paris Commune, the complex was burned on May 24,1871 and partially destroyed.
Ducs other commissions, though rare, include the 1862 chapel of the small college Louis-le-Grand, now the Lycée Michelet, in Vanves. Duc received the Royal Gold Medal from the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1867, was elevated to Commander of the Legion of Honor and he is buried at Montmartre Cemetery
The Palace of Versailles and Blenheim Palace both feature such entrance courts. Its open courtyard is presented like the permanent theatre set of a proscenium stage. Like the theatre set the environment is defined and enclosed from the more public space by ornate wrought iron gilded railings. Other 16th century urban palazzi remained resolutely enclosed, like Palazzo Farnese, in Rome, the wings of Carlo Madernos Palazzo Barberini design, were the first that reached forward from a central block to create a cour dhonneur floorplan. On a condensed, urban scale the formula is expressed in Parisian private houses, hôtels particuliers built entre cour et jardin, between court and garden. Nearby, the Tuileries Palace is gone, but the cour dhonneur with its Arc du Carrousel remains, vanderbilt House on the Plaza were the rare exceptions. The much-photographed front façade of Buckingham Palace was refashioned by Sir Aston Webb in 1913, the cour dhonneur, now known as The Quadrangle, still retains the principal entrance to the palace however
Tribunal de grande instance de Paris
The Tribunal de grande instance de Paris, located at the Palais de Justice in Paris, in l’Île de la Cité, is the largest court in France by the number of cases. The financial prosecutor of the Republic is located near the court, the court has inter-regional jurisdiction in matters of, complex economic and financial affairs Health Affairs. For all other matters, its jurisdiction is limited to the entire capital and it is one of the appeals courts for the Court of Appeal of Paris. The TGI is located in the Palace of Justice on the Île de la Cité along with the Court of Appeal of Paris and this site hosted the Parlement during the Ancien Régime. The Sainte-Chapelle and Conciergerie are remnants of the royal palace. The palace is adjacent to 36, quai des Orfèvres where the Direction Régionale de Police Judiciaire de Paris is located, the TGI will be located at the Judicial Campus of Paris in the Batignolles district. The announcement was made on 29 April 2009 by Nicolas Sarkozy, the Regional Directorate of the Judicial Police of Paris will be collocated at this site Court of Appeal M.
Roland du Luart. La future implantation du tribunal de grande instance de Paris, la fin des hésitations
Jean-Marie Bienaimé Bonnassieux was a French sculptor. The son of a cabinet maker from Lyon, Bonnassieux showed talent as a boy and was educated at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1836 he was the co-winner of the Prix de Rome, completed his education in Rome under the direction of Ingres. Bonnassieux subsequently taught at the Ecole, and among his students in the 1880s was the young American Lorado Taft, and the British-American sculptor Henry Hudson Kitson. Bonnassieux is set in the context of rigid French academic training in the 19th century in a study of the careers of seventeen winners of the Prix de Rome by A. Le Normand, La Tradition Classique et lEsprit Romantique, Les sculpteurs de lacadémie de France à Rome de 1824 à1840, Bonnassieux is buried at Montparnasse Cemetery. Monument at the tomb of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Père Lachaise Cemetery,1868 architectural work at the Palais de Justice, Paris,1868 figure of Archbishop of Paris Georges Darboy, St
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
A guillotine is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading. The device consists of a tall, upright frame in which a weighted and angled blade is raised to the top, the condemned person is secured with stocks at the bottom of the frame, positioning the neck directly below the blade. The blade is released, to fall swiftly and forcefully decapitating the victim with a single pass so that the head falls into a basket below. The name dates from period, but similar devices had been used elsewhere in Europe over several centuries. The guillotine continued to be used long after the revolution and remained Frances standard method of execution until the abolition of capital punishment in 1981. The last person to be executed in France was Hamida Djandoubi, the use of beheading machines in Europe long predates such use in the French revolution in 1792. An early example of the principle is found in the High History of the Holy Grail, although the device is imaginary, its function is clear.
The text says, Within these three openings are the set for them. And behold what I would do to them if their three heads were therein, even thus will I cut off their heads when they shall set them into those three openings thinking to adore the hallows that are beyond. The Halifax Gibbet was a structure of two wooden uprights, capped by a horizontal beam, of a total height of 4.5 metres. The blade was an axe head weighing 3.5 kg, attached to the bottom of a wooden block that slid up. This device was mounted on a square platform 1.25 metres high. It is not known when the Halifax Gibbet was first used, the first recorded execution in Halifax dates from 1280, the machine remained in use until Oliver Cromwell forbade capital punishment for petty theft. It was used for the last time, for the execution of two criminals on a day, on 30 April 1650. Holinsheds Chronicles of 1577 included a picture of The execution of Murcod Ballagh near to Merton in Ireland 1307 showing a similar execution machine, the Maiden was constructed in 1564 for the Provost and Magistrates of Edinburgh, and was in use from April 1565 to 1710.
One of those executed was James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, in 1581, Schmidt recommended using an angled blade as opposed to a round one. On 10 October 1789, physician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin proposed to the National Assembly that capital punishment always take the form of decapitation by means of a simple mechanism, sensing the growing discontent, Louis XVI banned the use of the breaking wheel. A committee was formed under Antoine Louis, physician to the King, Guillotin was on the committee